ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΣΟΒΙΟ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΕΙO ΣΧΟΛΗ ΑΓΡΟΝΟΜΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΙΑΣ

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1 ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΣΟΒΙΟ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΕΙO ΣΧΟΛΗ ΑΓΡΟΝΟΜΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΙΑΣ Το Αυστριακό σύστημα διοίκησης γης σε συνδυασμό με την αγορά ακινήτων Η περίπτωση της Βιέννης ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ Ευαγγελία Δημητρίου Επιβλέποντες: Χρυσή Πότσιου Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Gerhard Navratil Τεχνολογικό Πανεπιστήμιο Βιέννης Αθήνα, Οκτώβριος 2012

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3 NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS SCHOOL OF RURAL AND SURVEYING ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF SURVEYING The Austrian Land Administration system in combination with the real estate market- The case of Vienna DIPLOMA THESIS Elaboration: Evangelia Dimitriou Supervisors: Chryssy Potsiou Gerhard Navratil Technical University of Athens Vienna University of Technology Athens, October 2012

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5 ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΣΟΒΙΟ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΧΝΕΙΟ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΑΓΡΟΝΟΜΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΙΑΣ Το Αυστριακό σύστημα διοίκησης γης σε συνδυασμό με την αγορά ακινήτων - Η περίπτωση της Βιέννης ΔΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ Επιμέλεια: Ευαγγελία Δημητρίου Επιβλέποντες: Χρυσή Πότσιου Gerhard Navratil Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο Τεχνολογικό Πανεπιστήμιο Βιέννης Εγκρίθηκε από την τριμελή εξεταστική επιτροπή: Χρυσή Πότσιου Χαράλαμπος Ιωαννίδης Έφη Δημοπούλου Επίκ. καθηγήτρια Ε.Μ.Π Αναπ. Καθηγητής Ε.Μ.Π Επίκ. Καθηγήτρια Ε.Μ.Π Αθήνα, Οκτώβριος 2012

6 . Ευαγγελία Σ. Δημητρίου Διπλωματούχος Αγρονόμος και Τοπογράφος Μηχανικός Ε.Μ.Π. Copyright Ευαγγελία Σ. Δημητρίου, 2012 Με επιφύλαξη παντός δικαιώματος. All rights reserved. Απαγορεύεται η αντιγραφή, η αποθήκευση και διανομή της παρούσας εργασίας, εξ ολοκλήρου ή τμήματος αυτής για εμπορικό σκοπό. Επιτρέπεται η ανατύπωση και διανομή για σκοπό μη κερδοσκοπικό, εκπαιδευτικής ή ερευνητικής φύσης υπό την προϋπόθεση να αναφέρεται η πηγή προέλευσης και να διατηρείται το παρόν μήνυμα. Ερωτήματα που αφορούν τη χρήση της εργασίας για κερδοσκοπικό σκοπό πρέπει να απευθύνονται προς το συγγραφέα. Οι απόψεις και τα συμπεράσματα που περιέχονται σε αυτό το έγγραφο εκφράζουν το συγγραφέα και δεν πρέπει να ερμηνευθεί ότι αντιπροσωπεύουν τις επίσημες θέσεις του Εθνικού Μετσόβιου Πολυτεχνείου.

7 ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ Κάθε σύγχρονο σύστημα διοίκησης της γης υπόκειται σε μία παγκόσμια θεώρηση, η οποία περιλαμβάνει αλληλένδετες περιοχές που δεν επικεντρώνονται μόνο σε δραστηριότητες κτηματολογίου. Η σύγχρονη διεθνής θεώρηση υποστηρίζει την αποδοτικότητα στην αγορά ακινήτων και συνδυάζει λειτουργίες, οι οποίες βασίζονται σε υποδομές χωρικών δεδομένων, περιλαμβάνοντας τοπογραφικές αλλά και κτηματολογικές πληροφορίες. Το σύνολο των λειτουργιών αυτών αποτελείται από τις περιοχές της κατοχής, της αξίας, της χρήσης καθώς και της ανάπτυξης της γης. Το αντικείμενο αυτής της διπλωματικής εργασίας ασχολείται κυρίως με τις δύο πρώτες περιοχές (κατοχή και αξία της γης), αγγίζοντας παράπλευρα την τρίτη περιοχή (χρήσεις γης) και εντοπίζοντας τις προϋποθέσεις/υποδομές για την επίτευξη της τελευταίας (ανάπτυξη), με έμφαση την οικονομική διάσταση. Η περιοχή μελέτης είναι η Αυστρία. Συγκεκριμένα λοιπόν, η παρούσα διπλωματική εργασία περιγράφει τους φορείς του δημοσιονομικού κτηματολογίου, του κτηματολογίου της ιδιοκτησίας καθώς και της αγοράς ακινήτων (με εστίαση στην πόλη της Βιέννης). Αρχικά σκιαγραφούνται οι βασικές δομές, λειτουργίες και διαδικασίες. Στη συνέχεια, κατανοούνται τα πλεονεκτήματα αλλά και οι αδυναμίες της περίπτωσης μελέτης. Κλείνοντας, με βάση το παράδειγμα της Βιέννης, δίνεται έμφαση στα στοιχεία εκείνα, τα οποία εξασφαλίζουν την αποτελεσματικότητα και την διαφάνεια στη συγκεκριμένη αγορά ακινήτων. Ταυτόχρονα όμως, εντοπίζονται οι αδυναμίες που πρέπει να αποφευχθούν, καθώς και οι υποδομές που χρήζουν βελτίωσης. Τέλος αναφέρεται, αν το σύνολο των πλεονεκτημάτων και αδυναμιών του παραδείγματος της Βιέννης υπάρχει η δυνατότητα να ενσωματωθεί και σε οικονομίες άλλης κλίμακας. ΛΕΞΕΙΣ ΚΛΕΙΔΙΑ Διοικητική δομή, δημοσιονομικό κτηματολόγιο, αυστριακό σύστημα τίτλων, κτηματολογικός χάρτης, γεωβάση για τα ακίνητα, εγγραφή γης, αγορά ακινήτων στη Βιέννη, αυστριακή στεγαστική πολιτική, απόθεμα κατοικιών, τραπεζικό σύστημα. I

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9 ABSTRACT Every modern land administration system is subjected to a global perspective, which encompasses interrelated areas that don t focus only on cadastral activities. The global perspective supports the efficiency in real estate markets and combines functions, which are based on spatial data infrastructures, including topographic and cadastral information. These functions consist of the areas of land tenure, land value, land use and land development. The topic of the specific diploma thesis is related mainly with the first two areas (land tenure and land value), by approaching slightly the third area (land use) and by identifying the conditions/infrastructures to meet the latest area (land development). The study concerns Austria. In particular, the present thesis outlines the entities of the Austrian fiscal cadastre, the land register (Grundbuch) and the real estate market (focus on the city of Vienna). Firstly, the basic structures, functions and processes are sketched. Thereafter, the advantages and the weaknesses of the cases study are understood. In conclusion, pursuant to the example of the real estate market in Vienna, are highlighted those elements that ensure efficiency and transparency. At the same time, the weaknesses that must be avoided as well as the infrastructures that need improvements are identified. Lastly, it becomes understood if this set of strengths and weaknesses according to Vienna s example can be incorporated into other economies. KEYWORDS Administrative structure, fiscal cadastre, land register (Grundbuch), digital geodata base, Viennese property market, housing policy, banking system. III

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11 ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΙΕΣ Θα ήθελα να ευχαριστήσω θερμά: Τους γονείς μου, για την αγάπη, τη διαρκή συμπαράσταση και την αφοσίωση τους στις καλές και στις κακές μου στιγμές. Τον κύριο Gerhard Navratil, βοηθό έρευνας και διδασκαλίας στο ινστιτούτο γεωπληροφορικής του πολυτεχνείου της Βιέννης και επιβλέπον της παρούσας διπλωματικής εργασίας. Του είμαι πραγματικά ευγνώμων για την υπομονή του και την πολύτιμη βοήθεια του καθ όλη τη διάρκεια εκπόνησης της. Την καθηγήτρια και επιβλέπουσα της παρούσας εργασίας Χρυσή Πότσιου. Μέσω των επαφών της, είχα την ευκαιρία να εκπονήσω την εργασία μου στο εξωτερικό. Τους συμφοιτητές μου Αγγελική Τζαμτζή, Μιρέλα Ρόσγοβα, Βασίλη Γκότση και Ειρήνη Πιέρρου, για την βοήθεια που μου παρείχε ο καθένας ξεχωριστά. Το ομοσπονδιακό υπουργείο τοπογραφίας, μετρολογίας και γεωπληροφορικής με έδρα τη Βιέννη για τις πληροφορίες του. Ιδιαίτερα τον πρόεδρο του, Julius Ernst. V

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13 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the following persons: My parents for their constant dedication, love and support in my good and bad times. Mr. Gerhard Navratil, research and teaching assistant at the Institute of Geoinformation at the Technical University of Vienna and supervisor of this thesis. I am truly grateful for his invaluable assistance throughout the preparation of this thesis. The professor and supervisor of this thesis Chryssy Potsiou. My fellow students A.Tzamtzi, M.Rosgova, V. Gotsis and E.Pierrou. The Federal Ministry of Metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation (BEV) for information concerning the Austrian land administration system, especially Dipl. Ing. J. Ernst. VII

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15 ΓΛΩΣΣΑΡΙ APOS BEV Αυστριακό Σύστημα Εντοπισμού Ομοσπονδιακό υπουργείο τοπογράφων, μετρολογίας και Γεωπληροφορικής BG CLC DKM EEA EGA ERV EU EZ GDB GIS GmbH INSPIRE KG LAS LPHA MGI MOLA PWS ROI SPV UNECE Επαρχιακά δικαστήρια Κέντρο νομικής αρμοδιότητας Ψηφιακός κτηματολογικός χάρτης Ευρωπαϊκός Οικονομικός χώρος Ηλεκτρονικά γεω-δεδομένα Αυστρίας Ηλεκτρονικές νομικές συναλλαγές Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση Βασική μονάδα ιδιοκτησίας Βάση γεωγραφικών δεδομένων Σύστημα γεωγραφικών πληροφοριών Εταιρεία περιορισμένης ευθύνης Υποδομή χωρικών πληροφοριών για την Ευρώπη Κτηματολογική ζώνη Σύστημα διοίκησης γης Οικοδομικοί συνεταιρισμοί περιορισμένου κέρδους Στρατιωτικό Γεωγραφικό Ινστιτούτο Συνεδρίαση ειδικών για τη διοίκηση γης Υπηρεσία δικτυακών προϊόντων Απόδοση επένδυσης Εταιρεία ειδικού σκοπού Οικονομική Επιτροπή Ηνωμένων Εθνών για την Ευρώπη IX

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17 GLOSSAR APOS BEV BG CLC DKM EEA EGA ERV EU EZ GDB GIS GmbH INSPIRE KG LAS LPHA MGI MOLA PWS ROI SPV UNECE Austrian Positioning Service Federal ministry of Surveying, metrology and Geoinformation District courts Center of Legal Competence Digital Cadastral Map European Economic Area E- Geodata Austria Electronic legal transactions European Union Basic property unit Geodatabase Geographical Information System Limited Liability Company Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe Cadastral zoning Land administration System Limited profit housing associations Military Geographical Institute Meeting of officials on Land administration Products Web Service Return of Investment Special Purpose Vehicle United Nations Economic Commission for Europe XI

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19 ΕΚΤΕΤΑΜΕΝΗ ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ Η μεθοδολογία της συγκεκριμένης διπλωματικής στηρίχθηκε ως επί το πλείστον σε συνεντεύξεις, δημοσιεύσεις και διαδικτυακή έρευνα (συμπεριλαμβανομένου τη μελέτη δικτυακών πυλών). Ο κύκλος των συνεντεύξεων προσανατολίστηκε στην διοίκηση της γης και βασίστηκε στις επαφές του αυστριακού μας επιβλέποντα καθηγητή (Gerhard Navratil). Η χρήση συνεντεύξεων προέκυψε από την ανάγκη να ληφθούν πληροφορίες για τη λειτουργία του αυστριακού συστήματος με γνώμονα την εμπειρία των ειδικών. Γι αυτό το λόγο πραγματοποιήθηκε μία σειρά από επισκέψεις σε αρμόδια γραφεία, ινστιτούτα και δημοτικούς φορείς. Οι πληροφορίες που απορρέουν από τις συνεντεύξεις δεν περιορίζονται μόνο σε θέματα γης αλλά καλύπτουν τομείς όπως ο χωροταξικός σχεδιασμός και οι μεταφορές. Με αυτό τον τρόπο το σύνολο των δεδομένων προέρχεται από πολλά επιστημονικά πεδία και προσφέρει ενημέρωση για ένα ευρύτερο γνωσιολογικό περιβάλλον. Συνεπώς αποφεύγεται η μονομερής αντιμετώπιση των ζητημάτων και καλύπτονται πολλές από τις πιο σημαντικές παραμέτρους. Εκτός των συνεντεύξεων, οι δημοσιεύσεις και η διαδικτυακή έρευνα εμπλούτισαν την μελέτη με πολλές λεπτομέρειες και σε πολλές περιπτώσεις ενημέρωσαν πληροφορίες οι οποίες είχαν υποστεί αλλαγές από την περίοδο λήψης των συνεντεύξεων. Η μέθοδος ανάλυσης αυτής της διπλωματικής κινείται στα πλαίσια του επαγωγικού λογισμού (κίνηση από το επιμέρους στο γενικό). Από την μία πλευρά σαν αρχή θεωρείται η περιγραφή του αυστριακού κτηματολογικού συστήματος (κτηματολόγιο και μητρώου τίτλων), της αγοράς ακινήτων και του τραπεζικού συστήματος στην πόλη της Βιέννης. Από την άλλη πλευρά ο τελικός στόχος αφορά την επισήμανση των στοιχείων εκείνων που καθιερώνουν διαφάνεια και αποδοτικότητα στην αγορά ακινήτων της Βιέννης αλλά και γενικότερα σε κάθε αγορά ακινήτων. Ο όρος «διαφάνεια» υποδεικνύεται σαν βασική παράμετρος στα πλαίσια της βιώσιμης οικονομίας. Καθορισμός στόχου (γενικό) Διαφάνεια Διοικητικές διαδικασίες, μέτρα Διοίκηση γης Διαχείρηση γης Εργαλεία για τεκμηρίωση και έλεγχο (επιμέρους) Κτηματολόγιο Μητρώο τίτλων Αγορά ακινήτων Τραπεζικό σύστημα Σχήμα: Διαδικασία προσέγγισης στόχου XIII

20 Η προσέγγιση του στόχου έχει τις ρίζες της σε μία παγκόσμια προοπτική για ένα σύγχρονο σύστημα διαχείρισης της γης (Enemark, 2004). Το σύγχρονο σύστημα διαχείρισης της γης χαρακτηρίζεται από πολλαπλούς σκοπούς και περιλαμβάνει ως βασικά του συστατικά τα κτηματολογικά εργαλεία. Ο όρος «διοίκηση της γης» υιοθετήθηκε από την οικονομική επιτροπή για την Ευρώπη του Ο.Η.Ε (UNECE) και οδήγησε στη θέσπιση της συνάντησης των ειδικών στη διαχείριση γης (MOLA). Η οικονομική επιτροπή για την Ευρώπη το 1996 όρισε τη διοίκηση της γης σαν «το σύνολο των διαδικασιών για τον καθορισμό, την καταγραφή και τη διάδοση των πληροφοριών σχετικά με την ιδιοκτησία, την αξία και τη χρήση της γης κατά την εφαρμογή των πολιτικών διαχείρισης της». Το σύγχρονο σύστημα διοίκησης υποστηρίζει την αποδοτικότητα στις αγορές ακινήτων και συνδυάζει λειτουργίες, οι οποίες βασίζονται σε υποδομές χωρικών πληροφοριών. Οι λειτουργίες αυτές αποτελούνται από τους αλληλοσυνδεόμενους τομείς όπως η κατοχή (τίτλοι ιδιοκτησίας, υποθήκες, δουλείες),η αξία (εκτίμηση αξίας των ακινήτων, είσπραξη εσόδων μέσω φορολογίας), η χρήση (κανονισμοί και χωροταξικές πολιτικές) και η ανάπτυξη της γης (εφαρμογή κατασκευαστικού σχεδιασμού και αλλαγές λόγω οικοδομικών αδειών). Ιδιαίτερο χαρακτηριστικό της μελέτης είναι ότι δεν αφορά την Ελλάδα αλλά μία ξένη ευρωπαϊκή χώρα, την Αυστρία. Η Αυστρία τοποθετείται στην κεντρική Ευρώπη και καλύπτεται από τις κεντρικές Άλπεις και την περιοχή του ποταμού Δούναβη. Αποτελεί κόμβο μεταξύ πολλών αλπικών διελεύσεων και κοιλάδων και μοιράζεται τα σύνορά της με οκτώ χώρες όπως η Τσεχία, Γερμανία, Ουγγαρία, Ιταλία, Λιχτενστάιν, Σλοβακία, Σλοβενία και Ελβετία. Η Αυστρία συγκαταλέγεται στα κράτη της ευρωπαϊκής ένωσης από το Ο πληθυσμός της ανέρχεται σύμφωνα με τις νεότερες στατιστικές σε 8, κατοίκους, ενώ καλύπτει μία έκταση τετραγωνικών μέτρων. Όσων αφορούν στη διοικητική της οργάνωση, η χώρα της Αυστρίας είναι χωρισμένη σε εννέα ομοσπονδιακά κρατίδια, δήμους και 99 πολιτικές περιφέρειες. Η Αυστρία τα τελευταία χρόνια έχει αναπτυχθεί ιδιαίτερα και χαρακτηρίζεται από μεγάλη συμμετοχή σε πολλά ευρωπαϊκά προγράμματα. Ένα τέτοιο πρόγραμμα είναι το «CENTROPE», το οποίο βασίζεται στην σύμπραξη 4 χωρών συμπεριλαμβανομένου της Αυστρίας, της Τσεχίας, της Σλοβακίας και της Ουγγαρίας. Το πρόγραμμα «CENTROPE» καθιερώνει μία πολυεθνική περιοχή της κεντρικής Ευρώπης μέσω της δημιουργίας ενός πλαισίου συνεργασίας τόσο για τοπικές και περιφερειακές αρχές όσο και για επιχειρήσεις και δημόσιους φορείς. Επειδή όμως όπως γίνεται εύκολα κατανοητό η Αυστρία είναι δύσκολο να μελετηθεί στο σύνολό της, μεγάλο μέρος της εργασίας αυτής επικεντρώνεται στην πρωτεύουσα της τη Βιέννη. Η Βιέννη είναι η μεγαλύτερη αυστριακή πόλη και εδράζεται στα βορειοανατολικά της χώρας. Καταλαμβάνει μία έκταση 415 τετραγωνικών χιλιομέτρων και ο πληθυσμός της ανέρχεται σε 1.731,236 κατοίκους. Η Βιέννη είναι μία πόλη με ιδιαίτερα χαρακτηριστικά, καθώς από το 2005 κατετάγη συνολικά τέσσερις φορές πρώτη όσον αφορά στην ποιότητα ζωής συγκρινόμενη με πόλεις όπως XIV

21 το Βανκούβερ και η Μελβούρνη (Economic Intelligence Unit and Mercer). Ακόμα κατά την περίοδο ο δείκτης καινοτομίας πόλεων την κατέταξε 2 φορές πρώτη όσων αφορούν στο τρίπτυχο πολιτισμός-αγορές-υποδομές. Η Βιέννη θεωρείται η πιο σημαντική τοποθεσία εγκατάστασης επιχειρήσεων στην Αυστρία και χαρακτηρίζεται από το μεγαλύτερο ακαθάριστο προϊόν ανάμεσα στα υπόλοιπα οκτώ κρατίδια (72,1 δισεκατομμύρια το 2009). Τέλος η παραγωγή βασίζεται πρωτίστως στον τριτογενή τομέα (82,9% το 2009), αλλά και στον δευτερογενή (16,9%). Η Βιέννη αποτελεί μία ξεχωριστή περίπτωση πόλης αφού είναι ταυτόχρονα Ομοσπονδιακή πρωτεύουσα της Αυστρίας, Ομοσπονδιακή επαρχία της αυστριακής δημοκρατίας και Δήμος με δικό του καθεστώς. Σαν πρωτεύουσα η Βιέννη υπόκεινται στην κρατική διοίκηση, ενώ σαν ομόσπονδο κρατίδιο τη διοίκηση αναλαμβάνουν τα ομοσπονδιακά υπουργεία. Ως επαρχία, η κυβέρνηση της Βιέννης λειτουργεί σαν συλλογικό σώμα και συντονίζει τις αρμόδιες αρχές. Τέλος ως δήμος, η Βιέννη απαρτίζεται από διάφορες μονάδες, τοπικές αρχές και αυτο-διαχειριζόμενους θεσμούς. Η οργάνωση της πόλης υπόκεινται στη λογική των δημοτικών διαμερισμάτων και των κτηματολογικών κοινοτήτων (Katastralgemeinden). Η Βιέννη χωρίζεται συνολικά σε 23 δημοτικά διαμερίσματα και 89 κτηματολογικές κοινότητες. Η διαχείριση των δημοτικών διαμερισμάτων από τα αρμόδια θεσμικά όργανα, όπως το δημοτικό συμβούλιο και η κεντρική αρχή των διαμερισμάτων της Βιέννης. Η γερουσία της Βιέννης συμπεριλαμβάνει τον δήμαρχο, τους διευθύνοντες δημοτικούς συμβούλους, τον ανώτατο εκτελεστικό διευθυντή και το προσωπικό. Τελευταία, η διοίκηση της πόλης συνδυάζει διάφορες μεμονωμένες υπηρεσίες οι οποίες εξαρτώνται από τις αποφάσεις του διευθύνοντα συμβούλου. Παρακάτω διαφαίνονται οι δημοτικές υπηρεσίες της Βιέννης, τις οποίες επισκεφθήκαμε. Αστική ανάπτυξη και σχεδιασμός Περιφερειακός σχεδιασμός και χρήση γης (Κεντρική- Δυτική Βιέννη) Περιφερειακός σχεδιασμός και χρήση γης (Νότια και βορειοανατολική Βιέννη) Τοπογραφικός τομέας (Κτηματολόγιο) Έλεγχος κτιρίων Σχήμα: Δημοτικές υπηρεσίες Βιέννης Η Αυστρία ανήκει στις χώρες, οι οποίες διαθέτουν ένα καλά οργανωμένο κτηματολογικό πρότυπο. Η διοίκηση της γης ακολουθεί το σύστημα τίτλων. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι ο εγγεγραμμένος ιδιοκτήτης έχει τη δημόσια πίστη του να είναι XV

22 ιδιοκτήτης, ενώ ο τίτλος εγγράφεται και εξασφαλίζεται. Κάθε συναλλαγή που αφορά σε κάθε ακίνητο, απαιτεί την καταχώρισή της μέσω ενός εγγράφου (γραφήματα και κείμενο). Στην Αυστρία το σύστημα εγγραφής βασίζεται στην εκτεταμένη τοπογραφική μελέτη για κάθε ακίνητο καθώς και στα αρχεία του ψηφιακού κτηματολογικού χάρτη. Οι πληροφορίες ταξινομούνται σε τρεις κατηγορίες: υποκείμενα δικαίου (πρόσωπα, ιδρύματα, επιχειρήσεις), ακίνητη περιουσία (αγροτεμάχια, κτίρια) και δικαιώματα (σχέση υποκειμένων και ακίνητης περιουσίας). Η εγγραφή της γης συνδυάζει τόσο το κτηματολόγιο όσο και τα υποθηκοφυλακεία. Από τη μία πλευρά, το κτηματολόγιο επεξεργάζεται τα δεδομένα που σχετίζονται με τις γεωμετρικές ιδιότητες ενός ακινήτου και που παρουσιάζονται στον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη. Από την άλλη πλευρά, το σύνολο των υποθηκοφυλακείων ασχολείται με τη νομική κατάσταση ενός ακινήτου καθώς και με τα δικαιώματα, τους κινδύνους και τους περιορισμούς που το συνοδεύουν. Οι περιορισμοί καθορίζονται από το δημόσιο δίκαιο και τις διάφορες ρυθμίσεις, οι οποίες με τη σειρά τους εξαρτώνται απόλυτα από τις πολιτικό παράγοντα. Αν και κτηματολόγιο και υποθηκοφυλακεία διαφέρουν ως προς την οργάνωση, υπάρχει ένα είδος συγχρονισμού μεταξύ τους. Ο αριθμός του κάθε ακινήτου λειτουργεί σαν συνδετικός κρίκος, που συνδέει τα αντικείμενα της ακίνητης περιουσίας με το σύνολο των δικαιωμάτων. Η αρχή του αυστριακού συστήματος χρονολογείται στον 13ο αιώνα, ενώ κατά την περίοδο του μεσαίωνα εμφανίστηκαν τα πρώτα συμβόλαια και τα δεδομένα τοποθετήθηκαν σε χρονολογικές λίστες. Το 1718, με κίνητρο τον δίκαιο υπολογισμό του αυστριακού φόρου ακίνητης περιουσίας, δημιουργήθηκε ένα σύστημα καταμέτρησης το οποίο ονομάστηκε «Μιλανέζικο σύστημα». Η ονομασία του συγκεκριμένου συστήματος στηρίχθηκε στο γεγονός ότι η εκτίμηση του φόρου οργανώθηκε αρχικά στις ιταλικές επαρχίες. Τριάντα χρόνια αργότερα, το 1748 επιτεύχθηκε η τυποποίηση του καταστατικού για το φόρο της ακίνητης περιουσίας μέσω της αυτοκράτειρας Μαρίας Θηρεσίας. Οι φορολογικές διορθώσεις ολοκληρώθηκαν το 1956 και κατά τη διάρκεια της περιόδου , υλοποιήθηκε ο φόρος ακίνητης περιουσίας. Το 1812 καθιερώθηκε η νομιμότητα της κατοχής της γης μέσω του αστικού κώδικα και η διαδικασία αυτή ολοκληρώθηκε το Έκτοτε ξεκίνησε η τοπογραφική έρευνα κάθε γεωτεμαχίου. Αυτή η συστηματική καταγραφή όλων των ακινήτων διαμόρφωσε το «σταθερό κτηματολόγιο» (ανεξαρτησία φόρων και μετρήσεων για την βελτίωση της γης). Το αποτέλεσμα απεικονίστηκε στον κτηματολογικό χάρτη και υιοθετήθηκε ο όρος «κτηματολογική κοινότητα» για τις κοινότητες που υπόκεινται στον ίδιο φόρο. Τελικά, το 1869 επεκτάθηκε η πρώτη μορφή του σταθερού κτηματολογίου και κάθε επαρχία χωρίστηκε σε «περιοχές εκτίμησης». Τρία χρόνια μετά, το 1871 προστέθηκαν τα υποθηκοφυλακεία στο θεσμό του κτηματολογίου και ως εκ τούτου ιδιοκτήτες και υποθήκες εγγράφηκαν νομικά. Το 1874 καθιερώθηκε η συμβατότητα μεταξύ κτηματολογίου και υποθηκοφυλακείων και το 1883 συστάθηκε ο νόμος της κτηματολογικής συντήρησης. Ο νόμος της συντήρησης διάρκεσε 85 χρόνια και το 1896 επεκτάθηκε με τον κανονισμό ρύθμισης του φόρου ακίνητης περιουσίας. Ένα από τα σημαντικότερα αποτελέσματα του νόμου XVI

23 αυτού, ήταν ότι καθιερώθηκε η αναθεώρηση του κτηματολογίου κάθε 15 χρόνια. Το 1907 εισήχθηκε ο όρος των «κτηματολογικών γραφείων». Χρονολογία ορόσημο θεωρήθηκε το 1969, όταν τέθηκε σε ισχύ ο νόμος της τοπογραφικής έρευνας και διαμορφώθηκε το γενικό πλαίσιο του «κτηματολογίου των ορίων». Ο νόμος της τοπογραφικής έρευνας καθόρισε τα καθήκοντα της επίσημης αρχής για τις μετρήσεις, του ομοσπονδιακού υπουργείου μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων. Ο νόμος αυτός συνοδεύτηκε από αρκετές τροποποιήσεις, με σημαντικότερη την προσθήκη ενός γεωγραφικά κωδικοποιημένου μητρώου διευθύνσεων. Το 1980, άλλαξε το περιβάλλον των πληροφοριών με την εμφάνιση των ψηφιακών δεδομένων και την εφαρμογή της «ψηφιακής βάσης δεδομένων για τα ακίνητα». Ακόμα στη διάρκεια των ετών , καθιερώθηκε ο ψηφιακός κτηματολογικός χάρτης. Το ψηφιακό περιβάλλον απλοποίησε πολλές διαδικασίες και το 99% των κτηματολογικών προϊόντων (συμπεριλαμβανομένου του ψηφιακού χάρτη) είναι διαθέσιμα διαδικτυακά από το Τέλος τον Μάιο του 2012 η δομή της βάσης δεδομένων για τα ακίνητα άλλαξε και δημιουργήθηκαν 2 μικρότερες βάσεις. Οι βάσεις αυτές διακρίνουν την διαχείριση κτηματολογίου και υποθηκοφυλακείων, ενώ οι βάσεις συγχρονίζονται μεταξύ τους. Το σύστημα εγγραφής της γης, προσπαθεί καθ όλη τη διάρκεια των ετών να ακολουθήσει τις μεταβαλλόμενες οικονομικές, περιβαλλοντικές και τεχνολογικές ανάγκες. Το πλαίσιο των στόχων αναπτύσσει μία δυναμικότητα, η οποία αντικατοπτρίζεται στην ίδια τη δομή του αυστριακού συστήματος. Έτσι ενώ ο αρχικός στόχος ήταν η εκτίμηση της γης μέσω της δίκαιης φορολόγησης, αργότερα εμφανίστηκε η ανάγκη για εξασφάλιση των δικαιωμάτων ιδιοκτησίας. Ακόμα το σύγχρονο κτηματολόγιο, «πολλαπλών σκοπών», αντιμετώπισε τη γη περισσότερο ολιστικά εισάγοντας την παράμετρο του χωροταξικού σχεδιασμού και την διαχείριση των χωρικών πληροφοριών. Ο τομέας της γεωργίας εκφράστηκε μέσω των αγροτικών επιδοτήσεων και ο σκοπός της περιβαλλοντικής προστασίας καθιερώθηκε ως ένας από τους σημαντικότερους. Οι σύγχρονες ανάγκες είναι κατ εξοχήν αναμεμειγμένες με τον οικονομικό τομέα και σχετίζονται με τις χρηματοοικονομικές υπηρεσίες. Σχήμα: Δυναμικό πλαίσιο (Πηγή: Muggenhuber and Twaroch, 2008) Οι αρμοδιότητες του συστήματος διαμοιράζονται στα αρμόδια υπουργεία, τα οποία αναλαμβάνουν να επιλύσουν με αποτελεσματικό τρόπο τα ζητήματα τα οποία προκύπτουν. XVII

24 Το υπουργείο οικονομίας αναλαμβάνει τον δημοσιονομικό σχεδιασμό, την οικονομική πολιτική για τις χρηματοοικονομικές υπηρεσίες και τη φορολογία. Εδράζεται στη Βιέννη και χωρίζεται σε 6 τμήματα. Το υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης αντιμετωπίζει τις νομικές υποθέσεις, όπως η νομοθεσία περί εγγείου ιδιοκτησίας. Οι αρμοδιότητες χωρίζονται σε τέσσερα επιμέρους τμήματα, ενώ το αστικό δίκαιο ως ένα από αυτά καθορίζει το νόμο για τα υποθηκοφυλακεία. Το υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης είναι υπεύθυνο για τη λειτουργία των υποθηκοφυλακείων, τα οποία ανέρχονται συνολικά σε 141 (district courts). To υπουργείο οικονομικών και εργασίας ανήκει στην ευρύτερη σφαίρα επιρροής του υπουργείου οικονομίας, οικογένειας και νεολαίας και περιλαμβάνει συνολικά 2 τομείς και 2 κέντρα. Τόσο οι τομείς όσο και τα κέντρα συνδέονται με 4 κύρια τμήματα. Το υπουργείο οικονομικών είναι υπεύθυνο για τη λειτουργία της επίσημης υπηρεσίας μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων, το ομοσπονδιακό γραφείο μετρολογίας, τοπογράφων και γεωπληροφορικής (BEV). Κεντρικό ρόλο έχουν τα κτηματολογικά γραφεία και οι αδειοδοτημένοι τοπογράφοι οι οποίοι υπολογίζονται περίπου σε 300. Το υπουργείο γεωργίας, δασοκομίας, περιβάλλοντος, δασοκομίας και υδάτινων πόρων δουλεύει πάνω σε θέματα γης και περιβάλλοντος και διαιρείται συνολικά σε 7 τμήματα. Αποτιμά την αυστριακή υπαίθρια έκταση μέσω αγροτικών επιδοτήσεων, ενώ το τμήμα της αγροτικής πολιτικής του υπουργείου συντονίζει την υποδομή χωρικών πληροφοριών (INSPIRE). Επιπρόσθετα η ίδια αρχή κατασκευάζει τους λεγόμενους «χάρτες αξιολόγησης εδάφους», οι οποίοι συνδέονται με τον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη. Τα υπουργεία κινούνται σε λογικές συνεργασίας και αλληλεπίδρασης. Χαρακτηριστικά η σύμπραξη του υπουργείου οικονομικών και εργασίας με το υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης δημιούργησε στις αρχές του 1980 τη «βάση δεδομένων για τα ακίνητα». Η αρχική ιδέα αναπτύχθηκε στο υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης στο πλαίσιο της πρωτοβουλίας για ηλεκτρονική διακυβέρνηση (e- Government). Αρχικά υπήρχε μία ενιαία ψηφιακή βάση ακινήτων που περίκλειε ενοποιημένες πληροφορίες για το κτηματολόγιο και τα υποθηκοφυλακεία με έδρα το ομοσπονδιακό κέντρο πληροφορικής στη Βιέννη. Ωστόσο, η απαραίτητη ανανέωση του αρχικού συστήματος που είχε δημιουργηθεί από το 1970, οδήγησε σε αλλαγή της δομή της βάσης τον Μάιο του Έτσι δημιουργήθηκαν 2 ξεχωριστές βάσεις δεδομένων, μία για τη διαχείριση του κτηματολογίου και μία για την διαχείριση των υποθηκοφυλακείων. Η νέα δομή προβλέπει αλληλεπίδραση των 2 βάσεων και οδηγεί σε αλλαγές, όπως είναι η μεταφορά της αυτοματοποιημένης εγγραφής στα υποθηκοφυλακεία. Οι διάφορες τροποποιήσεις επηρεάζουν πολλά από τα κτηματολογικά προϊόντα και από τις υπηρεσίες. Χαρακτηριστικό παράδειγμα είναι το γεγονός ότι η βάση δεδομένων για τα υποθηκοφυλακεία δεν περιλαμβάνει πια ψηφιακούς κτηματολογικούς χάρτες και ότι η νέα βάση του κτηματολογίου δεν διαθέτει τις αποφάσεις των υποθηκοφυλακείων. Τέλος σε αντίθεση με την προηγούμενη ενοποιημένη βάση για τα ακίνητα, οι ιδιοκτήτες έχουν πλέον το XVIII

25 δικαίωμα να επισκέπτονται και να ελέγχουν το περιεχόμενο των δύο βάσεων δεδομένων. Το τρίτο κεφάλαιο ασχολείται με την εκτενή περιγραφή της δομής, των εργασιών, των προϊόντων και των υπηρεσιών του υπουργείου μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων. Το υπουργείο είναι χωρισμένο σε 2 βασικούς τομείς και τρεις κύριες ομάδες. Ο πρώτος τομέας αφορά στα δικαιώματα και στους πόρους, ενώ ο δεύτερος στην πληροφόρηση και στην εμπορία. Οι τρεις κύριες ομάδες περιλαμβάνουν την ομάδα της μετρολογίας, των μετρολογικών και κτηματολογικών γραφείων και την ομάδα της τοπογραφίας. Τα κτηματολογικά γραφεία είναι συνολικά 41 σε όλη την Αυστρία και εποπτεύονται από το συγκεκριμένο υπουργείο και όχι από τις τοπικές κυβερνήσεις. Οι μεγαλύτερες επαρχίες διαθέτουν από 7 έως 9 γραφεία, ενώ οι μικρότερες από 2 έως 4. Η Βιέννη διαθέτει μόνο ένα κτηματολογικό γραφείο. Συμπληρωματικά με τα επίσημα γραφεία λειτουργεί και ένα σύνολο από ανεπίσημα γραφεία, τα οποία παρέχουν πληροφορίες σε ανειδίκευτους πολίτες. Οι τρεις κύριες εργασίες του υπουργείου μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων είναι Η διαχείριση του κτηματολογίου: αποθήκευση των ορίων των γεωτεμαχίων σε εθνικό επίπεδο και διατήρησή τους σε περιφερειακό. Η τοπογραφική έρευνα και χαρτογράφηση: παραγωγή και διατήρηση των τοπογραφικών δεδομένων με εθνική κάλυψη. Η καταγραφή και ο καθορισμός της χρήσης γης και τα χαρ/κά ταξινόμησης: παραγωγή επίσημων χαρτών, χαρτογραφικών μοντέλων, αξιολόγηση του εδάφους και υπηρεσίες INSPIRE (Frank, 2003). Υπάρχει επίσης η προτεραιότητα να διευκρινιστεί ότι κάθε γεωτεμάχιο ανήκει είτε στο «κτηματολόγιο των έγγειων φόρων», είτε στο «κτηματολόγιο των ορίων». Το κτηματολόγιο των έγγειων φόρων χρησιμοποιήθηκε ως βάση για τη φορολόγηση και αποτελούσε τη γραφική παρουσίαση των κτηματολογικών κοινοτήτων (Katastralgemeinden). Τώρα χρησιμοποιεί τον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη για να απεικονίσει την θέση κάθε γεωτεμαχίου. Το κτηματολόγιο των έγγειων φόρων δεν διασφαλίζει νομικά τα όρια των γεωτεμαχίων και όλες οι διαφορές απαιτούν εξ αρχής την ανάμειξη των δικαστηρίων. Αντίθετα το κτηματολόγιο των ορίων αποτελεί τη νομικά δεσμευτική απόδειξη των ορίων των γεωτεμαχίων που ανήκουν σε αυτό. Τα όρια προσδιορίζονται με ακρίβεια εκατοστού και οι μετρήσεις τους απαιτούν την συμφωνία των ιδιοκτητών των όμορων γεωτεμαχίων. Σε περίπτωση απροσδιόριστων ορίων, το εκάστοτε αρμόδιο κτηματολογικό γραφείο αναλαμβάνει να τα επαναπροσδιορίσει. Η διαδικασία αυτή δεν απαιτεί την ανάμειξη των δικαστηρίων. Έως τώρα, έχουν προσαρτηθεί περίπου ακίνητα στο κτηματολόγιο των ορίων (νέα βάση δεδομένων). Και τα δύο κτηματολογικά είδη εμφανίζονται στον ίδιο χάρτη. Το υπουργείο μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων παρέχει τόσο τα προϊόντα όσο και τις υπηρεσίες του μέσω της επίσημης δικτυακής του πύλης (www.bev.gv.at). Τα προϊόντα είναι γνωστά και ως «ηλεκτρονικά γεω-δεδομένα», ενώ η απόκτησή τους απαιτεί την εγγραφή του ενδιαφερόμενου πελάτη έναντι μικρού τέλους. Η δομή της δικτυακής πύλης σχετικά με την παροχή των προϊόντων περιέχει διαφορετικές κατηγορίες XIX

26 πληροφοριών όπως ο κατάλογος με όλα τα προϊόντα, η αναζήτησή τους μέσω λέξειςκλειδιά, οι τιμές, τα πακέτα των διαφόρων υπηρεσιών, οι αιτήσεις παραγγελίας, κάποια παραδείγματα χρήσεων κ.ά. Ο κατάλογος των προϊόντων συντίθεται συνολικά από δέκα τοπογραφικές και κτηματολογικές ενότητες. προϊόντα αεροφωτογραφιών ψηφιακό μοντέλο εδάφους κτηματολόγιο και κατάλογοι χάρτες (1:50.000, 1: , 1: ) Αυστριακοί χάρτες εκτίμηση του εδάφους χαρτογραφικά μοντέλα βασικές μετρήσεις ψηφιακό υψομετρικό μοντέλο εδάφους μητρώο διευθύνσεων Σχήμα: Κατάλογος προϊόντων υπουργείου τοπογράφων, μετρολογίας και γεωπληροφορικής Η ενότητα «κτηματολόγιο και κατάλογοι» έχει υποστεί τροποποιήσεις λόγω της νέας βάσης ακινήτων και περιλαμβάνει το ιστορικό κτηματολόγιο (παλιοί χάρτες): λειτουργεί ως πολιτιστική κληρονομιά και τεκμηριώνει την ανάπτυξη της πόλης του περασμένου αιώνα. αρχείο τοπογραφικών εγγράφων: εκπονείται από αδειοδοτημένους τοπογράφους και απεικονίζει αλλαγές στο κτηματολόγιο. Το σύνολο των αλλαγών, αφού πιστοποιηθεί, καταγράφεται στο αρμόδιο υποθηκοφυλακείο και στη συνέχεια στον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη. προϊόντα υποθηκοφυλακείων (υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης): ανήκουν πλέον στην ξεχωριστή βάση δεδομένων για τα υποθηκοφυλακεία. Πολλά από τα αποσπάσματα, αξίζει να σημειωθεί, ότι πριν συνήθιζαν να παρέχονται από το υπουργείο τοπογράφων (BEV). δεδομένα σχετικών ημερομηνιών: προέρχονται από τον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη, τον κατάλογο των ακινήτων και τα στοιχεία για τους ιδιοκτήτες. Ωστόσο, κάποιες ιδιοκτησιακές πτυχές καθημερινή ενημέρωση και όχι σχετικές ημερομηνίες. προπαρασκευαστικό επίπεδο (layer): είναι νέο προϊόν, το οποίο βασίζεται σε επίσημα σχέδια. Συνθέτει ένα ξεχωριστό layer στον κτηματολογικό χάρτη και εκφράζει μελλοντικές κτηματολογικές αλλαγές πριν τις εντολές των δικαστηρίων και την εφαρμογή του κτηματολογίου. κτηματολογικοί χάρτες με ορθοφωτογραφίες: λειτουργεί ως ένα είδος χαρτοφυλακίου και χρησιμοποιείται και ως συγκριτικό μέτρο μεταξύ κτηματολογικού χάρτη και ορθοφωτογραφιών. Στην συγκεκριμένη περίπτωση υπάρχει ένας κατάλογος ακινήτων, ο οποίος κατηγοριοποιείται σε βασικές μονάδες ιδιοκτησίας. κτηματολογικοί χάρτες, κατάλογος ακινήτων, ιδιοκτητών και υποθέσεων: Οι εγγεγραμμένες υποθέσεις ανήκουν στον κατάλογο ακινήτων αι συνιστούν τις υποδείξεις για κάθε αλλαγή ενός γεωτεμαχίου. Στην ίδια κατηγορία ανήκει και το «πρωτόκολλο των γεωτεμαχίων» με το σύνολο των αλλαγών από την νεότερη στην παλαιότερη. τεκμηρίωση των κρατικών συνόρων: είναι πάντοτε συνδεδεμένη με τις διμερείς συμβάσεις μεταξύ των γειτονικών χωρών και της Αυστρίας. XX

27 διοικητικά όρια: περιλαμβάνουν κατηγορίες όπως οι κτηματολογικές ενότητες, οι περιφέρειες, οι δήμοι, οι περιφέρειες των δικαστηρίων, το τοπογραφικό δίκτυο και τα ομόσπονδα κρατίδια. Όσων αφορούν τις υπηρεσίες γεωπληροφορικής, η δικτυακή πύλη περιλαμβάνει την υπηρεσία των δικτυακών προϊόντων καθώς και τις υπηρεσίες της υποδομής χωρικών πληροφοριών (INSPIRE). Η υπηρεσία των «Web» προϊόντων αποτελεί την διεπαφή του συστήματος για την παραγγελία τους μέσω διαδικτύου. Οι υπηρεσίες της υποδομής χωρικών πληροφοριών επιτρέπουν στον χρήστη την αναζήτηση, την εύρεση, την περιήγηση, την παρουσίαση και τη λήψη των χωρικών δεδομένων μέσω διαφόρων μοντέλων. Αξίζει να αναφερθεί ότι υπάρχει η ανάγκη εναρμόνισης των διάφορων προτύπων μέσω της εφαρμογής υπηρεσιών μετασχηματισμού. Όλα το εισόδημα που προκύπτει από την πώληση των προϊόντων και ιδιαίτερα από τα αποσπάσματα του κτηματολογικού χάρτη, συλλέγεται από το υπουργείο οικονομικών και καταλήγει στην κυβέρνηση. Το υπουργείο μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων χαρακτηρίζεται από ένα μοντέλο τιμών, το οποίο χρήζει σημαντική την διάκριση μεταξύ εσωτερικών και εξωτερικών δικαιωμάτων χρήσης (τα εσωτερικά δικαιώματα σχετίζονται με τη χρήση δεδομένων που αφορούν το τεχνικό και διοικητικό προσωπικό, ενώ τα εξωτερικά δικαιώματα απευθύνονται στα δημόσια δεδομένα). Το μεγαλύτερο μέρος των εξόδων αποδίδεται σε έξοδα με σκοπό την κάλυψη των αναγκών πληρωμής του προσωπικού, ενώ μικρότερη συμμετοχή έχουν οι εισφορές των εργαζομένων, τα έξοδα μετακίνησης, τα λειτουργικά έξοδα και τα κόστη υλικών. Έχει υπολογιστεί ότι τα συνολικά έξοδα για την τρέχουσα περίοδο ανέρχονται σε Το τμήμα των τοπογράφων θεωρείται ως η μεγαλύτερη πηγή δαπανών για το υπουργείο και το κόστος κυμαίνεται σε 50 εκατομμύρια ευρώ. Το κτηματολόγιο είναι ο μεγαλύτερος τομέας εξόδων για τον τοπογραφικό τομέα (22 εκατομμύρια ευρώ), ενώ ακολουθεί η τοπογραφική καταγραφή (11,5 εκατομμύρια), η χαρτογράφηση (4 εκατομμύρια) και η αξιολόγηση του εδάφους (2 εκατομμύρια). Παρόμοια, το σύνολο των εσόδων παράγεται από το τμήμα τοπογραφίας και γεωπληροφορικής και τα έσοδά του για την περίοδο εκτιμώνται σε ευρώ. Η κύρια πηγή εσόδων προέρχεται από τις πληρωμές που προκύπτουν από την γεω- βάση για τα ακίνητα (τομέας τοπογραφίας). Το συγκεκριμένο ποσό εσόδων υπολογίζεται σε , ενώ η συνολική συμβολή του τοπογραφικού τομέα σε Η παγκόσμια οικονομική κρίση δεν άφησε ανεπηρέαστο το υπουργείο και συγκρίνοντας τις δύο τελευταίες εκθέσεις αποδοτικότητας (2010, 2011) παρατηρήθηκαν μειώσεις τόσο στα έξοδα όσο και στα έσοδά του. Τα συνολικά έξοδα μειώθηκαν κατά 3 εκατομμύρια ευρώ και τα συνολικά έσοδα κατά 2,3 εκατομμύρια σε σχέση με το προηγούμενο έτος. Κεντρική παράμετρος για τη μείωση των εσόδων είναι η ασθενέστερη συνεισφορά του τοπογραφικού τομέα, ο οποίος παρουσιάζει μείωση της τάξης των 2,6 εκατομμυρίων ευρώ. Ακόμα τα τέλη από τον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη μειώθηκαν σημαντικά, με μείωση που ανέρχεται σε 3 εκατομμύρια ευρώ. XXI

28 Το αυστριακό μητρώο τίτλων υπάρχει στη σημερινή νομική του μορφή από τον Ιούλιο του Το μητρώο τίτλων λειτουργεί ως μία νομικά δεσμευτική απόδειξη της αυστριακής ιδιοκτησίας αλλά και των υποχρεώσεων ιδιωτικού δικαίου καθώς και των δικαιωμάτων που τη συνοδεύουν. Το 1980, η εδραίωση του νόμου περί ψηφιοποίησης του μητρώου τίτλων έδωσε τη δυνατότητα μετατροπής του μητρώου σε ένα αυτοματοποιημένο σύστημα δεδομένων. Το αυστριακό μητρώο βασίζεται σε επτά αρχές: δημοσιότητα, νομιμότητα, απόδειξη, επιγραφή (δικαιωμάτων), αναφορά, αρχή των προκατόχων και αρχή της χρονικής προτεραιότητας. Λειτουργεί μέσω επαρχιακών δικαστηρίων. Κάθε επαρχία περιλαμβάνει έναν αριθμό επαρχιακών δικαστηρίων, ικανό για να καλύψει τις ανάγκες της. Στην Αυστρία τα επαρχιακά δικαστήρια χαρακτηρίζονται από ανεξάρτητες αποφάσεις, δεν επηρεάζονται από τα ανώτερα δικαστήρια και δεν υπόκεινται σε οδηγίες (μεγάλη δύναμη των δήμων). Συνολικά η Αυστρία περιλαμβάνει 141 επαρχιακά δικαστήρια, 18 πρωτοδικεία, 8 εφετεία (διοικητικά δικαστήρια) και 1 ανώτατο δικαστήριο. Το πλαίσιο λειτουργίας του μητρώου ανήκει στον τομέα του αστικού δικαίου και περιλαμβάνει ως βασικά νομικά επαγγέλματα 1)τους δικηγόρους, 2)τους συμβολαιογράφους και 3)τους δικαστικούς υπαλλήλους. Οι δικηγόροι και οι συμβολαιογράφοι είναι ελεύθεροι επαγγελματίες, οι δικαστικοί υπάλληλοι ανήκουν στο δημόσιο τομέα. Το μητρώο τίτλων είναι διοικητικά χωρισμένο σε κτηματολογικές ζώνες. Κάθε κτηματολογική ζώνη που περιλαμβάνει πολλές ιδιοκτησίες παρουσιάζεται στο σύστημα τίτλων μέσω 5 ψηφίων. Κάθε ιδιοκτησία χαρακτηρίζεται από ένα μοναδικό αριθμό ιδιοκτησίας. Ακόμα τα δικαστήρια κάθε επαρχίας διαχειρίζονται το μητρώο τίτλων εντός των κτηματολογικών ζωνών που ανήκουν σε κάθε αντίστοιχη περιφέρεια. Η αμέσως μεγαλύτερη διοικητική βαθμίδα είναι η πολιτική περιφέρεια, η οποία χωρίζεται σε πολλές μικρότερες περιοχές που καλύπτονται από τα επαρχιακά δικαστήρια. Κορυφή της ιεραρχίας θεωρείται η επαρχία (9 συνολικά στην Αυστρία). Επαρχία Πολιτική περιφέρεια Επαρχιακά δικαστήρια Κτημ/κή ζώνη Ιδιοκτησία Σχήμα: Ιεραρχική υποδιαίρεση Η νέα ψηφιακή μορφή του μητρώου τίτλων (νέα βάση δεδομένων) αποτελείται τα εξής συνθετικά: XXII

29 Κύριο βιβλίο/μητρώο: καταγράφει τις καταχωρήσεις όλων των ιδιοκτησιών και αποτελείται από τρία μέρη. - Φύλλο Α (γεωτεμάχια), - Φύλλο Β (ιδιοκτήτες) και - Φύλλο Γ (εμπράγματα βάρη). Τα εμπράγματα βάρη που συνοδεύουν κάθε ιδιοκτησία μπορεί να είναι υποθήκη, περιορισμοί πώλησης, πραγματικές δουλείες, μισθώσεις και δικαιώματα μισθωτών, δικαίωμα- προαγοράς, δικαίωμα εκ νέου αγοράς και μεταπώληση. Βοηθητικοί πίνακες: στηρίζουν την αναζήτηση μέσω της νέας βάσης δεδομένων. Τα αιτήματα επιτρέπουν τον προσδιορισμό τόσο της κτηματολογικής ζώνης που ανήκει η ιδιοκτησία, όσο και του αριθμού της ίδιας της ιδιοκτησίας. Οι βοηθητικοί πίνακες περιλαμβάνουν τρία μέρη: - Κατάλογο αγροτεμαχίων, - Κατάλογο ιδιοκτητών και - Κατάλογο διευθύνσεων. Συλλογή των εγγράφων/τίτλων: Η ομάδα των εγγράφων κατηγοριοποιείται ανά έτος με βάση έναν συγκεκριμένο αριθμό που έχει ο κάθε τίτλος. Αυτός ο αριθμός είναι γνωστός ως «αριθμός ημερολογίου», αριθμός που χαρακτηρίζει κάθε περίπτωση ιδιοκτησίας. Οι τίτλοι κρατούνται και επεξεργάζονται μόνο από τα επαρχιακά δικαστήρια, που είναι υπεύθυνα για τις συγκεκριμένες ιδιοκτησίες. Από τον Μάιο του 2012 (νέα βάση δεδομένων), το κτηματολόγιο δεν περιλαμβάνει πλέον τα έγγραφα/τίτλους, τα οποία διατίθενται πια μόνο από τη βάση δεδομένων του υπουργείου δικαιοσύνης (υποθηκοφυλακεία). Μητρώο ακυρωμένων εγγραφών/ ιστορικά αποσπάσματα: χρησιμοποιείται για την εκκαθάριση των άχρηστων πληροφοριών του βασικού μητρώου και περιλαμβάνει όλες τις ακυρωμένες εγγραφές. Το σύνολο των εγγραφών μεταφέρεται και προστατεύεται ηλεκτρονικά στα επαρχιακά δικαστήρια μέσω των «ηλεκτρονικών νομικών συναλλαγών της δικαιοσύνης» (ηλεκτρονική επικοινωνία με υψηλού κόστους λογισμικού). Συνολικά υπάρχουν τέσσερα στάδια εγγραφής: Μεταβίβαση: είναι σημαντική τόσο για την απόκτηση όσο και για την απώλεια των δικαιωμάτων σχετικά με μία ιδιοκτησία. Το συγκεκριμένο δικαίωμα μεταφέρεται χωρίς την ύπαρξη περαιτέρω προϋποθέσεων. Χαρακτηριστικό παράδειγμα αποτελεί το ενέχυρο ή η δουλεία καθώς και η διαγραφή τους (διαγραφή ενεχύρου, διαγραφή δουλείας). Αν και συνήθως η εφαρμογή της μεταβίβασης γίνεται μόνο γραπτώς, από τον Νοέμβριο του 2012 η κατάσταση διαφοροποιείται. Απλές εφαρμογές, όπως ακύρωση, απλή μεταφορά ονομάτων ή πρόδηλα σφάλματα υποβάλλονται πια προφορικά μέσω των επαρχιακών δικαστηρίων. Σημείωση προτεραιότητας: παρουσιάζει την γνωστοποίηση για μία μελλοντική απόκτηση ενός δικαιώματος ή για μία μελλοντική απώλεια του. Η πιο συνηθισμένη περίπτωση είναι η σημείωση προτεραιότητας για μία μεταβίβαση. Η XXIII

30 σημείωση αυτή χρησιμοποιείται όταν τα υποχρεωτικά έγγραφα δεν πληρούν όλες τις απαιτήσεις ή το πιστοποιητικό εκκαθάρισης της φορολογικής υπηρεσίας δεν έχει δημοσιευθεί. Σε περίπτωση μη εκπλήρωσης των απαραίτητων προϋποθέσεων, η ανακοίνωση προτεραιότητα ακυρώνεται κατόπιν αιτήσεως. Σημείωση ιεραρχίας: εξασφαλίζει την κατάταξη (στη βάση δεδομένων) για μία πώληση ή ένα ενέχυρο, ένα χρόνο μετά την έγκριση της αίτησης. Με αυτό τον τρόπο, η καταχώρηση του δικαιώματος στην ιεραρχία αποτελεί τρόπο προστασίας του εκάστοτε ιδιοκτήτη. Μάλιστα με τη δημιουργία της νέας γεωβάσης, η συγκατάθεση του προσώπου που εμπλέκεται στην σημείωση ιεραρχίας, επεξηγείται σε ξεχωριστό έγγραφο. Παρουσίαση: σημαντικών πληροφοριών που συνοδεύουν τις μεταβιβάσεις. Τέτοιες πληροφορίες είναι η αιτιολόγηση των δουλειών, οι περιορισμοί δημοσίου δικαίου (π.χ. επικίνδυνες ζώνες) καθώς οι χώροι κατασκευής των ακινήτων. Το μητρώο τίτλων περιλαμβάνει δύο τύπους δικαιωμάτων: απόλυτα και σχετικά. Τα απόλυτα δικαιώματα χωρίζονται σε πλήρη και περιορισμένα δικαιώματα. Μόνο η ιδιοκτησία θεωρείται πλήρες δικαίωμα. Δικαιώματα όπως η υποθήκη, η δουλεία, οι περιορισμοί και το δικαίωμα κατασκευής ανήκουν στην κατηγορία των περιορισμένων δικαιωμάτων. Τα δικαιώματα αυτά περιλαμβάνουν επιμέρους υποκατηγορίες όπως το δικαίωμα χρήσης, η επικαρπία, το δικαίωμα κατοικίας, οι περιορισμοί σε ύψη κτιρίων, το δικαίωμα παροχής νερού κ.ά. Τα σχετικά δικαιώματα διαφοροποιούνται στο γεγονός ότι ισχύουν μόνο μεταξύ συγκεκριμένων προσώπων. Αν η ιδιοκτησία αλλάξει, χαρακτηρίζονται ως άκυρα. Τέτοια δικαιώματα είναι αυτά των περιορισμών των βαρών, της μίσθωσης, της μεταπώλησης, κ.ά. Τέλος στο παρόν κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζεται διεξοδικά η διαδικασία της εγγραφής, η οποί συνδέει τους φορείς κτηματολόγιο και υποθηκοφυλακεία. Το παράδειγμα αφορά την εγγραφή πώλησης ενός μέρους μίας ιδιοκτησίας στη Βιέννη. Κάθε αγορά ακινήτων αποτελεί τον συνδυασμό των θεσμικών οργάνων, των σχέσεων και των προτύπων, τα οποία καθορίζουν τις συναλλαγές που αφορούν στα ακίνητα. Οι τρόποι εκτίμησης της ακίνητης περιουσίας καθώς και η διαμόρφωση των τιμών της αγοράς εξαρτώνται από μία σειρά από παραμέτρους όπως η οικονομική ανάπτυξης κάθε χώρας, ο φόρος του εισοδήματος και οι χρήσεις γης. Βασικό πυλώνα για την πραγματοποίηση των συναλλαγών και την αποτελεσματικότητα κάθε αγοράς ακινήτων αποτελεί η διασφάλιση της ιδιοκτησίας. Η ύπαρξη ενός κτηματολογικού συστήματος με ακρίβεια πληροφοριών, μειώνει τους κινδύνους σε συναλλαγές και επενδύσεις. Η Αυστρία ως χώρα διαθέτει ένα δυνατό οικονομικό υπόβαθρο και σύμφωνα με την παγκόσμια τράπεζα (World Bank) θεωρήθηκε η 3 η πιο πλούσια χώρα της Ευρώπης για το Γενικά η αγορά ακινήτων στην Αυστρία θεωρείται ως αγορά «χαμηλού κινδύνου» από άποψη μεταβλητότητας. Η εθνική στεγαστική πολιτική χαρακτηρίζεται από σταθερότητα και δίνει έμφαση τόσο στους ενοικιαστές (μεγάλος τομέας ενοικίασης), όσο και στους οικοδομικούς συνεταιρισμούς περιορισμένου κέρδους. Οι νέες κατασκευές βασίζονται σε συστήματα στεγαστικών επιδοτήσεων, τα οποία έχουν σχεδιαστεί από τις κυβερνήσεις κάθε επαρχίας. Ο XXIV

31 τραπεζικός τομέας διαδραματίζει σημαντικό ρόλο, καθώς συχνά διοχετεύει επενδύσεις προς εγκεκριμένα στεγαστικά έργα. Τέλος η εκτίμηση τη γης συνδυάζει ομάδες διαπιστευμένων εμπειρογνώμων που διορίζονται από τα δικαστήρια καθώς και πιστοποιημένους εκτιμητές. Η αυστριακή αγορά ακινήτων χωρίζεται σε δύο κατηγορίες: 1) ιδιόκτητα ακίνητα και κατοικίες μίσθωσης και 2) επενδυτικά ακίνητα. Μία μεγάλη κατηγορία του αυστριακού πληθυσμού κατοικεί σε πολυκατοικίες μίσθωσης. Το απόθεμα των κατοικιών περιλαμβάνει τα εξής: Ιδιοκατοίκηση - Μονοκατοικίες (46%) - Πολυκατοικίες (12%) Τομέας ενοικίασης - Ιδιωτική ενοικίαση( μονάδες, 17%) - Δημοτικά διαμερίσματα ( μονάδες, 10%) - Πολυκατοικίες (12%) Άλλα (3%). Ένας σημαντικός παράγοντας της Αυστριακής αγοράς απαρτίζεται από τους συνεταιρισμούς, οι οποίοι έχουν κατοχή περίπου 2,4 εκατομμυρίων κτιρίων. Οι συνεταιρισμοί συνδέονται συνήθως με επιδοτήσεις, οι οποίες είναι ιδιαίτερα σημαντικές σε τοπικό επίπεδο. Οι επιδοτήσεις βοηθούν τις πωλήσεις σε περιοχές που χαρακτηρίζονται από πολύ υψηλές τιμές για τα νέα διαμερίσματα (πχ στο Ίνσμπρουκ οι τιμές ανέρχονται σε 4.000/μ 2 ). Οι συνεταιρισμοί συνδέονται ακόμα και με τον τομέα της κοινωνικής κατοικίας. Ο τομέας της κοινωνικής κατοικίας στην Αυστρία χαρακτηρίζεται από αυστηρές νομοθετικές ρυθμίσεις και ανήκει στην αρμοδιότητα οργανισμών περιορισμένου κέρδους καθώς και μη κερδοσκοπικών ιδρυμάτων. Μάλιστα τα τελευταία δέκα χρόνια σε επιδοτούμενες νέες κατασκευές στην Αυστρία, η ιδιοκατοίκηση έχει αντικατασταθεί σταδιακά από την κατασκευή κατοικιών προς ενοικίαση, με δυνατότητα αγοράς μετά από δέκα χρόνια. Οι κύριοι συμμετέχοντες είναι φορείς όπως οι τράπεζες, οι μεσίτες, οι εταιρείες ακινήτων (αυστριακοί επενδυτές και υπηρεσίες εκτίμησης), τα αμοιβαία κεφάλαια ακίνητης περιουσίας (ανοιχτού και κλειστού τύπου), οι κτηματικοί σύμβουλοι, οι δημόσιες αρχές για την φορολογία, τα δικαστήρια σε περιπτώσεις κατασχέσεων κ.ά. XXV

32 Επενδυτές Κτηματικοί σύμβουλοι Μεσίτες Δικηγόροι Εταιρίες Φορ/κές αρχές Αγορά ακινήτων Αμ/βαία κεφάλαια Δικαστή -ρια Κρατικές επιχ/σεις Πελάτες/ χρήστες Ελεγκτές Σχήμα: Συμμετέχοντα μέρη αυστριακής αγοράς ακινήτων Επειδή όμως η αγορά ακινήτων δεν θα ήταν εύκολο να αναλυθεί για την περίπτωση όλης της Αυστρίας, το παρόν κεφάλαιο εστιάζει στην περίπτωση της Βιέννης που είναι η πρωτεύουσα και η πιο δυνατή επιχειρησιακή τοποθεσία. Ακόμα διαθέτει τους περισσότερους οικονομικού πόρους σε σύγκριση με τις άλλες 8 επαρχίες (ΑΕΠ= εκατομμύρια ευρώ). Η Βιέννη αποτελεί επενδυτικό κόμβο μεταξύ κεντροανατολικής και νοτιοανατολικής Ευρώπης. Η αγορά ακινήτων στην Βιέννη συνδυάζει τους ακόλουθους τομείς: Οικιστική αγορά ( τομέας πώλησης και ενοικίασης): Ο τομέας της ενοικίασης δεν παρουσιάζει σημαντικές αλλαγές. Υπάρχει ζήτηση για τη δημιουργία ανακαινισμένων διαμερισμάτων σε πολυκατοικίες, οι οποίες προορίζονται για πώληση. Αγορά γραφείων: Η Βιέννη έχει εξελιχθεί ως μία από τις πιο ελκυστικές αγορές σχετικά με τα γραφεία. Οι τιμές κυμαίνονται σε σταθερά επίπεδα. Λιανική αγορά: Η ζήτηση σε αυτόν τον τομέα κινείται σε πολύ υψηλά επίπεδα, ενώ η προσφορά χαρακτηρίζεται ως μηδενική. Οι κορυφαίες τοποθεσίες XXVI

33 περιλαμβάνουν το χρυσό τρίγωνο στην πρώτη συνοικία της Βιέννης, το οποίο αποτελείται από τους εμπορικούς δρόμους «Kärtner Strasse, Graben και Kohlmarkt». Εμπορική αγορά: είναι περισσότερο από ποτέ συνδεόμενη με την οικονομική ανάπτυξη της πόλης. Οι απαιτήσεις για τη σύγχρονη υλικοτεχνική υποστήριξη, καθώς και για τις βιομηχανικές και εμπορικές περιοχές αποτέλεσε 1) τη βάση για αυξημένες τεχνικές απαιτήσεις για τα κτίρια καθώς και μηχανισμό πιστοποίησης της πράσινης ανάπτυξης (περιβαλλοντική προστασία). Επενδυτική αγορά: εμπεριέχεται σε όλους τους προηγούμενους τομείς της αγοράς. Ο φόβος του πληθωρισμού στη Βιέννη διατηρεί τη ζήτηση σε υψηλό επίπεδο, ενώ οι μακροπρόθεσμες συμβάσεις (σταθερά επιτόκια) που συνοδεύουν τις συναλλαγές είναι περιζήτητες. Ο τραπεζικός τομέας διαφαίνεται επιφυλακτικός στη χορήγηση δανείων (συγκεκριμένα κριτήρια για τους υποψήφιους αγοραστές). Η αγορά ακινήτων περιλαμβάνει τοπικούς (ιδιωτικούς και θεσμικούς) αλλά και διεθνείς επενδυτές. Η αγορά ακινήτων είναι άμεσα συνδεδεμένη με την κατασκευαστική διαδικασία. Συνεπώς το παρόν κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζει τη διαδικασία που πρέπει να ακολουθηθεί για να χορηγηθούν οι οικοδομικές άδειες στην περίπτωση μίας αποθήκης, η οποία εδράζεται στη Βιέννη. Τέλος παρουσιάζονται οι βασικοί τύποι αυστριακών τραπεζών και τα βήματα χορήγησης ενός δανείου στην περίπτωση ιδιωτών (μη εταιρικό κεφάλαιο). Η ολοκλήρωση της παρούσας διπλωματικής εργασίας, οδήγησε σε μία σειρά από συμπεράσματα. Το σύνολο αυτών των συμπερασμάτων αποτελεί τον συνδυασμό τόσο της μελέτης των προηγούμενων κεφαλαίων, όσο και της κατανόησης των κυριότερων ζητημάτων (πλεονεκτήματα, αδυναμίες) για την περίπτωση της Αυστρίας. Σημαντική βοήθεια για τις νέες ανάγκες και τάσεις αποτέλεσε η επίσημη έκθεση της Παγκόσμιας Τράπεζας (Η άσκηση της επιχειρηματικότητας σε ένα πιο διαφανή κόσμο, 2012). Η έκθεση αυτή, μέσω της συγκριτικής αξιολόγησης 127 διαφορετικών οικονομιών, περιγράφει πως μία σειρά από κανονιστικές μεταρρυθμίσεις επηρεάζουν διαφορετικές χώρες (αναλυτική περιγραφή, παράρτημα Β). Μέσα στους τομείς που εξετάζονται, συγκαταλέγονται και η εγγραφή της ιδιοκτησίας καθώς και η προστασία των επενδυτών (μέρος της αγοράς ακινήτων). Για το 2012, η Αυστρία κατατάχθηκε μέσα στις 35 χώρες (από συνολικά 127 χώρες) με τα καλύτερα αποτελέσματα, στον τομέα της εγγραφής της ιδιοκτησίας. Το Αυστριακό σύστημα χαρακτηρίζεται από ακρίβεια των γεωμετρικών πληροφοριών της ιδιοκτησίας (εκτός από το δημοσιονομικό κτηματολόγιο, κτηματολόγιο των ορίων), καθώς και από το υψηλό επίπεδο διασφάλισης των τίτλων (αναλυτικοί έλεγχοι μέσω του μητρώου τίτλων). Η διαδικασία της εγγραφής βελτιώθηκε μέσω μία μεταρρύθμισης, που καθιερώθηκε κατά τη διάρκεια του Η ρύθμιση αυτή καθιέρωσε την ηλεκτρονική υποβολή των αιτήσεων για την εγγραφή των μεταβιβάσεων των ακινήτων, γεγονός που μείωσε σημαντικά τον χρόνο εγγραφής. Ταυτόχρονα η αλλαγή του ψηφιακού περιβάλλοντος των δεδομένων (νέα μορφή XXVII

34 γεωβάσης, Μάιος του 2012) επέφερε κάποιες αλλαγές. Από την μία πλευρά, διαχώρισε τις αρμοδιότητες κτηματολογίου και μητρώου τίτλων και έτσι η εσωτερική οργάνωση του κάθε φορέα βελτιώθηκε. Ωστόσο αυτή η αλλαγή απαιτεί τον εκ νέου επαναπροσδιορισμό της ψηφιακής επικοινωνίας όχι μόνο μεταξύ των δύο φορέων μεταξύ τους, αλλά και της επικοινωνίας των επαγγελματιών που ανήκουν στον ίδιο φορέα. Έτσι πρέπει να ρυθμιστεί εκ νέου η επικοινωνία τόσο μεταξύ κτηματολογικών γραφείων και μητρώου γης, όσο και μεταξύ συμβολαιογράφων και δικηγόρων. Οι δύο βάσεις χαρακτηρίζονται από καθημερινή ανταλλαγή πληροφοριών, γεγονός που απαιτεί την αναζήτηση γρήγορων και εύκολων μεθόδων για την επικοινωνία τους. Οι δύο βάσεις στηρίζονται σε έξυπνα λογισμικά, τα οποία δίνουν την δυνατότητα πραγματοποίησης αλλαγών και σχετικά γρήγορης ανάκτησης των ηλεκτρονικών δεδομένων (data requests). Ακόμα το πλαίσιο των αλλαγών επέβαλε μείωση της διαδικασίας δημιουργίας νέων αγροτεμαχίων στο κτηματολόγιο και στο μητρώο. Έτσι όλα τα βήματα από τις μετρήσεις πεδίου μέχρι τη λήψη απόφασης και την ενεργοποίηση των βάσεων δεδομένων, καλούνται να ολοκληρώνονται μέσα σε μία περίοδο 1-2 μηνών (παλαιότερα ήταν 5-7 μήνες). Επίσης η δυνατότητα ελέγχου της βάσης από τους ιδιοκτήτες, στοιχείο που δεν υπήρχε με την παλιά βάση, βελτίωσε την διαθεσιμότητα της πληροφορίας. Στον τομέα του κτηματολογίου, το πλαίσιο της νέας βάσης επέβαλλε την ανάγκη γραπτής τεκμηρίωσης κάθε μέτρησης πεδίου, καθώς και την απλοποίηση της χρήσης της αυστριακής υπηρεσίας εντοπισμού (APOS). Οι ρυθμίσεις αυτές σε συνδυασμό με την αύξηση της απαραίτητης ακρίβειας μεταξύ 2 μετρήσεων πεδίου για τα όρια μίας ιδιοκτησίας (μέγιστο σφάλμα 0,05 μ), κινούνται στον στόχο για τη βελτίωση της ακρίβειας των γεωμετρικών πληροφοριών της γης. Γι αυτό το λόγο γίνεται εύκολα κατανοητό, ότι η ταχύτερη μεταφορά μεγαλύτερου ποσοστού ακινήτων, στο κτηματολόγιο των ορίων (νομική απόδειξη ορίων), είναι αναγκαία περισσότερο από ποτέ. Εξάλλου, από έναν αριθμό ακινήτων που υπάρχουν αυτή τη στιγμή στη βάση του κτηματολογίου, μόνο το 10% (ένα εκατομμύριο ακίνητα) από αυτά, έχει ήδη μεταφερθεί. Από το 2008, η επίσημη δικτυακή πύλη του υπουργείου τοπογράφων, έδωσε τη δυνατότητα χρήσης των Web υπηρεσιών και διευκολύνθηκε η πρόσβαση στα ηλεκτρονικά γεωδεδομένα. Επιπρόσθετα, η υποδομή χωρικών δεδομένων (INSPIRE) στην Αυστρία, αποτέλεσε την βάση για την προσπάθεια μετασχηματισμών με βάση εργαλεία του ανοιχτού κώδικα (π.χ. επεξεργαστής υπό ανάπτυξη,«humboldt Alignment Editor», 2012). Ωστόσο σε μία εποχή οικονομικής ύφεσης, ο αυστριακός κτηματολογικός τομέας δεν έμεινε ανεπηρέαστος και εμφάνισε μείωση των εσόδων του. Χαρακτηριστικά, κατά τη διάρκεια της περιόδου , τα έσοδα του υπουργείου τοπογράφων παρουσίασαν μείωση της τάξης των 2,5 δις (τα έσοδα του κτηματολογικού χάρτη εμφάνισαν μείωση 3 δις). Συνεπώς, η εύρεση μεθόδων για την ανάκτηση του κόστους, αποτελεί μία πρόκληση για τα επόμενα χρόνια. Σχετικά με τον φορέα του μητρώου γης, η νέα βάση προσδιόρισε την ανάγκη ενημέρωσης του νόμου του μητρώου και για αλλαγή της επικοινωνίας μεταξύ δικηγόρων και συμβολαιογράφων. Η αλλαγή αντιμετώπισης κάποιων διαδικασιών, όπως του τρόπου υποβολής (από γραπτή σε πλέον προφορική) απλών υποθέσεων στο επαρχιακό XXVIII

35 δικαστήριο (π.χ. πρόδηλων σφαλμάτων), κινείται με οδηγό την απλοποίηση και της μείωση της γραφειοκρατίας. Στον τομέα της αγοράς ακινήτων η οικονομική κρίση, η οποία γίνεται εμφανής στην Αυστρία από το 2008, επέφερε μία σειρά από αλλαγές. Μεγάλο πια μέρος των νέων κατασκευών, στηρίζεται στην βοήθεια επιδοτήσεων σχεδιασμένων από τις τοπικές κυβερνήσεις, ιδιαίτερα σε περιοχές που οι τιμές για νέα διαμερίσματα είναι ιδιαίτερα υψηλές (π.χ. Ίνσμπρουκ). Παρατηρείται ακόμη ανάπτυξη των συνεταιρισμών περιορισμένου κέρδους,ως προϊόν συνεργασίας τοπικών φορέων και ιδιωτών. Με σκοπό την μείωση των στεγαστικών εξόδων, η οικονομικά προσιτή στέγαση έχει αυξηθεί τα τελευταία χρόνια και προκύπτει ως μία από τις μεγαλύτερες ανάγκες. Η κοινωνική κατοικία στην Αυστρία μπορεί να ενοικιάζεται και να πουλιέται, αν και η πώληση δεν έχει ακόμα εδραιωθεί αρκετά. Παρατηρείται ακόμα η αύξηση των ξενώνων ή πανσιόν (είδος οικοτροφείων), ως εναλλακτική στεγαστική λύση με σκοπό τις φορολογικές ελαφρύνσεις. Επιπρόσθετα, η ανάγκη υλικοτεχνικής στήριξης στα κτίρια, αποτέλεσε τη βάση για την πιστοποίηση της πράσινης ανάπτυξης. Μάλιστα ο νέος νόμος για την ενεργειακή απόδοση (2012) επιβάλλει μία σειρά από αυστηρότερους κανόνες,τόσο για τους μεσίτες, όσο και για τους αγοραστές. Η περίπτωση της Βιέννης, ως η δυνατότερη οικονομικά πόλη της Αυστρίας, χαρακτηρίζεται από σχετική σταθερότερα, ιδιαίτερα στις πλέον περιζήτητες περιοχές (1 η συνοικία). Στο πλαίσιο της οικονομικής κρίσης και εξαιτίας των υψηλών τιμών στις πρώτης- ζήτησης περιοχές, παρατηρείται ανάπτυξη στις περιοχές Β-κατηγορίας. Το μεγαλύτερο μέρος των επενδυτών αποτελείται από θεσμικούς επενδυτές καθώς και από διεθνείς. Στον τραπεζικό τομέα, αν και η οικονομική κρίση δεν επέφερε μεγάλες αλλαγές, αυξάνεται η ζήτηση των μακροπρόθεσμων συμβάσεων με σκοπό την επίτευξη σταθερών επιτοκίων. Ωστόσο η Βιέννη χαρακτηρίζεται από μία ιδιαιτερότητα. Αν ο κύριος μέτοχος μία επενδυτικής εταιρείας, ανήκει σε αυστριακούς με έδρα το εξωτερικό ή σε ευρωπαϊκές εταιρείες που δεν είναι αυστριακές, δεν απονέμονται περιορισμοί. Συνεπώς γίνεται κατανοητό ότι αποτελεί πρόκληση για τη Βιέννη, η ενσωμάτωση με τα διεθνή πρότυπα (ίδια αντιμετώπιση πολιτών και επιχειρήσεων από το πρότυπο της Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωσης), με στόχο την διαφάνεια των επενδύσεων. Ακόμα πολλοί επενδυτές, εμφανίζουν διαφορές με τις τιμές των ακινήτων που ορίζουν οι νόμοι (πολύ υψηλές τιμές αγοράς), με αποτέλεσμα να δημιουργείται η ανάγκη για εναρμόνιση με τους επενδυτικούς και οικοδομικούς κανονισμούς. Συνοψίζοντας, η περίπτωση της Αυστρίας μπορεί να αποτελέσει πρότυπο για την εγγραφή της ιδιοκτησίας και σε οικονομίες άλλης κλίμακας, με βασικά στοιχεία την ταχύτητα των διαδικασιών μέσω εξελιγμένου ψηφιακού περιβάλλοντος,την αυξημένη ακρίβεια των πληροφοριών και το υψηλό επίπεδο εξασφάλισης των τίτλων της ιδιοκτησίας. Στον τομέα της αγοράς ακινήτων (μέσω του παραδείγματος της Βιέννης), υποδεικνύονται στοιχεία όπως η σταθερότητα των τιμών, οι μακροπρόθεσμες συμβάσεις και η διαφάνεια των επενδυτικών κανονισμών. Τέλος αντικείμενο μεγάλης προσοχής, αποτελεί η επίτευξη ομαλών σχέσεων μεταξύ των φορέων του δημόσιου και ιδιωτικού τομέα. XXIX

36 Πίνακας περιεχομένων Περίληψη I Ευχαριστίες V Γλωσσάρι ΙΧ Εκτεταμένη περίληψη χιιι 1 Εισαγωγή Προσέγγιση του στόχου και περιοχή μελέτης Μεθοδολογία Μέθοδος προσέγγισης στόχου Η παγκόσμια θεώρηση της γης Περιοχή μελέτης Γενικά στοιχεία για την Αυστρία Η περίπτωση της Βιέννης Διοικητική και πολιτική διοίκηση της Βιέννης Το αυστριακό σύστημα διοίκησης γης Το αυστριακό σύστημα τίτλων Η Εξέλιξη του αυστριακού συστήματος εγγραφής Στόχοι του συστήματος διοίκησης γης Διοικητική δομή Θεσμικό πλαίσιο Αρμόδια υπουργεία Υπουργείο οικονομίας Υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης Υπουργείο οικονομικών και εργασίας Υπουργείο γεωργίας, δασών, περιβάλλοντος και υδάτινων πόρων Ψηφιακή βάση δεδομένων για τα ακίνητα

37 4 Ομοσπονδιακό υπουργείο μετρολογίας, τοπογράφων και γεωπληροφορικής Δομή Οργανόγραμμα Κτηματολογικά γραφεία Κύρια καθήκοντα Πεδία μελέτης Εννοιολογική βάση Δικτυακή πύλη (www.bev.gv.at) Προϊόντα Ιεραρχικός κατάλογος προϊόντων Βασικές μετρήσεις Κτηματολόγιο και κατάλογοι Εκτίμηση εδαφών και μητρώο διευθύνσεων Απόσπασμα του ψηφιακού κτηματολογικού χάρτη Υπηρεσίες γεωπληροφορικής Υπηρεσία δικτυακών προϊόντων Αλλαγές προϊόντων στη γεωβάση και δικτυακό κατάστημα Υπηρεσία υποδομής χωρικών πληροφοριών (INSPIRE) Χρηματοοικονομικά στοιχεία Πολιτική υπουργείου και μοντέλο τιμών Έσοδα και έξοδα Κρίση και ανάκτηση των δαπανών Μητρώο γης (Grundbuch) Γενικό υπόβαθρο

38 5.2 Διασαφηνίσεις δομής Επαρχιακά δικαστήρια Νομικά επαγγέλματα Ιεραρχική υποδιαίρεση Βασικά Στοιχεία Εγγραφή γης Τύποι εγγραφής Έλεγχος του μητρώου γης Δικαιώματα Ιδιοκτησιακά δικαιώματα Σχετικά δικαιώματα Διαδικασία εγγραφής (σύνδεση μητρώου γηςκτηματολογίου) Πράξεις μητρώου γης Ανάλυση «βήμα προς βήμα» (παράδειγμα πώλησης ενός μέρους μίας ιδιοκτησίας) Η αγορά ακινήτων- η περίπτωση της Βιέννης Λειτουργικό πλαίσιο Κανονισμοί ακινήτων Εννοιολογική βάση Η αυστριακή αγορά ακινήτων Δομή της αυστριακής αγοράς Απόθεμα κατοικιών και κατοχή γης Βασικοί συμμετέχοντες Φόροι και δαπάνες σύμφωνα με το αυστριακό δίκαιο Στοιχεία και αριθμοί Εστίαση στην αγορά ακινήτων της Βιέννης

39 Κύρια στοιχεία Αγορά γραφείων Βιομηχανική αγορά Εμπορική αγορά Οικιστική αγορά Συγκροτήματα διαμερισμάτων Νέες απαιτήσεις και οικονομική κρίση Παραδείγματα χαρακτηριστικών διαδικασιών Οικοδομικές άδειες Τραπεζικά δάνεια Όροι στεγαστικών δανείων Ανάλυση διαδικασίας τραπεζικού δανείου για ιδιώτες Συμπεράσματα Βιβλιογραφία VII Παράρτημα Α: Συνεντεύξεις Παράρτημα Β: Συγκριτική αξιολόγηση σύμφωνα με την παγκόσμια τράπεζα (έκθεση του 2012) Παράρτημα Γ: Βοηθητικό υλικό

40 Table of contents Abstract I Acknowledgments V Glossary IX 1 Introduction Target approach and study area Methodology Target s approach method A global land perspective Study area Austria in general Focus on Vienna Political and administrative structure of the city of Vienna Austrian land administration system Title system Evolution of the Austrian registration system Purposes of the Austrian LAS Administrative structure Institutional framework Division of ministries Ministry of Finance Ministry of Justice Ministry of Economics and Labour Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water management Real estate database

41 4 Federal Ministry of Metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation (BEV) Structure Organogram Cadastral offices Main tasks Working areas Conceptual base BEV-Portal (www.bev.gv.at) Products Hierarchical catalog Basic measurements Kataster and lists Soil estimation and address register Extract of the digital cadastral map Geoinformation Services Products Web Service (PWS) Changes of Geodata base products and Shop Plus INSPIRE Services Financial elements Policy and price model Costs and revenues Crisis and cost recoverability Land register (Grundbuch) General background Structure clarifications District courts

42 5.2.2 Legal professions Hierarchical subdivision Components Land registration Entries types Inspection of Grundbuch (extract) Rights Rights on a property Relative rights Procedure of land registration (connection cadastre- Grundbuch) Grundbuch processes Step by step analysis (example of an owner wanting to sell a part of his parcel) Real estate market-the case of Vienna Operational framework Real estate regulation Conceptual base Real estate market in Austria Structure Housing stock and land tenure Main participants Taxes and expenses on real estate acquisition under the Austrian law Facts and figures Focus on Vienna Key-elements Office market

43 Retail market Commercial market Residential market Multi-family apartment buildings New demands and economic crisis Example of procedures Construction permits Bank loans Terms for housing loans Step by step analysis of taking a loan procedure (private clients) Conclusions Bibliography VII Appendix Α: Interviews Appendix Β: Comparative study according to World Bank (2012 s report) Appendix C: Auxiliary material List of Figures Figure 1: Goal Setting approach Figure 2: A global perspective of modern LAS (Source: Enemark, Williamson, Wallace, 2005) Figure 3: Austria s federal state (Source: Statistics Austria, 2011) Figure 4 and 5: Districts of Vienna Figure 6: City administration Figure 7: Austrian LAS determination (Source: Jean- Lus Horirsberger, 2010)

44 Figure 8: Technical and Legal Principles of the Austrian system (Source: Twaroch, Muggenhuber, 1997) Figure 9: Dynamic framework (Source: Muggenhuber and Twaroch, 2008) Figure 10: Organogram of the Austrian administration (Based on Julius Ernst, 2008) Figure 11: The new Real Estate Database, according to public & private sector Figure 12: Organogram of BEV (Source: Leistungsbericht 2011, BEV) Figure 13 and 14: Cadastral Offices in Austria (Source: BEV, 2011) Figure 15: Components of products description (Source: BEV -portal) Figure 16: Transformation MGI-ETRS 89 (Source: BEV Portal) Figure 17: First Cadastral Map, about 1850 (Source: Cadastre in Austria, Ernst 2006) Figure 18: Extract of DKM with Orthofotos (Source: BEV portal) Figure 19: Soil estimation map in 1:1000 (Source: BEV Portal) Figure 20: Extract of DKM (Source: BEV-portal) Figure 21: Extract of DKM (Source: BEV- Portal) Figure 22: Legend of the cadastral extract (Source: BEV portal) Figure 23: Parcels Catalog (Source: BEV- portal) Figure 24: Owners Catalog (Source: BEV- portal) Figure 25: Configuration of Web Service (Source: Specification Version 2.0, BEV) Figure 26: Geodatabase content Figure 27: Digital Cadastral Map in GDB Figure 28: Datasets of INSPIRE- WMS in BEV (Source: Leistungsbericht, 2011) Figure 29: Source Model for Austria (Source: E-M. Unger, G. Navratil, S. Klotz, 2012, Semantic model transformation within the context of INSPIRE ) Figure 30: External Use rights (Source: Standardentgelte und Nutzungsbedigungen 2012, BEV)

45 Figure 31: Costs and Revenues at federal level (Source: BEV, Leistungsbericht 2011) Figure 32: Distinction of Surveying Costs Figure 33: Revenues of BEV Figure 34: Costs and Revenues Comparison (million Euros) Figure 35: Organisational structure of Grundbuch (Source: 69 Figure 36: Districts courts in Austria (Source: 69 Figure 37: Hierarchical Subdivision Figure 38: Ministry of Justice, new Grundbuch Figure 39: Main ledger via the ministry of Justice Figure 40: Owners catalog (Source: Grundbuch_Online_ Abfrage_Benutzeroberfläche) Figure 41: Parcels catalog Figure 42: Addresses catalog Figure 43: Collection of deeds Figure 44: Historic extract Figure 45: Conveyance s costs Figure 46: Grundbuch extract (Source: 79 Figure 47: Abbreviations of useful terms Figure 48: Fees from the new real estate database (Source: Figure 49: Examples of mortgages (Grundbuch, Ministry of Justice, 2005) Figure 50: Ownership right due to inheritance and donation (Ministry of Justice, 2005) Figure 51: Presentation of right of way (Source: Twaroch, 2003) Figure 52: Construction right via land use (Ministry of Justice, 2012) Figure 53: Example of relative rights, pre-emption right Figure 54: Land registration procedure (example of subdivision in combination with sale)

46 Figure 55: Characteristics of real estate markets Figure 56: Structure of housing stock by legal status (for primary residences) in Austria (Source: The Austrian system of social housing finance ) Figure 57: Apartments tenure in Austria Figure 58: Sales division in Austria (Source: Grundbuch + RE/MAX Immobilien, Austria) Figure 59: Sale price of apartments in Austria (Source: REMAX Immobilien, 2012) Figure 60: Office development axes (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) Figure 61: Shopping- canters and streets (Source: Immobilienmarkt 2011/2012, EHL Company) Figure 62: Industrial areas (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) Figure 63: Purchases prices in Vienna (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) Figure 64: Rent prices in Vienna (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) Figure 65: Apartment sale prices in Vienna, prices in Euros/ m 2 living space (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) Figure 66: Pillars of dealing with construction permits in Austria (Source: World Bank, 2012) Figure 67: Loan process (based on the website 120 ANNEX List of pictures Picture 1: Visit at the federal ministry of metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation Picture 2: Team of CEIT Alanova Picture 3: Federal Ministry of Metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation in Vienna (BEV) Picture 4: Office of Mr Julius Ernst (BEV)

47 Picture 5: BEV List of figures Figure 1: Elements of cadastre and Grundbuch offices Figure 2: Financial Hierarchy Figure 3: Digital cadastral map Figure 4: Extract from Cadastral Map Figure 5: Fundamental Components that simplify regulations Figure 6: Useful Practices for property register Figure 7: First page of surveying document Figure 8: Division Certificate Figure 9: Extract from the digital cadastral map (DKM) Figure 10: Catalog of boundary points Figure 11: Consent declaration [Source of example: Julius Ernst, certificate from Karl Reichsthaler (authorized surveyor)] Figure 12: Katastralgemeinden (Geodata, Figure 13: Central website of BEV (www.bev.gv.at) Figure 14: Reference stations of APOS (Source: BEV) Figure 15: Extract from the main ledger (Source: Grundbuch-Online, 2012) Figure 16: Extract from the historic extract/register of invalidated inscriptions (Source: Grundbuch-Online, 2012) Figure 17: Example of priority notice (Source: 34 Figure 18: Companies with free access in the database of Justice (www.justiz.gv.at) Figure 19: Register outputs in EULIS-Service and Geographical and mapping coverage (Source: Metadata of registers and their contents with examples-austria) Figure 20: Checking of documents (Source: Navratil, 1998)

48 Figure 21: Updating in land transaction process (Source: Metadata of registers and their contents with examples-austria) Figure 22: Spatial representation in DKM (Source: Metadata of registers and their contents with examples-austria) Figure 23: Inhabited dwellings in Austria (Source: Statistics Austria 2011) Figure 24: Rental housing market (Source: EHL Immobilien) Figure 25: Real estate prices in Vienna (Source: EHL Immobilien) Figure 26: Social housing in Austria (Source: Cecodhas Housing Europe, 2012 Housing Europe Report ) Figure 27: Austria s indexes (Source: EU27 country report) Figure 28: Office projects in Vienna (Source: EHL Immobilien) Figure 29: Green buildings (Source: EHL Immobilien) Figure 30: Energy efficiency certificate (Source: Overview report on different energy performance certificate approaches and their assessment in the context of property valuation) Figure 31: Energy certificate details (Source: Overview report on different energy performance certificate approaches and their assessment in the context of property valuation) Figure 32: Loan example (www.raiffeisen.at) Figure 33: Indicators for Austria (Source: World Bank 2012)

49 ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ 1 ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ Ο ορισμός κάθε είδους συστήματος αφορά στοιχεία που αλληλεπιδρούν μεταξύ τους. Κάθε σύστημα διοίκησης της γης αναφέρεται στη σχέση αλληλεπίδρασης που δημιουργείται ανάμεσα στους αρμόδιους φορείς (υπουργεία, οργανισμούς, γραφεία, ινστιτούτα και υπηρεσίες), που είναι υπεύθυνοι για την διαχείριση και της προστασία της. Η σχέση αυτή χαρακτηρίζεται από πολυπλοκότητα, διότι 1)το σύνολο των φορέων έχει διαφορετική οργάνωση, λειτουργία και προσωπικό και διότι 2) η ίδια η γη έχει πολλές συνιστώσες. Η γη χαρακτηρίζεται από μία σειρά ορισμών/διαστάσεων: Η γη δεν μπορεί να αυξηθεί. Παρόλα αυτά η «αξία» της γης, αποτελεί τρόπο μέτρησής της και αυξάνει φυσιολογικά ανάλογα τον αριθμό των ατόμων που ζουν σε μία περιοχή. Σύμφωνα με τον ορισμό των πηγών για πρώτες ύλες, η γη λειτουργεί ως βάση υποδομής. Ήδη από τον μεσαίωνα η γη υπάρχει ως ένα αποτελεσματικό αντικείμενο φορολογίας (οικονομική πηγή). Η γη μπορεί να χρησιμοποιηθεί με στόχο την ιδιωτική χρήση των διαφόρων ιδιοκτησιών. Η γη αποτελεί θεμέλιο για το σχεδιασμό και τη δημιουργία βιώσιμων χρήσεων γης. Η γη αποκτά έναν «ανθρώπινο χαρακτήρα», μέσω των δικαιωμάτων αλλά και των υποχρεώσεων, που συνοδεύουν τη χρήση της. Η γη έχει σχέση εξάρτησης με την αγορά ακινήτων και τις επενδύσεις. Από τα παραπάνω διαπιστώνεται ότι η μελέτη του συγκεκριμένου συστήματος χρήζει ιδιαίτερης προσοχής, διότι δεν είναι λίγες οι φορές που η διαφορετικότητα τόσο των φορέων όσο και των διαστάσεων της γης οδηγεί σε συγκρουσιακές καταστάσεις. Η παρούσα διπλωματική εργασία χαρακτηρίζεται από μία ιδιαιτερότητα, καθώς το περιβάλλον ξεπερνά τα όρια της χώρας και καθορίζεται από ευρωπαϊκά πρότυπα. Η συγκεκριμένη εργασία εκπονεί μελέτη της Αυστρίας, στα πλαίσια του προγράμματος ανταλλαγής «Erasmus LLP», κατά τη χρονική περίοδο Φεβρουαρίου-Ιουλίου του Στα πλαίσια του προγράμματος ανταλλαγής, πραγματοποιήθηκε συνεργασία μεταξύ του Εθνικού Μετσόβιου Πολυτεχνείου και του πανεπιστημίου της Βιέννης «Vienna University of Technology, TU Wien», με υπεύθυνο επιβλέποντα τον Gerhard Navratil (βοηθός έρευνας και διδασκαλίας στο τμήμα γεωπληροφορικής). Γίνεται λοιπόν μία προσπάθεια μελέτης του Αυστριακού συστήματος της γης ως προς τους φορείς του κτηματολογίου, των υποθηκοφυλακείων (μητρώου τίτλων) αλλά και της αγοράς ακινήτων (για την περίπτωση της Βιέννης). Η μελέτη αυτή αναφέρεται αντίστοιχα στη γη ως Α) σύνολο γεωμετρικών ιδιοτήτων, Β) κόμβο σύνδεσης με τα δικαιώματα και τις υποχρεώσεις, καθώς και Γ) ως αντικείμενο φορολογίας, εκτίμησης και σύνδεσης με τις επενδύσεις (εστίαση στην οικονομική διάσταση της αγοράς ακινήτων). Πρέπει να διασαφηνιστεί ότι ο όρος κτηματολόγιο αναφέρεται σε όλο το σύστημα του κτηματολογίου χωρίς περιορισμούς. Η Αυστρία χαρακτηρίζεται από ένα σύστημα με διττή φύση: - 1 -

50 ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ Κτηματολογικός χάρτης (χωρίς στοιχεία ιδιοκτησίας): αναφέρεται στις γεωμετρικές ιδιότητες ενός γεωτεμαχίου όπως είναι η διαχείριση των ορίων και οι χρήσεις γης. Μητρώο εγγραφής (αντιμετωπίζει το κτηματολόγιο με βάση την ιδιοκτησία και την φορολογία ως μία μονάδα): περιγράφει τη νομική κατάσταση των ιδιοκτησιών (δικαιώματα, υποχρεώσεις, περιορισμοί). Στην Αυστρία υπάρχει ένας αυστηρός διαχωρισμός μεταξύ του δημοσιονομικού κτηματολογίου (Kataster) και του κτηματολογίου ιδιοκτησίας/μητρώου τίτλων (Grundbuch). Το δημοσιονομικό κτηματολόγιο ανήκει στην αρμοδιότητα του υπουργείου οικονομικών και υπεύθυνο για τη διαχείριση του, είναι το ομοσπονδιακό υπουργείο τοπογράφων, μετρολογίας και γεωπληροφορικής με έδρα τη Βιέννη (BEV). Το ομοσπονδιακό υπουργείο λειτουργεί μέσω των 41 κτηματολογικών γραφείων που υπάρχουν σε όλη την Αυστρία. Από την άλλη πλευρά, το κτηματολόγιο της ιδιοκτησίας ανήκει στη σφαίρα επιρροής του υπουργείου Δικαιοσύνης και λειτουργεί μέσω των 141 επαρχιακών δικαστηρίων που υπάρχουν σε όλη την Αυστρία. Οι δύο αυτοί φορείς χαρακτηρίζονται από διαφορετική οργάνωση και αρμοδιότητες. Έως τον Μάιο του 2012, τα δεδομένα υπήρχαν ενοποιημένα σε μία ενιαία ψηφιακή βάση γεωγραφικών δεδομένων. Από τον Μάιο του 2012, η βάση αυτή χωρίστηκε σε δύο μικρότερες βάσεις, οι οποίες συγχρονίζονται μεταξύ τους. Η μία βάση (δημοσιονομικό κτηματολόγιο) ανήκει στο υπουργείο οικονομικών και λειτουργεί μέσω της διαδικτυακής πύλης του υπουργείου τοπογράφων (www.bev.gv.at). Η βάση αυτή αποτελεί την επίσημη βάση ηλεκτρονικών γεω δεδομένων για όλη την Αυστρία. Η δεύτερη βάση (κτηματολόγιο ιδιοκτησίας) ανήκει στο υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης και επεξεργάζεται μόνο μέσω των επαρχιακών δικαστηρίων. Γίνεται λοιπόν μία εκτενής αναφορά στη λειτουργία τόσο του ομοσπονδιακού υπουργείου τοπογράφων όσο και στη λειτουργία του κτηματολογίου της ιδιοκτησίας. Οι δύο φορείς εξετάζονται ως προς την δομή, τα είδη των επαγγελμάτων που εμπλέκονται, τα συστατικά και τις βασικές τους λειτουργίες. Επίσης αναφέρονται παραδείγματα αλλαγών λόγω της μετατροπής της δομής της ενιαίας γεωβάσης σε δύο μικρότερες, καθώς και βασικές διαδικασίες. Αναλύεται βήμα-βήμα η διαδικασία της εγγραφής, στην περίπτωση που ένας ιδιοκτήτης επιθυμεί να εγγράψει μόνο ένα μέρος της ιδιοκτησίας του (το παράδειγμα τοποθετείται στη Βιέννη). Επιπρόσθετα σκιαγραφείται η αγορά ακινήτων στην Αυστρία, με έμφαση την πρωτεύουσά της Βιέννη. Η ανάλυση αυτή απαρτίζεται από την κατανόηση της Δομής του γενικού πλαισίου της αγοράς (Αυστρία) και συγκεκριμένα της Βιέννης, Περιγραφής του αποθέματος των κατοικιών και στις δύο περιπτώσεις, της Στεγαστικής πολιτικής με έμφαση στους συνεταιρισμούς περιορισμένου κέρδους, των Κύριων συμμετεχόντων, των Βασικών φόρων και εξόδων που συνοδεύουν τις συναλλαγές, τους Τομείς της αγοράς: οικιστική αγορά (ενοικιάσεις, πωλήσεις), αγορά γραφείων, λιανική αγορά, εμπορική αγορά και επενδυτική αγορά για την πόλη της Βιέννης, καθώς και των - 2 -

51 ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ Αριθμητικών και στατιστικών στοιχείων (επεξήγηση αποτελεσμάτων αγοράς) για τα αποθέματα της ιδιοκτησίας και τον τρόπο χρηματοδότησης στην Αυστρία, αλλά ειδικότερα στη Βιέννη. Και στην περίπτωση της αγοράς ακινήτων στη Βιέννη, περιγράφονται χαρακτηριστικές διαδικασίες μέσω παραδειγμάτων. Αναλύεται λοιπόν βήμα προς βήμα, η διαδικασία χορήγησης οικοδομικών αδειών (περίπτωση μίας αποθήκης), με ταυτόχρονη περιγραφή των εξόδων και του απαιτούμενου χρόνου. Σε συνδυασμό με τα προηγούμενα, παρουσιάζονται τα βασικά είδη αυστριακών τραπεζών καθώς και η διαδικασία ανάληψης ενός δανείου στην περίπτωση ενός ιδιώτη. Η διπλωματική ολοκληρώνεται με την εξαγωγή ενός συνόλου συμπερασμάτων, το οποίο εντοπίζει τόσο τα πλεονεκτικά σημεία της περίπτωσης της Αυστρίας, όσο και τα στοιχεία εκείνα που απαιτούν βελτίωση (πιθανές δυνατότητες). Οδηγό για τα συμπεράσματα αποτελούν και οι νέες ανάγκες/τάσεις, οι οποίες υποδεικνύονται από την παγκόσμια τράπεζα κατά τη διάρκεια του Οι ανάγκες αυτές εστιάζουν στην απλοποίηση και την αποτελεσματικότητα των διαδικασιών, καθώς και τη μείωση του χρόνου και του κόστους μέσα σε μία εποχή με δυσμενείς οικονομικούς όρους. 1 INTRODUCTION The definition of each kind of system concerns elements, which interact with each other. Every land administration system is centered on the interaction relationship between the responsible entities (ministries, agencies, offices, institutes and services), which deal with the management and the protection of land. This kind of relationship is characterized by complexity, because 1) all entities have different organization, function and staff and because 2) the land itself consists of several components. At times, land is characterized by various definitions / dimensions: Land cannot be increased. Nevertheless, the term value constitutes the mode for the measurement of land and increases according to the number of the people, who live in a specific area. Pursuant to the definition of raw materials sources, land serves as a basis of infrastructure. Since middle Ages, land exists as an efficient taxation object (economic source). Land can have the aim of private uses for ownership. Land is considered to be the foundation for planning purposes and for the establishment of sustainable land uses. Land acquires a kind of human character, via the connection with rights, obligations and restrictions that accompany its use. Land is totally interwoven with the real estate sector and the investments (based on Katasterwesen, by Julius Ernst)

52 INTRODUCTION Consequently it can be easily understood, that the specific system needs especial attention, because very often the differences not only between the entities, but also between the land aspects, lead to conflicting situations. The current diploma thesis exceeds the boundaries of Greece and is determined by European standards. The diploma thesis elaborates a study about Austria, under the framework of the exchange program Erasmus-LLP, during the period February-July In the backdrop of the exchange program, was accomplished a cooperation between the National Technical University of Athens and Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), under the guidance of Gerhard Navratil (research and teaching assistant at the Institute of Geoinformation). The specific thesis was accomplished with the aim to study the Austrian land system on the entities of cadastre, land registry and real estate market (case of Vienna). Land is faced as 1) a set of geometric attributes, 2) a connection- junction with rights, obligations and restrictions, and 3) an object of taxation and valuation as well as a basis for investments (focus on the economic dimension of the real estate market). It should be clarified that in the specific thesis cadastre means the whole system of land registration without any restrictions. Austria is characterized by a dual- nature system: Cadastral map (without information about the ownership): is related with the geometric attributes of a parcel as the management of boundaries and the presentation of land uses. Land register/titles register (faces fiscal- and ownership cadastre as a unit): describes the legal status of properties (rights, obligations and public-law restrictions). In Austria there is a strict distinction between the fiscal cadastre (Kataster) and the ownership cadastre [(Grundbuch), Navratil, 1998]. Fiscal cadastre is subjected to the competences of the ministry of Economics and is managed by the Federal ministry of Surveying, Metrology and Geoinformation (BEV) with its headquarters in Vienna. The federal ministry of surveying functions through 41 cadastral offices, which cover whole Austria. On the other hand ownership cadastre belongs to the sphere of influence of the Ministry of Justice and is managed by 141 district courts (for whole Austria), which function within municipalities. Both entities are characterized by different organisational structures and responsibilities. However, until May of 2012 all the information was included into a common digital geographic database. Since May of 2012 (7 th of May), the database was split into two smaller databases, which are synchronized to each other. The data base of fiscal cadastre belongs to the ministry of Economics and operates via the Web- Portal of the Ministry of Surveying (www.bev.gv.at). The specific database composes the base of e-geodata for entire Austria. The database of ownership cadastre belongs to the ministry of Justice and is maintained only by district courts. Therefore, is analyzed both the function of the ministry of Surveying and Geoinformation as well as the function of the ownership cadastre (Grundbuch). The specific outline comprises the basic structures, the type of main professions, the components and some of the most substantial procedures. Also there are presented some examples of the changes, as a - 4 -

53 INTRODUCTION comparison between the old common database and the new smaller databases. As one of the most characteristic procedures, is used the example of land registration. In particular, the land registration process concerns the registration of a part of a property, which is located in Vienna. Furthermore the current thesis sketches the real estate market in Austria, with emphasis on the capital, Vienna. The analysis consists of the Structure of the general market s framework (Austria) and particularly Vienna s framework, the Description of the housing stock in both cases, the Understanding of the housing policy, focusing on the limit-profit associations, the Main participants, the Basic taxes and expenses that accompany real estate transactions, the Market s sectors (Vienna): residential market (rental, sales), office market, retail market, commercial market and investment market, and the Numerical and statistical data (results of the property market) of the housing stock as well as the financing types, especially for the region of Vienna. The study of the Real estate market in Vienna is also accompanied by the description of typical processes via examples. The typical process is related with the granting of buildings permits (case of warehouse) in conjunction with the required costs and time. Furthermore, are indicated the types of the Austrian banks as well as the procedure of taking a loan (case of private person). This diploma thesis is completed by a set of conclusions, which identify the advantage points of the Austrian case as well as the elements that need improvement (potentials). As main guide for the concluding remarks are used the new needs/trends, which are indicated by World Bank (World Bank s report 2012, Doing business in a more transparent world, Annex B). The new needs/trends focus on topics as the simplification and the efficiency of the processes as well as the reduction of time and costs, within the backdrop of the current unfavourable economic conditions. 2 ΠΡΟΣΕΓΓΙΣΗ ΤΟΥ ΣΤΟΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΠΕΡΙΟΧΗ ΜΕΛΕΤΗΣ Η μεθοδολογία της συγκεκριμένης διπλωματικής στηρίχθηκε ως επί το πλείστον σε συνεντεύξεις, δημοσιεύσεις και διαδικτυακή έρευνα (συμπεριλαμβανομένου τη μελέτη δικτυακών πυλών). Ο κύκλος των συνεντεύξεων προσανατολίστηκε στην διοίκηση της γης και βασίστηκε στις επαφές του αυστριακού μας επιβλέποντα καθηγητή (Gerhard Navratil). Η χρήση συνεντεύξεων προέκυψε από την ανάγκη να ληφθούν πληροφορίες για τη λειτουργία του αυστριακού συστήματος με γνώμονα την εμπειρία των ειδικών. Γι αυτό το λόγο πραγματοποιήθηκε μία σειρά από επισκέψεις σε αρμόδια γραφεία, ινστιτούτα και - 5 -

54 ΠΡΟΣΕΓΓΙΣΗ ΣΤΟΧΟΥ δημοτικούς φορείς. Οι πληροφορίες που απορρέουν από τις συνεντεύξεις δεν περιορίζονται μόνο σε θέματα γης αλλά καλύπτουν τομείς όπως ο χωροταξικός σχεδιασμός και οι μεταφορές. Με αυτό τον τρόπο το σύνολο των δεδομένων προέρχεται από πολλά επιστημονικά πεδία και προσφέρει ενημέρωση για ένα ευρύτερο γνωσιολογικό περιβάλλον. Συνεπώς αποφεύγεται η μονομερής αντιμετώπιση των ζητημάτων και καλύπτονται πολλές από τις πιο σημαντικές παραμέτρους. Εκτός των συνεντεύξεων, οι δημοσιεύσεις και η διαδικτυακή έρευνα εμπλούτισαν την μελέτη με πολλές λεπτομέρειες και σε πολλές περιπτώσεις ενημέρωσαν πληροφορίες οι οποίες είχαν υποστεί αλλαγές από την περίοδο λήψης των συνεντεύξεων. Η μέθοδος ανάλυσης αυτής της διπλωματικής κινείται στα πλαίσια του επαγωγικού λογισμού (κίνηση από το επιμέρους στο γενικό). Από την μία πλευρά σαν αρχή θεωρείται η περιγραφή του αυστριακού κτηματολογικού συστήματος (κτηματολόγιο και μητρώου τίτλων), της αγοράς ακινήτων και του τραπεζικού συστήματος στην πόλη της Βιέννης. Από την άλλη πλευρά ο τελικός στόχος αφορά την επισήμανση των στοιχείων εκείνων που καθιερώνουν διαφάνεια και αποδοτικότητα στην αγορά ακινήτων της Βιέννης αλλά και γενικότερα σε κάθε αγορά ακινήτων. Ο όρος «διαφάνεια» υποδεικνύεται σαν βασική παράμετρος στα πλαίσια της βιώσιμης οικονομίας. Καθορισμός στόχου (γενικό) Διαφάνεια Διοικητικές διαδικασίες, μέτρα Διοίκηση γης Διαχείρηση γης Εργαλεία για τεκμηρίωση και έλεγχο (επιμέρους) Κτηματολόγιο Μητρώο τίτλων Αγορά ακινήτων Τραπεζικό σύστημα Σχήμα: Διαδικασία προσέγγισης στόχου Η προσέγγιση του στόχου έχει τις ρίζες της σε μία παγκόσμια προοπτική για ένα σύγχρονο σύστημα διαχείρισης της γης (Enemark, 2004). Το σύγχρονο σύστημα διαχείρισης της γης χαρακτηρίζεται από πολλαπλούς σκοπούς και περιλαμβάνει ως βασικά του συστατικά τα κτηματολογικά εργαλεία. Ο όρος «διοίκηση της γης» υιοθετήθηκε από την οικονομική επιτροπή για την Ευρώπη του Ο.Η.Ε (UNECE) και οδήγησε στη θέσπιση της συνάντησης των ειδικών στη διαχείριση γης (MOLA). Η οικονομική επιτροπή για την Ευρώπη το 1996 όρισε τη διοίκηση της γης σαν «το σύνολο των διαδικασιών για τον καθορισμό, την καταγραφή και τη διάδοση των πληροφοριών σχετικά με την ιδιοκτησία, την αξία και τη χρήση της γης κατά την εφαρμογή των πολιτικών διαχείρισης της». Το σύγχρονο σύστημα διοίκησης υποστηρίζει την αποδοτικότητα στις αγορές ακινήτων και συνδυάζει - 6 -

55 ΠΡΟΣΕΓΓΙΣΗ ΣΤΟΧΟΥ λειτουργίες, οι οποίες βασίζονται σε υποδομές χωρικών πληροφοριών. Οι λειτουργίες αυτές αποτελούνται από τους αλληλοσυνδεόμενους τομείς όπως η κατοχή (τίτλοι ιδιοκτησίας, υποθήκες, δουλείες),η αξία (εκτίμηση αξίας των ακινήτων, είσπραξη εσόδων μέσω φορολογίας), η χρήση (κανονισμοί και χωροταξικές πολιτικές) και η ανάπτυξη της γης (εφαρμογή κατασκευαστικού σχεδιασμού και αλλαγές λόγω οικοδομικών αδειών). Ιδιαίτερο χαρακτηριστικό της μελέτης είναι ότι δεν αφορά την Ελλάδα αλλά μία ξένη ευρωπαϊκή χώρα, την Αυστρία. Η Αυστρία τοποθετείται στην κεντρική Ευρώπη και καλύπτεται από τις κεντρικές Άλπεις και την περιοχή του ποταμού Δούναβη. Αποτελεί κόμβο μεταξύ πολλών αλπικών διελεύσεων και κοιλάδων και μοιράζεται τα σύνορά της με οκτώ χώρες όπως η Τσεχία, Γερμανία, Ουγγαρία, Ιταλία, Λιχτενστάιν, Σλοβακία, Σλοβενία και Ελβετία. Η Αυστρία συγκαταλέγεται στα κράτη της ευρωπαϊκής ένωσης από το Ο πληθυσμός της ανέρχεται σύμφωνα με τις νεότερες στατιστικές σε 8, κατοίκους, ενώ καλύπτει μία έκταση τετραγωνικών μέτρων. Όσων αφορούν στη διοικητική της οργάνωση, η χώρα της Αυστρίας είναι χωρισμένη σε εννέα ομοσπονδιακά κρατίδια, δήμους και 99 πολιτικές περιφέρειες. Η Αυστρία τα τελευταία χρόνια έχει αναπτυχθεί ιδιαίτερα και χαρακτηρίζεται από μεγάλη συμμετοχή σε πολλά ευρωπαϊκά προγράμματα. Ένα τέτοιο πρόγραμμα είναι το «CENTROPE», το οποίο βασίζεται στην σύμπραξη 4 χωρών συμπεριλαμβανομένου της Αυστρίας, της Τσεχίας, της Σλοβακίας και της Ουγγαρίας. Το πρόγραμμα «CENTROPE» καθιερώνει μία πολυεθνική περιοχή της κεντρικής Ευρώπης μέσω της δημιουργίας ενός πλαισίου συνεργασίας τόσο για τοπικές και περιφερειακές αρχές όσο και για επιχειρήσεις και δημόσιους φορείς. Επειδή όμως όπως γίνεται εύκολα κατανοητό η Αυστρία είναι δύσκολο να μελετηθεί στο σύνολό της, μεγάλο μέρος της εργασίας αυτής επικεντρώνεται στην πρωτεύουσα της τη Βιέννη. Η Βιέννη είναι η μεγαλύτερη αυστριακή πόλη και εδράζεται στα βορειοανατολικά της χώρας. Καταλαμβάνει μία έκταση 415 τετραγωνικών χιλιομέτρων και ο πληθυσμός της ανέρχεται σε 1.731,236 κατοίκους. Η Βιέννη είναι μία πόλη με ιδιαίτερα χαρακτηριστικά, καθώς από το 2005 κατετάγη συνολικά τέσσερις φορές πρώτη όσον αφορά στην ποιότητα ζωής συγκρινόμενη με πόλεις όπως το Βανκούβερ και η Μελβούρνη (Economic Intelligence Unit and Mercer). Ακόμα κατά την περίοδο ο δείκτης καινοτομίας πόλεων την κατέταξε 2 φορές πρώτη όσων αφορούν στο τρίπτυχο πολιτισμόςαγορές-υποδομές. Η Βιέννη θεωρείται η πιο σημαντική τοποθεσία εγκατάστασης επιχειρήσεων στην Αυστρία και χαρακτηρίζεται από το μεγαλύτερο ακαθάριστο προϊόν ανάμεσα στα υπόλοιπα οκτώ κρατίδια (72,1 δισεκατομμύρια το 2009). Τέλος η παραγωγή βασίζεται πρωτίστως στον τριτογενή τομέα (82,9% το 2009), αλλά και στον δευτερογενή (16,9%). Η Βιέννη αποτελεί μία ξεχωριστή περίπτωση πόλης αφού είναι ταυτόχρονα Ομοσπονδιακή πρωτεύουσα της Αυστρίας, Ομοσπονδιακή επαρχία της αυστριακής δημοκρατίας και Δήμος με δικό του καθεστώς

56 ΠΡΟΣΕΓΓΙΣΗ ΣΤΟΧΟΥ Σαν πρωτεύουσα η Βιέννη υπόκεινται στην κρατική διοίκηση, ενώ σαν ομόσπονδο κρατίδιο τη διοίκηση αναλαμβάνουν τα ομοσπονδιακά υπουργεία. Ως επαρχία, η κυβέρνηση της Βιέννης λειτουργεί σαν συλλογικό σώμα και συντονίζει τις αρμόδιες αρχές. Τέλος ως δήμος, η Βιέννη απαρτίζεται από διάφορες μονάδες, τοπικές αρχές και αυτο-διαχειριζόμενους θεσμούς. Η οργάνωση της πόλης υπόκεινται στη λογική των δημοτικών διαμερισμάτων και των κτηματολογικών κοινοτήτων (Katastralgemeinden). Η Βιέννη χωρίζεται συνολικά σε 23 δημοτικά διαμερίσματα και 89 κτηματολογικές κοινότητες. Η διαχείριση των δημοτικών διαμερισμάτων από τα αρμόδια θεσμικά όργανα, όπως το δημοτικό συμβούλιο και η κεντρική αρχή των διαμερισμάτων της Βιέννης. Η γερουσία της Βιέννης συμπεριλαμβάνει τον δήμαρχο, τους διευθύνοντες δημοτικούς συμβούλους, τον ανώτατο εκτελεστικό διευθυντή και το προσωπικό. Τελευταία, η διοίκηση της πόλης συνδυάζει διάφορες μεμονωμένες υπηρεσίες οι οποίες εξαρτώνται από τις αποφάσεις του διευθύνοντα συμβούλου. Παρακάτω διαφαίνονται οι δημοτικές υπηρεσίες της Βιέννης, τις οποίες επισκεφθήκαμε. Αστική ανάπτυξη και σχεδιασμός Περιφερειακός σχεδιασμός και χρήση γης (Κεντρική- Δυτική Βιέννη) Περιφερειακός σχεδιασμός και χρήση γης (Νότια και βορειοανατολική Βιέννη) Τοπογραφικός τομέας (Κτηματολόγιο) Έλεγχος κτιρίων Σχήμα: Δημοτικές υπηρεσίες Βιέννης 2 TARGET APPROACH AND STUDY AREA 2.1 METHODOLOGY Necessary information acquired to a large extent by the following methodology: Interviews Internet research Publications Web-Portals The interviews circle was oriented on the fields of land administration and was accomplished via the assistance and the contacts of our Austrian supervisor. Interviews use emerged mainly from the need to acquire the most essential information in accordance with the experience and the knowledge of the land experts. Moreover, the - 8 -

57 TARGET APPROACH AND STUDY AREA meetings with them deepened our understanding in relation with the function of the Austrian system. All the interviews were conducted by visiting offices, institutes and municipal departments and by discussing with specialists in land issues. It is though worth mentioning that the discussions cover broader information s spectrum and comprise sectors as spatial planning and transport. All the visits, which were accomplished in Vienna, in combination with all the experts, are specified via the subsequent list. Federal Office for Metrology and Surveying (BEV) Interview with Julius Ernst: Senior advisor for land administration and cadastral information systems as well as responsible for issues relating to cadastral offices. In addition, chair of Cadastre and Grundbuch Knowledge Network of euro Geographic s and representative of BEV in the committee on cadastre of the European Union and in the Eulis Program. Vienna University of Technology (TU Vienna) Interview with Robert Kalasek: Department of spatial development, infrastructure and environmental planning, centre of regional science. Interview with Christoph Twaroch: Dipl. Engineer in Surveying and lecturer at the department of jurisprudence (Dr Jur). Christoph Twaroch has studied Surveying and law. Institute of Urbanism, Transport, Environment and Information Society Interview with Wolfgang Wasserburger: Dipl. engineer and senior consultant in regional and transport planning, online GIS and technical tools. Raiffeisen Bank in Wien Interview with Alexander Völkl: Dipl. Engineer and deputy director of Raiffeisen bank s branch. Real Estate Agency Interview with Ernst Glaser: Business office Manager. Municipalities Planning Offices Municipal Department 18: Mathis Falter: Sector Urban Research and Space analysis. Municipal Department 21A Municipal Department 21B Philipp Fleischmann: Land use and district planning. Municipal Department 37: Peter Leithner: Director of the department Constructions and City planning technique. Municipal Department 41: Erich Flicker: Dipl. Ing and representative of the departments head. Apart from interviews, internet research enriched the current case study with more details and sources. In addition, it enabled the updating of any information, which have subjected to changes since the period of interviews. Also our interviews with the land - 9 -

58 TARGET APPROACH AND STUDY AREA specialists are accompanied by the study of a couple of publications. Publications provided the set of information that we needed and contributed to prepare the appropriate questions for the interviews. Last but not least, most of the information that is concerned with products and web services derived from web portals. 2.2 TARGET S APPROACH METHOD The analysis s method can be promoted as part- wholed (figure one). In order to be more extensively interpreted, the starting point can be defined as the expansive description of cadastre, ownership cadastre (Grundbuch), Real Estate Market and banking system. The four areas are considered as the main tools for documenting and monitoring and belong to the broader area of land administration. The goal of the current thesis terms to the outline of the real estate market s function in Vienna. Also under the basis of the Viennese real estate market, are highlighted the basic pillars that guarantee transparency and efficiency in real estate markets. Transparency is indicated in the broader context of the parameters for a sustainable economy. GOAL SETTING Transparency ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESSES, MEASURES Land Administration Land Management TOOLS FOR DOCUMENTING AND MONITORING Cadastre Land register Real Estate Market Banking system (loans) Figure 1: Goal Setting approach 2.3 A GLOBAL LAND PERSPECTIVE The target s approach has its roots in the land management paradigm (Enemark, 2004). Modern land administration is subjected to a global perspective and includes a model of interrelated areas that are not only centred to cadastral activities. The interrelated areas aim to satisfy the triptych of economic, social and environmental development through the institutional framework of each country. Therefore the current diploma thesis faced the land administration as a multipurpose system with basic components its cadastral tools. Furthermore its viewing angle was orientated mostly to the economic development, by giving emphasis to the aspect of transparency in relation with the Viennese real estate market. Firstly it would be though useful to concentrate on what a land administration system expresses. Land administration is the term that was

59 TARGET APPROACH AND STUDY AREA adopted by UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and led to the establishment of the Meeting of Officials on Land Administration (MOLA). In 1996, MOLA produced Land Administration Guidelines (UN-ECE 1996) as one of its initiatives. UN-ECE considered land administration as the processes of determining, recording and disseminating information about the ownership, value and use of land, when implementing land management policies (UN-ECE, 1996). Also the global perspective that arises from Enemark in 2005 expanded the system s definition. A land administration system is considered as the crutial government tool that supports efficiency in land markets and comprises functions, which are based on spatial information infrastructures (Enemark, Williamson, Wallace, 2005). The functions, which combine both cadastral and topographic data, encompass the interrelated areas of land tenure, land value, land use and land development (figure 2). Land tenure deals with the security of legal land rights, the transfer of a property or a land use through sales or leases and with the determination of parcels boundaries. Therefore it comprises the total of titles, mortgages and easements. Apart though from these issues, competencies that belong to the area of the land tenure, term to the management of the disputes that arise from rights and boundaries. Land value terms to the estimation of a property s value and the collection of the revenues via taxation. Furthermore deals with the management of valuation- and taxation disputes. Land use is mainly interwoven with spatial planning policies and land use regulations. Both control each parcel s use not only at national but also at regional and local level. Moreover, land uses responsibilities deals with the management of the diverse respective conflicts. Last but not least land development encompasses the implementation of the construction planning and the land uses changes via the planning permissions. Therefore it aims to create a new physical infrastructure (Source: Enemark, Williamson and Wallace, 2005). Figure 2: A global perspective of modern LAS (Source: Enemark, Williamson, Wallace, 2005)

60 TARGET APPROACH AND STUDY AREA 2.4 STUDY AREA Austria in general Austria is located in central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia and covered by central Alps and Danube region. It is land-locked and it has always been a strategic junction between many traversable Alpine passes and valleys. Austria shares its land borders with eight countries, including Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Slovakia, Slovenia and Switzerland. Furthermore it is extended from Lake Constance (German land) in the west to Neusiedler See (Austrian-Hungarian border) in the east. Austria s climate is considered to be temperate, continental and cloudy, whilst the terrain characterized as mostly flat and gently sloping. In addition, there is a variety of natural resources including not only oil, coal, timber and iron ore but also graphite, copper, salt and hydropower. Austria is a member of the European Union since The population is mainly concentrated on eastern lowlands and amounts approximately to 8, inhabitants. According to official statistics, Austria has an area of km*2. For the administrative organisation, Austria is divided into 9 federal states (provinces), municipalities and 99 political districts. Provinces include Burgenland, Carinthia, Lower-, Upper-Austria, Styria, Salzburg, Tyrol, Vienna and Vorarlberg. The next figure sketches Austria and presents not only geographical but also demographic characteristics. Figure 3: Austria s federal state (Source: Statistics Austria, 2011)

61 TARGET APPROACH AND STUDY AREA Austria is a strong economy with high savings ratio and is considered as the third richest country in Europe (report of World Bank for 2010). Furthermore it has really low unemployment rate (4, 8%). Last but not least Austria cooperates with many borders countries under a couple of projects. The project Centrope represents this idea and is accomplished via the combination of 4 countries including Austria; Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Centrope establishes a multinational region in Central Europe mainly by creating cooperation s framework for local and regional authorities, enterprises and public institutions Focus on Vienna The current case study is centred to Austria s capital and biggest city Vienna. Vienna is located in northeaster Austria and lies within a transition of oceanic and humid continental climate. According to the last measures, Vienna occupies an area of 415 km^2 and has 1, inhabitants ( men and women). Furthermore the number of private houses ranges to Vienna is characterized as the 9 th largest city by population in the European Union and is host to international organisations as the United Nations and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Vienna is considered as one of the most important European cities and in 2001 its city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. It stands out not only due to its musical legacy but also due its historical monuments. Moreover Vienna belongs to the cities with the best quality of life. Characteristically since 2005 Vienna ranked totally four times 1 st in quality of living between cities as Melbourne and Vancouver according to the Economic Intelligence Unit and the consulting firm Mercer. In Innovation Cities Index ranked Vienna two times 1 st concerning the triptych culture-infrastructure and markets. In addition, Vienna s economic environment presents a big interest because it is considered as the most important business location in Austria. It is characterised by the highest gross national product (72.1 bn in 2009) among the other provinces and the production is mostly based on the tertiary sector (82, 9% in 2009). The contribution of the secondary sector ranges to 16, 9 %, while the primary sector is insignificant (0, 2%) Political and administrative structure of the city of Vienna Vienna forms simultaneously the federal capital of Austria a federal province of the Austrian Republic and A municipality with the legal status of a chartered city (separate statute). Vienna holds the seat of the republic highest authorities and that is the cause why it is considered as the Austrian economic- and political centre. Due to the fact that it forms the triptych federal capital, province and municipality, Vienna combines the characteristics of each entity. As the Austrian federal capital, Vienna is subjected to the

62 TARGET APPROACH AND STUDY AREA state administration, which is actualised by the federal state, the provinces and the municipalities. Federal administration comprises the federal ministries that are governed by the principle of monocratic organisation. As a province, Vienna s government acts mostly as a collegial body and ordinates the districts authorities. Last but not least, as a municipality includes units, local authorities and self governing institutions. It is worth referring that the municipality of Vienna has its own sphere of competence by the condition that state and provinces do not delegate tasks by respective laws. In addition, the organisation of the city of Vienna is subjected to the logic of communities districts and cadastral communities (Katastralgemeinden). Communities districts are sections of Vienna, which are numbered. Cadastral communities compose the smallest federal administrative unit and are also numbered. The spatial area of each cadastral community is consisted of parcels. A parcel constitutes the smallest spatial object of the Surveying law. Vienna is totally divided to 23 community and 89 cadastral districts. The community districts are geographically and depicted by the next two figures. 1.INNERE STADT 7.NEUBAU 13. HIETZING 19. DÖBLING 2.LEOPOLDSTADT 8.JOSEFSTADT 14. PENZING 20. BRIGITTENAU 3.LANDSTRASSE 9. ALSERGRUND 15.RUDOLFSHEIM- FÜNFHAUS 21. FLORIDSDORF 4. WIEDEN 10. FAVORITEN 16.OTTAKRING 22. DONAUSTADT 5. MARGARETEN 11. SIMMERING 17. HERMALS 23.LIESING 6. MARIAHILF 12. MEIDLING 18. WÄHRING Figure 4 and 5: Districts of Vienna

63 TARGET APPROACH AND STUDY AREA The administration of the communities districts is performed by the municipal institutions of Vienna. The municipal institutions combine both the Municipal Council Office and the Central district authority of Vienna. Vienna s government (senate) encompasses the Mayor, the Executive City Councillors, the Chief Executive Director and the staff. It must be though mentioned that districts authorities do not form part of the city administration. Administration is reflected to Groups, which comprise respectively several individual departments. The departments depend normally on the decisions of the Chief Executive office. The subsequent diagram illustrates Vienna s administration by presenting the municipal departments, which we visited. CITY ADMINISTRATION Municipal Council Office+ Central district Authority CITY SENATE Mayor+ Executive City Councillors(12) Chief Executive Director+ Stuff ADMIN/TIVE GROUPS Group Urban Planning, traffic &transport, climate protection and energy and public admin/tion Housing,housing construction and urban renewal 18 :Urban Development and Planning MUNICIPAL DEPARTMENTS 21A :District Planning and Land Use- Central West 21B : District Planning and Land Use-South and Northeast 37 : Building Inspection 41 : City s Surveying (Cadastre) Figure 6: City administration

64 ΤΟ ΑΥΣΤΡΙΑΚΟ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΓΗΣ 3 ΤΟ ΑΥΣΤΡΙΑΚΟ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΓΗΣ Η Αυστρία ανήκει στις χώρες, οι οποίες διαθέτουν ένα καλά οργανωμένο κτηματολογικό πρότυπο. Η διοίκηση της γης ακολουθεί το σύστημα τίτλων. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι ο εγγεγραμμένος ιδιοκτήτης έχει τη δημόσια πίστη του να είναι ιδιοκτήτης, ενώ ο τίτλος εγγράφεται και εξασφαλίζεται. Κάθε συναλλαγή που αφορά σε κάθε ακίνητο, απαιτεί την καταχώρισή της μέσω ενός εγγράφου (γραφήματα και κείμενο). Στην Αυστρία το σύστημα εγγραφής βασίζεται στην εκτεταμένη τοπογραφική μελέτη για κάθε ακίνητο καθώς και στα αρχεία του ψηφιακού κτηματολογικού χάρτη. Οι πληροφορίες ταξινομούνται σε τρεις κατηγορίες: υποκείμενα δικαίου (πρόσωπα, ιδρύματα, επιχειρήσεις), ακίνητη περιουσία (αγροτεμάχια, κτίρια) και δικαιώματα (σχέση υποκειμένων και ακίνητης περιουσίας). Η εγγραφή της γης συνδυάζει τόσο το κτηματολόγιο όσο και τα υποθηκοφυλακεία. Από τη μία πλευρά, το κτηματολόγιο επεξεργάζεται τα δεδομένα που σχετίζονται με τις γεωμετρικές ιδιότητες ενός ακινήτου και που παρουσιάζονται στον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη. Από την άλλη πλευρά, το σύνολο των υποθηκοφυλακείων ασχολείται με τη νομική κατάσταση ενός ακινήτου καθώς και με τα δικαιώματα, τους κινδύνους και τους περιορισμούς που το συνοδεύουν. Οι περιορισμοί καθορίζονται από το δημόσιο δίκαιο και τις διάφορες ρυθμίσεις, οι οποίες με τη σειρά τους εξαρτώνται απόλυτα από τις πολιτικό παράγοντα. Αν και κτηματολόγιο και υποθηκοφυλακεία διαφέρουν ως προς την οργάνωση, υπάρχει ένα είδος συγχρονισμού μεταξύ τους. Ο αριθμός του κάθε ακινήτου λειτουργεί σαν συνδετικός κρίκος, που συνδέει τα αντικείμενα της ακίνητης περιουσίας με το σύνολο των δικαιωμάτων. Η αρχή του αυστριακού συστήματος χρονολογείται στον 13ο αιώνα, ενώ κατά την περίοδο του μεσαίωνα εμφανίστηκαν τα πρώτα συμβόλαια και τα δεδομένα τοποθετήθηκαν σε χρονολογικές λίστες. Το 1718, με κίνητρο τον δίκαιο υπολογισμό του αυστριακού φόρου ακίνητης περιουσίας, δημιουργήθηκε ένα σύστημα καταμέτρησης το οποίο ονομάστηκε «Μιλανέζικο σύστημα». Η ονομασία του συγκεκριμένου συστήματος στηρίχθηκε στο γεγονός ότι η εκτίμηση του φόρου οργανώθηκε αρχικά στις ιταλικές επαρχίες. Τριάντα χρόνια αργότερα, το 1748 επιτεύχθηκε η τυποποίηση του καταστατικού για το φόρο της ακίνητης περιουσίας μέσω της αυτοκράτειρας Μαρίας Θηρεσίας. Οι φορολογικές διορθώσεις ολοκληρώθηκαν το 1956 και κατά τη διάρκεια της περιόδου , υλοποιήθηκε ο φόρος ακίνητης περιουσίας. Το 1812 καθιερώθηκε η νομιμότητα της κατοχής της γης μέσω του αστικού κώδικα και η διαδικασία αυτή ολοκληρώθηκε το Έκτοτε ξεκίνησε η τοπογραφική έρευνα κάθε γεωτεμαχίου. Αυτή η συστηματική καταγραφή όλων των ακινήτων διαμόρφωσε το «σταθερό κτηματολόγιο» (ανεξαρτησία φόρων και μετρήσεων για την βελτίωση της γης). Το αποτέλεσμα απεικονίστηκε στον κτηματολογικό χάρτη και υιοθετήθηκε ο όρος «κτηματολογική κοινότητα» για τις κοινότητες που υπόκεινται στον ίδιο φόρο. Τελικά, το 1869 επεκτάθηκε η πρώτη μορφή του σταθερού κτηματολογίου και κάθε επαρχία χωρίστηκε σε «περιοχές εκτίμησης». Τρία χρόνια μετά, το 1871 προστέθηκαν τα υποθηκοφυλακεία στο θεσμό του κτηματολογίου και ως εκ τούτου ιδιοκτήτες και υποθήκες εγγράφηκαν νομικά. Το 1874 καθιερώθηκε η συμβατότητα μεταξύ κτηματολογίου και υποθηκοφυλακείων και το 1883 συστάθηκε ο νόμος της κτηματολογικής συντήρησης. Ο νόμος της συντήρησης διάρκεσε 85 χρόνια και

65 ΤΟ ΑΥΣΤΡΙΑΚΟ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΓΗΣ το 1896 επεκτάθηκε με τον κανονισμό ρύθμισης του φόρου ακίνητης περιουσίας. Ένα από τα σημαντικότερα αποτελέσματα του νόμου αυτού, ήταν ότι καθιερώθηκε η αναθεώρηση του κτηματολογίου κάθε 15 χρόνια. Το 1907 εισήχθηκε ο όρος των «κτηματολογικών γραφείων». Χρονολογία ορόσημο θεωρήθηκε το 1969, όταν τέθηκε σε ισχύ ο νόμος της τοπογραφικής έρευνας και διαμορφώθηκε το γενικό πλαίσιο του «κτηματολογίου των ορίων». Ο νόμος της τοπογραφικής έρευνας καθόρισε τα καθήκοντα της επίσημης αρχής για τις μετρήσεις, του ομοσπονδιακού υπουργείου μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων. Ο νόμος αυτός συνοδεύτηκε από αρκετές τροποποιήσεις, με σημαντικότερη την προσθήκη ενός γεωγραφικά κωδικοποιημένου μητρώου διευθύνσεων. Το 1980, άλλαξε το περιβάλλον των πληροφοριών με την εμφάνιση των ψηφιακών δεδομένων και την εφαρμογή της «ψηφιακής βάσης δεδομένων για τα ακίνητα». Ακόμα στη διάρκεια των ετών , καθιερώθηκε ο ψηφιακός κτηματολογικός χάρτης. Το ψηφιακό περιβάλλον απλοποίησε πολλές διαδικασίες και το 99% των κτηματολογικών προϊόντων (συμπεριλαμβανομένου του ψηφιακού χάρτη) είναι διαθέσιμα διαδικτυακά από το Τέλος τον Μάιο του 2012 η δομή της βάσης δεδομένων για τα ακίνητα άλλαξε και δημιουργήθηκαν 2 μικρότερες βάσεις. Οι βάσεις αυτές διακρίνουν την διαχείριση κτηματολογίου και υποθηκοφυλακείων, ενώ οι βάσεις συγχρονίζονται μεταξύ τους. Το σύστημα εγγραφής της γης, προσπαθεί καθ όλη τη διάρκεια των ετών να ακολουθήσει τις μεταβαλλόμενες οικονομικές, περιβαλλοντικές και τεχνολογικές ανάγκες. Το πλαίσιο των στόχων αναπτύσσει μία δυναμικότητα, η οποία αντικατοπτρίζεται στην ίδια τη δομή του αυστριακού συστήματος. Έτσι ενώ ο αρχικός στόχος ήταν η εκτίμηση της γης μέσω της δίκαιης φορολόγησης, αργότερα εμφανίστηκε η ανάγκη για εξασφάλιση των δικαιωμάτων ιδιοκτησίας. Ακόμα το σύγχρονο κτηματολόγιο, «πολλαπλών σκοπών», αντιμετώπισε τη γη περισσότερο ολιστικά εισάγοντας την παράμετρο του χωροταξικού σχεδιασμού και την διαχείριση των χωρικών πληροφοριών. Ο τομέας της γεωργίας εκφράστηκε μέσω των αγροτικών επιδοτήσεων και ο σκοπός της περιβαλλοντικής προστασίας καθιερώθηκε ως ένας από τους σημαντικότερους. Οι σύγχρονες ανάγκες είναι κατ εξοχήν αναμεμειγμένες με τον οικονομικό τομέα και σχετίζονται με τις χρηματοοικονομικές υπηρεσίες. Σχήμα: Δυναμικό πλαίσιο (Πηγή: Muggenhuber and Twaroch, 2008) Οι αρμοδιότητες του συστήματος διαμοιράζονται στα αρμόδια υπουργεία, τα οποία αναλαμβάνουν να επιλύσουν με αποτελεσματικό τρόπο τα ζητήματα τα οποία προκύπτουν

66 ΤΟ ΑΥΣΤΡΙΑΚΟ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΓΗΣ Το υπουργείο οικονομίας αναλαμβάνει τον δημοσιονομικό σχεδιασμό, την οικονομική πολιτική για τις χρηματοοικονομικές υπηρεσίες και τη φορολογία. Εδράζεται στη Βιέννη και χωρίζεται σε 6 τμήματα. Το υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης αντιμετωπίζει τις νομικές υποθέσεις, όπως η νομοθεσία περί εγγείου ιδιοκτησίας. Οι αρμοδιότητες χωρίζονται σε τέσσερα επιμέρους τμήματα, ενώ το αστικό δίκαιο ως ένα από αυτά καθορίζει το νόμο για τα υποθηκοφυλακεία. Το υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης είναι υπεύθυνο για τη λειτουργία των υποθηκοφυλακείων, τα οποία ανέρχονται συνολικά σε 141 (district courts). To υπουργείο οικονομικών και εργασίας ανήκει στην ευρύτερη σφαίρα επιρροής του υπουργείου οικονομίας, οικογένειας και νεολαίας και περιλαμβάνει συνολικά 2 τομείς και 2 κέντρα. Τόσο οι τομείς όσο και τα κέντρα συνδέονται με 4 κύρια τμήματα. Το υπουργείο οικονομικών είναι υπεύθυνο για τη λειτουργία της επίσημης υπηρεσίας μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων, το ομοσπονδιακό γραφείο μετρολογίας, τοπογράφων και γεωπληροφορικής (BEV). Κεντρικό ρόλο έχουν τα κτηματολογικά γραφεία και οι αδειοδοτημένοι τοπογράφοι οι οποίοι υπολογίζονται περίπου σε 300. Το υπουργείο γεωργίας, δασοκομίας, περιβάλλοντος, δασοκομίας και υδάτινων πόρων δουλεύει πάνω σε θέματα γης και περιβάλλοντος και διαιρείται συνολικά σε 7 τμήματα. Αποτιμά την αυστριακή υπαίθρια έκταση μέσω αγροτικών επιδοτήσεων, ενώ το τμήμα της αγροτικής πολιτικής του υπουργείου συντονίζει την υποδομή χωρικών πληροφοριών (INSPIRE). Επιπρόσθετα η ίδια αρχή κατασκευάζει τους λεγόμενους «χάρτες αξιολόγησης εδάφους», οι οποίοι συνδέονται με τον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη. Τα υπουργεία κινούνται σε λογικές συνεργασίας και αλληλεπίδρασης. Χαρακτηριστικά η σύμπραξη του υπουργείου οικονομικών και εργασίας με το υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης δημιούργησε στις αρχές του 1980 τη «βάση δεδομένων για τα ακίνητα». Η αρχική ιδέα αναπτύχθηκε στο υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης στο πλαίσιο της πρωτοβουλίας για ηλεκτρονική διακυβέρνηση (e- Government). Αρχικά υπήρχε μία ενιαία ψηφιακή βάση ακινήτων που περίκλειε ενοποιημένες πληροφορίες για το κτηματολόγιο και τα υποθηκοφυλακεία με έδρα το ομοσπονδιακό κέντρο πληροφορικής στη Βιέννη. Ωστόσο, η απαραίτητη ανανέωση του αρχικού συστήματος που είχε δημιουργηθεί από το 1970, οδήγησε σε αλλαγή της δομή της βάσης τον Μάιο του Έτσι δημιουργήθηκαν 2 ξεχωριστές βάσεις δεδομένων, μία για τη διαχείριση του κτηματολογίου και μία για την διαχείριση των υποθηκοφυλακείων. Η νέα δομή προβλέπει αλληλεπίδραση των 2 βάσεων και οδηγεί σε αλλαγές, όπως είναι η μεταφορά της αυτοματοποιημένης εγγραφής στα υποθηκοφυλακεία. Οι διάφορες τροποποιήσεις επηρεάζουν πολλά από τα κτηματολογικά προϊόντα και από τις υπηρεσίες. Χαρακτηριστικό παράδειγμα είναι το γεγονός ότι η βάση δεδομένων για τα υποθηκοφυλακεία δεν περιλαμβάνει πια ψηφιακούς κτηματολογικούς χάρτες και ότι η νέα βάση του κτηματολογίου δεν διαθέτει τις αποφάσεις των υποθηκοφυλακείων. Τέλος σε αντίθεση με την προηγούμενη ενοποιημένη βάση για τα ακίνητα, οι ιδιοκτήτες έχουν πλέον το δικαίωμα να επισκέπτονται και να ελέγχουν το περιεχόμενο των δύο βάσεων δεδομένων

67 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM 3 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM 3.1 TITLE SYSTEM Figure 7: Austrian LAS determination (Source: Jean- Lus Horirsberger, 2010) As it is indicated from the land administration paradigm, a developed cadastral system forms one of the most pivotal engines of a government infrastructure. Austria belongs to those countries, which are characterized by a well organised cadastral template. Therefore it is worth understanding how the Austrian land is registered and managed. Austria is characterized by the Title s registration. That means that the registered owner has the public faith of being owner, while the title itself is recorded and secured. Each title is based on the land parcels. Also each transaction, which accompanies each property, requires registration through a document (graphical and textual). Austria s registration system is based on the comprehensive survey of each parcel and on the records of the digital cadastral map. The registration presents what is owned by whom in a clear and precise way. The set of information, which forms foundation for the function of the Austrian system, mostly is categorized into three groups (figure 7): legal subjects (persons, institutions and firms) legal/real estate objects (parcels and buildings) and Rights (Relation between subjects and objects) 1. It must be clarified that only the registered rights are valid to a third party (Hofmeister, Auer, 1992). In Austria land registration combines both the fiscal cadastre (Kataster) and the ownership cadastre (Grundbuch). 1: The specific categorization is based on Twaroch and Muggenhuber in

68 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM However there is a strict distinction between them (Navratil, 1998). From one side Kataster edits data, which are referred to the geometric properties of a parcel and presented in the cadastral map in conjunction with the assignments directly attached to it (e.g. creation of parcel numbers, registration of land use, boundaries management). On the other side Grundbuch deals with the legal situation of a parcel as well as with the rights, risks and restrictions, which come with it as ownership and encumbrances. Restrictions are determined by public law and regulations, which are totally interwoven with the political authorities. Although Kataster and Grundbuch are different to organizational issues, there is synchronization between them, which enables the connection between the cadastral objects and rights. The number of each parcel is considered to function as the link key between objects and rights. Furthermore, the communication key between the Kataster and the Austrian land market is reflected to the value of each real estate object. Both Kataster and Grundbuch are governed by technical and legal principles. The Austrian cadastral system follows 8 technical and 7 legal principles, which are below presented. Technical Principles Complete documentation of physical objects Unique identifiers completeness Security Positional Reference Documentation of changes Accuracy Up-to-dateness of data Legal Principles Publicity Legality Evidence Inscription Petition Predecessor Priority Figure 8: Technical and Legal Principles of the Austrian system (Source: Twaroch, Muggenhuber, 1997) 3.2 EVOLUTION OF THE AUSTRIAN REGISTRATION SYSTEM The first indication of the Austrian system dates back to the 13 th century when sovereigns used to evaluate their income on lists. Afterwards, in the middle age s period, the first real estate contracts appeared and the relating data was inserted into chronological lists. That formed the first effort for a land register system and a documentation of individual civil rights. In 1718 the patent of the emperor Kaiser Karl VI made a decisive step with the aim to calculate fairly the Austrian property tax. The specific estimation was organised by Jacob Marinoni within the Italian provinces and was considered as a model for the cadastral measures of 19 th century. Therefore the system was called Censimento Milanese (Milanese Enumeration). It is worth mentioning that within three years a survey of sq km was integrated, including the local triangulation. The specific survey, which was presented in an early form of the Austrian maps, enabled the register of the properties in combination with the areas- and pure revenues calculation. Thirty years later in 1748, the patent of the empress Maria Theresia achieved the standardisation of the property tax constitution. The specific patent stimulated that each ground, which was rural before 1743, it would still continue to be considered as rural and

69 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM that in case of a next tax rectification it would be estimated again as rural. That formed a kind of distinction between palatial and rural ground and thereafter the grand authorities were forced to fully independently abide their tax obligations in relation with vassals. As a consequence, Maria Theresia led to the taxation of the dominical property mainly by improving the property tax constitutions for the vassals among the different countries. The circle of the tax rectifications completed in 1756 and within the years , the emperor Kaiser Josef II implemented the abolition of the tax concession (property tax regulation). Since then tax regulations were calculated in accordance to the municipalities and consisted of a) a boundaries description and of b) organized tables for each parcel. The highlight of this patent was considered as the introduction of the term property tax for the taxes on land and buildings. Via the specific patent not only nobility but also churches were obligated to pay taxes. In 1800 when the appearance of the premature form of the stable cadastre started, the emperor Kaiser Franz I seized the opportunity to create a cadastral system based on the property tax. Twelve years later, in 1812 came the legality of the land possession 2 through the civil code (Allgemein Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch). This was the first time where the principle of inscription was displayed. The patent was finally integrated in 1817 and therefore the survey of each parcel in conjunction with the calculation of its net yield was started. This kind of the systematic registration of all Austrian objects formed the final version of the stable cadastre. The term stable refers to the independence between the estimation of the taxes and the measures, which accompany the land improvement. The result was shown in the Cadastral map. Cadastral map was a scaled representation of all the Austrian properties, based on municipalities. The term Cadastral community 3 was used to describe the communities, which were subjected to the same tax 4. After their integration, all the maps were filed to the central archive of the Federal Ministry of Metrology and Surveying. Seven reference systems including Stephan system were used as a basis for the measurements. Consequently the boundaries of the cadastral communities were graphically represented and the parcels were numbered. However in 1869 the need for an assessment that regulates the unequal tax burden of the provinces, lead to the expansion of the first stable cadastre. As a result was the division of each province to estimation districts and their valuation via two basic modes. The first mode anticipated to a classifications tariff in accordance to each culture and caste (cadastral purely profits assessment). This kind of estimation was regarded as region estimation. In 1871 Grundbuch was added to the cadastre and thus the owners and mortgages were legally documented. Some registers existed earlier in some cities but in 1871 a national system was invented. This dual system helped significantly the administration of the parcel data. 2: Possession of the ruling dynasty or the rural population. 3: Cadastral communities are found with the German term Katastralgemeinden. 4: People used to pay a tax that often varied from municipality to municipality

70 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM In 1874 the second mode was published and therefore municipalities per district were merged to groups. Via this assessment regulation of 1874, the conformity between Grundbuch and Kataster was established. Eventually in 1883 the need for the updating of the geometrical information led to the establishment of the maintenance law 5. Maintenance law lasted for 85 years and imposed accordance between Kataster and Grundbuch. Thirteen years later in 1896, the maintenance law was expanded by the property tax regulations law. Maintenance law determined (par.41) that cadastre would be revised per 15 years, regulation that was considered as really important. Furthermore, since then Austria was divided to 320 different survey districts with the aim of a better measurements conducting. The responsibilities of the surveying management were undertaken by public and private partnership (370 civil servants). Since 1907, the specific departments were regarded as Cadastral Offices. In 1969, after one year of the maintenance law s revealing, the Survey Law came into force and configured the context of Boundary Cadastre. Survey law formed the Austrian cadastre to be the foundation for taxation and for securing of the newly surveyed parcels boundaries. Therefore it regulated the tasks of the official authority for measurements, Federal Ministry of Metrology and Surveying (BEV). The technical requirements of the boundary cadastre led to a precise survey of each parcel with a parallel written consent of all neighbouring owners. Apart from the technical aspects of the cadastre, the Survey law determined the prerequisites of the legal aspects. That fact led to complains and disputes about borders reliability, mainly from the side of jurists. The legal force, which was included to the boundaries cadastre, changed the situation but not significantly. The Surveying law was accompanied by frequent amendments with the aim of quality s increase. The addition of a geographically coded address register was considered as one of the most characteristic amendments of the Surveying law. In 1980 the appearance of the digital data and the implementation of a Real Estate Database changed the information environment. The analogue registers were gradually replaced by a unified digital database. The Geo- database contained information that belongs to both Kataster and Grundbuch. Within the years the Digital Cadastral map (DKM) expanded the spectrum of the parcel information. Digitization allowed checks as for example the examination of parcels areas. The evolvement of the digital environment, led gradually to the simplification of the cadastral procedures. Therefore 99% of the cadastral products including the extracts of the DKM are offered since 2008 online. The official Web portal of BEV, which is responsible for the products order, requires the registration of the customer and payment (sample fee) for each product. In May of 2012 the geo- database structure changed and instead of one, two smaller real estate databases were created. The two databases distinguish the management of Kataster- and Grundbuch Information, which exists in each database. However there is a kind of synchronization between them 6. 5: Owners were updated from the beginning. 6: The development of the land registration system is based on the notes of the course Katasterwesen I by Julius Ernst (TU Vienna, 2008)

71 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM 3.3 PURPOSES OF THE AUSTRIAN LAS The evolvement of the registration system reveals not only the main points but also the aims according to which the Austrian system was created and developed. The aims framework developed its own dynamic during the years, which is also reflected by the system s structure (figure 9). All the changes were accomplished according to drivers as the economic, technological and environmental improvement. Therefore the initial purpose of the Austrian system regarded to the valuation of the land through the fairly taxation. Taxation established the administrative units and the independence between the land estimation and the measurements for the land improvement. As a result the first purpose moves in paths of an economic estimation of the land in a transparent and friendly environmental way. Furthermore the value that was given to each land parcel created the inextricable relation between cadastre and land market. Another target is based on the definition of the title system and is concerned to the security of the diverse ownership rights. Moreover the legality of the mortgages must lead to the tenures guarantying independently from the restrictions of the public policies. Furthermore the need for a holistic approach of the land and its attributes shed the lights on the multipurpose cadastre. The multi- purpose cadastre, which undoubtedly determined the Austrian land administration system, encompassed the parameter of spatial planning. Spatial planning influenced the administrative authorities and their policies mainly about how the spatial information is stored and managed. Since then the needs analysis in relation with information as land use in conjunction with properties issues was expressed. In addition the detailed information of the land and its sources could not leave unaffected the agricultural sector. Therefore the cadastral and the rural data constituted the foundation for Systems as the Land Parcel Identification System in Austria. The main purpose of this system was expressed in terms of agricultural subsidies. However the central driver for the subsidies implementation, Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), isn t connected with the Austrian System. In addition, the parameter of the environmental protection had an impact on many aspects of the Austrian system. In cases of green lands or historical monuments 7 the regulations of a zoning plan encompass the change of the ownership rights as the building ban for example. Also the cases of natural disasters 8 are depicted through a specific set of plans that are called Danger Area plans. The specific maps are normally connected with cadastral data in combination with land use restrictions. Last but not least the last decades are connected with the incorporation of the financial parameter in relation with the final form of the Austrian LAS system. Therefore the Austrian system interacts with the financial services mainly by the managing of the mortgages 9. 7: Vienna is characterized by the multitude of historical monuments, especially in the first district (Inner city). 8: Austria has not at time prohibited areas. However there are some areas, which are characterized as restricted (e.g. Felixdorf, Zeltweg MIL, Seiberdorf).These areas are destined for aerial purposes.9: Source: Muggenhuber, Navratil, Twaroch and Mansberger,

72 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM However the broader areas of businesses, which are interwoven with the land market, reveal targets as the protection of the investors rights. Moreover the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) that is involved with many of those services tries to encompass also the context of e- government and e-citizenship. At the specific point it would be referred that maybe there was confusion in relation with the terms of land registration, cadastral and administration system. The above mentioned purposes are concerned to the Austrian administration system, which can be considered as a mature multi-purpose cadastral system that includes the sector of land register. Figure 9: Dynamic framework (Source: Muggenhuber and Twaroch, 2008) 3.4 ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE Institutional framework PUBLIC SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR FEDERAL REPUBLIC PROVINCES 9 MUNICIPALITIES 2359 Figure 10: Organogram of the Austrian administration (Based on Julius Ernst, 2008)

73 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM The Austrian system is based on both the public and the private sector or on their cooperation at three levels: a) federal-, b) provincial- and c) municipality level (Figure 10). The federal level combines competencies that belong to the public sector and concern to issues as the Cadastral maintenance, the ownership cadastre (Grundbuch) and the real estate regulations. All the federal responsibilities are reflected to the function of a set of Ministries, which are below mentioned. The Ministry of Justice (dealing with the land law), The Ministry of Finance (working with topics as the valuation of the land), The Ministry of Economics (Surveying and Cadastre act), - The Federal Office for Metrology and Surveying (BEV),(National agency for Cadastre and Topographic Mapping) and The Ministry of Agriculture and Environment (occupies with laws on land). At the provincial level the responsibilities framework is related to tasks like the regional development planning and the environmental regulations. The occupation with such tasks arises from the fact that both regional planning and environmental regulations vary from province to province. Furthermore, the function of the courts and cadastral offices belongs also to the provincial level. The private sector is basically involved with the group of freelancers as the licensed surveyors, the notaries and the lawyers. Only licensed surveyors and notaries can create public documents and only those can be registered. Licensed surveyors undertake the cadastral survey, while notaries deal with the legal parts as contracts and certifications. Last but not least, the local level (municipalities) handles issues as the local development planning and the real estate tax collection 10. Also the local Agrarian authority determines matters as the Austrian land consolidation. At the local level the public sector is sketched through the local cadastral survey and the editing of the diverse data providers. On the other hand the private sector meets the freelancers as the civil engineers and the licensed surveyors. It must be clarified that the cooperation between the public and the private sector regards only to their link via the data providers. Data providers require this kind of communication because they combine different data groups, which are managed by county- local sector and freelancers as well Division of Ministries Ministry of Finance The Ministry of Finance is characterized as the highest Austrian financial authority. Financial responsibilities stretch from budgetary planning, surveillance and economic policy to financial services, customs and taxation. The headquarters of the ministry are officially located in Vienna, while its functions are divided to six different departments. 10: The categorization of the competencies according to administrative level is based on the Katasterwesen I of Julius Ernst (2008)

74 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM Each department is named Directorate General and deals with different financial competences; Corporate Cooperation and Services : Directorate I constitute the service provider for the entire Ministry. The responsibilities are related with topics as the transformation process of the organization culture. Budget and Public Finances : Directorate General II assumes overall the responsibility for the federal budget, with the aim to achieve a sustained consolidation of the public finances. Economic Policy and Financial Markets : Directorate General III deals with the financial market legislation and the diverse negotiations about issues as banking, insurance and securities. Customs duties and international as well as organisational tax Issues : Directorate General IV works with topics as the tax revenues, the taxes estimation, the property tax and the taxes on land and buildings. Information Technology (IT) and Public Relations : Directorate General V constitutes the central interface between the competent divisions and the IT Service providers. Also it manages the protection of the data and the IT legislation. Tax policy and tax law : Directorate General VI deals with the main aspects of the tax policy. Furthermore prepares legal measures for the uniform implementation of the taxes at national level Ministry of Justice The Ministry of Justice represents the highest authority, which deals with the adjudicating of legal cases. Legal cases are faced by the judicial power, which is assigned by the Austrian Federal Constitutional Act. The legal system comprises ordinary courts and the Ministry is responsible for their organisation and management. The basic categories of the courts are reflected in four levels: a) Supreme Court (1), b) courts of appeal (4), c) regional courts (18) and d) districts courts (141). The competences are divided to four swaths and one staff position, which are named as Directorates. Directorates include the following; The Central Administration (coordination, public relations, information technology and management), The Directorate I (Civil Law), The Directorate II,IV 11 (Criminal Justice), and The Directorate III (Staff and Penal legislation). The Ministry of Justice is responsible for the function of the ownership cadastre (Grundbuch). Grundbuch law belongs to the broader area of the Civil law (Directorate I). 11: The Directorates II and IV are merged in the context of organizational changes (Ministry of Justice, 2012)

75 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM Therefore the fourth department of the first section Spiritual property Cartel and Ownership rights manages the affairs that are concerned to ownerships and mortgages. Grundbuch is maintained by the districts courts and records all the Real estate - and the associated rights in rem. Ownership, pledges, easements and private land use restrictions are included to the basic rights. Also some public restrictions are appeared (e.g. when owner is not capable of contracting) Ministry of Economics and Labour The Ministry of Economics and Labour belongs to the influence sphere of the Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth. The Ministry of Economics and Labour works on land issues and includes totally two sectors and two central centers. Both sectors and centers are connected with four main sections. The subsequent information describes more comprehensively the components of the ministry s organizational structure. Sectors - Budget and Administration ( 6 departments) and - Personnel and Rights (7 departments). Centers - Economic Policy, Innovation and Technology (12 departments) and - Foreign economic policy and European integration (10 departments). Sections I) Company Policy (12 departments), II) Family and Young people (8 departments), III) Tourism and Historical Objects (13 departments) and IV) Energy and Mining Construction (12 departments). The Federal Ministry of Economics is responsible for the function of the official department, which occupies with metrology, geodesy, boundary cadastre, geographical information and remote sensing. The specific department constitutes the eleventh part of the company policy (first section) and is named Federal Office of Metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation (BEV). BEV is related to the surveying part of the land and the cadastral offices are responsible for those competencies. The Cadastral Offices manage in their area of responsibility issues as the maintenance of parcels boundaries and the production of the Digital Cadastral Map (DKM). Since 2008 all the products are digitally offered via the official Web portal 12. Furthermore its scientific staff combines many interrelated categories of experts mainly from the surveying and the metrology field. BEV staff constitutes one of the most important experts categories, especially as regards to the cadastral maintenance. Licensed surveyors are required in cases of merging or subdividing of parcels and are private companies. Their number ranges approximately to 300. Last but not least, more details about BEV will be provided in chapter 3. 12: Official Website of BEV: (www.bev.gv.at)

76 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water management The Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management deals with land and environmental issues. The Ministry encompass totally 7 sections: I: Rights and Parliament Service (7 departments), II: Sustainability and rural areas (9 departments), III: Agriculture and Nutrition (10 departments), IV: Forestry (5 departments), V: Environmental policy (9 departments), VI: Material flow- and Waste management (7 departments)and VII: Water (6 departments). The section of the rural areas (II) includes departments as the Austrian agriculture policy and the land valuation. The land valuation is related with the rural development and the agro- environmental indicators. Therefore land valuation constitutes the basis for provisions as the agro- subsidies. Furthermore the department of the agrarian policy serves as a coordination point for INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information). In addition the taxation of the agricultural enterprises is also interwoven with the use of evaluation maps. The specific maps are named Soil evaluation maps 13 and are connected with the DKM. Moreover the Ministry utilises the GIS technology with the aim to implement applications, which present the geographical datasets. The applications are the product of the cooperation between the Ministry and the Agriculture, Forestry and Water Technical Computing Centre. The most important applications combine the following; AgrarGIS: Offers information about properties with the aim of planning administration, Altlasten-e GIS: Serves as a guide not only for public -but also for private planning purposes. Some of them are interwoven to the processes of licences and to the land buying regarding to construction activities and EBOD- Digital: Composes the internet version of the Soil maps. EBOD- Digital offers a graphical presentation of the various soil types in a detailed mapping result Real Estate Database The first form of the Real Estate Database is created at the beginning of 1980ies as the result of the cooperation between the Ministry of Economics and the Ministry of Justice. However Ministry of Justice developed firstly the environment for its creation. 13: Soil Evaluation Maps are produced by the Ministry of Finance

77 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM In 1990, in the context of e-government Initiative, introduced for the first time the Use of Electronic Legal Communication (ELC) in Grundbuch. The use of the e- legal communication has been proposed by the Austrian Federal Government as one of the master plans. The main driver of this effort was the implementation of Information and Communication technology (KT). Therefore Austria acted within the specific framework by creating a unified digital database, which was named Real Estate Database (GDB). Real Estate Data base functions with the aim to manage not only the land information but also the attributes that accompany most of the land data. GDB changed the editing environment of the land information and influenced many components of the two Ministries. Also the specific type of the Austrian electronic register was located to the Federal Computing centre in Vienna. It must be clarified that the basic contribution of the GDB lay in the fact that created a digital communication channel between Kataster and Grundbuch. As a result, both the district courts and the surveying offices could maintain land register information as well as cadastral records in a unified form. However, the system design was made since 1970 and had to be modernized. The result was the creation of a modern, expandable and standardized e-government infrastructure. The new project, which was accomplished with the aim of the optimization of the current system, started on 7 th Mar The new project constitutes a collaboration product between the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Economics and the Federal data centre. Also its implementation is accompanied by a new structure of the previous Geodatabase. The new Geo- database is eventually divided to two new smallest databases, which are characterized by synchronization of their interfaces. The first database : Deals with the management of Grundbuch and The second database: Works with management of Kataster. As a first result of the new structure was the updating of both Grundbuch and Kataster law. Even though both the authorities are accompanied by different responsibilities, Grundbuch and Kataster are characterized by interaction relationships. The interaction between them arises mainly from the fact that they daily exchange information (Kugler, 2012). However their digital communication has to be newly regulated. Furthermore new regulations are also required concerning to the digital communication between Notaries and lawyers (Grundbuch) and Cadastral Surveyors and municipalities (Kataster). The new concept encompasses the data migration of all inserts that belong to the diverse cadastral communities (Grundbuch). In addition the automated registration is converted to Grundbuch. Moreover the changes are reflected not only to the scientific staff but also to the services and the products. The digital archive of Grundbuch is now accompanied by a new definition. Digital cadastral plans aren t any more available in the specific database. Kataster archive has also a new definition. It is worth though mentioning that the maps data can be provided online via the Ministry of Surveying and Geoinformation : The delineation of the new database structure is based on the Austrian Cadastre and Land Register of Rupert Kugler on May,

78 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM The new definition of the archive emerges from the fact that the decisions of Grundbuch offices are not anymore offered in the Kataster database. Moreover each Surveying office can procure such kind of information online via the digital archive of Grundbuch. Last but not least, in contrast with the earlier database, all the owners of real properties and land parcels have now the right to visit and control the content of both databases. The last figure of the second chapter tries to depict the public and the private sector in combination with the new two Geo databases. Ministry of Finance Ministry of Juctice Ministry of Economics Corporate Cooperation and Services Central Administration Energy and Mining Construction Budget and Public Finances Economic Policy and Financial Markets Customs and Tax Issues Civil Law (Grundbuch law) Criminal Justice Staff - and Penal Legislation Family and Young People Tourism and Historical Objects Company Policy IT and Public Relations Tax- policy and Law Department 11 Federal Ministry of Metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation BEV Tax Offices Soupre me Court (1) Courts of Appeal (4) A Region Courts (18) Destrict Courts (141) A B

79 AUSTRIAN LAND ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM B A Districts Courts Cadastral Offices Notaries 500 SYNCHRONIZATION Grundbuch Kataster e- Geodata Licensed Surveyors 300 BEV- Portal / PWS 300 Fed Computing Centre Vienna Customer Any legal person Chamber of Architects and & Consulting Engineers Licensed Surveyors Figure 11: The new Real Estate Database, according to public & private sector

80 ΤΟ ΟΜΟΣΠΟΝΔΙΑΚΟ ΓΡΑΦΕΙΟ ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΩΝ 4 ΤΟ ΟΜΟΣΠΟΝΔΙΑΚΟ ΥΠΟΥΡΓΕΙΟ ΜΕΤΡΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ, ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΓΕΩ- ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ (BEV) Το τρίτο κεφάλαιο ασχολείται με την εκτενή περιγραφή της δομής, των εργασιών, των προϊόντων και των υπηρεσιών του υπουργείου μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων. Το υπουργείο είναι χωρισμένο σε 2 βασικούς τομείς και τρεις κύριες ομάδες. Ο πρώτος τομέας αφορά στα δικαιώματα και στους πόρους, ενώ ο δεύτερος στην πληροφόρηση και στην εμπορία. Οι τρεις κύριες ομάδες περιλαμβάνουν την ομάδα της μετρολογίας, των μετρολογικών και κτηματολογικών γραφείων και την ομάδα της τοπογραφίας. Τα κτηματολογικά γραφεία είναι συνολικά 41 σε όλη την Αυστρία και εποπτεύονται από το συγκεκριμένο υπουργείο και όχι από τις τοπικές κυβερνήσεις. Οι μεγαλύτερες επαρχίες διαθέτουν από 7 έως 9 γραφεία, ενώ οι μικρότερες από 2 έως 4. Η Βιέννη διαθέτει μόνο ένα κτηματολογικό γραφείο. Συμπληρωματικά με τα επίσημα γραφεία λειτουργεί και ένα σύνολο από ανεπίσημα γραφεία, τα οποία παρέχουν πληροφορίες σε ανειδίκευτους πολίτες. Οι τρεις κύριες εργασίες του υπουργείου μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων είναι Η διαχείριση του κτηματολογίου: αποθήκευση των ορίων των γεωτεμαχίων σε εθνικό επίπεδο και διατήρησή τους σε περιφερειακό. Η τοπογραφική έρευνα και χαρτογράφηση: παραγωγή και διατήρηση των τοπογραφικών δεδομένων με εθνική κάλυψη. Η καταγραφή και ο καθορισμός της χρήσης γης και τα χαρ/κά ταξινόμησης: παραγωγή επίσημων χαρτών, χαρτογραφικών μοντέλων, αξιολόγηση του εδάφους και υπηρεσίες INSPIRE (Frank, 2003). Υπάρχει επίσης η προτεραιότητα να διευκρινιστεί ότι κάθε γεωτεμάχιο ανήκει είτε στο «κτηματολόγιο των έγγειων φόρων», είτε στο «κτηματολόγιο των ορίων». Το κτηματολόγιο των έγγειων φόρων χρησιμοποιήθηκε ως βάση για τη φορολόγηση και αποτελούσε τη γραφική παρουσίαση των κτηματολογικών κοινοτήτων (Katastralgemeinden). Τώρα χρησιμοποιεί τον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη για να απεικονίσει την θέση κάθε γεωτεμαχίου. Το κτηματολόγιο των έγγειων φόρων δεν διασφαλίζει νομικά τα όρια των γεωτεμαχίων και όλες οι διαφορές απαιτούν εξ αρχής την ανάμειξη των δικαστηρίων. Αντίθετα το κτηματολόγιο των ορίων αποτελεί τη νομικά δεσμευτική απόδειξη των ορίων των γεωτεμαχίων που ανήκουν σε αυτό. Τα όρια προσδιορίζονται με ακρίβεια εκατοστού και οι μετρήσεις τους απαιτούν την συμφωνία των ιδιοκτητών των όμορων γεωτεμαχίων. Σε περίπτωση απροσδιόριστων ορίων, το εκάστοτε αρμόδιο κτηματολογικό γραφείο αναλαμβάνει να τα επαναπροσδιορίσει. Η διαδικασία αυτή δεν απαιτεί την ανάμειξη των δικαστηρίων. Έως τώρα, έχουν προσαρτηθεί περίπου ακίνητα στο κτηματολόγιο των ορίων (νέα βάση δεδομένων). Και τα δύο κτηματολογικά είδη εμφανίζονται στον ίδιο χάρτη. Το υπουργείο μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων παρέχει τόσο τα προϊόντα όσο και τις υπηρεσίες του μέσω της επίσημης δικτυακής του πύλης (www.bev.gv.at). Τα προϊόντα είναι γνωστά και ως «ηλεκτρονικά γεω-δεδομένα», ενώ η απόκτησή τους απαιτεί την εγγραφή του ενδιαφερόμενου πελάτη

81 ΤΟ ΟΜΟΣΠΟΝΔΙΑΚΟ ΓΡΑΦΕΙΟ ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΩΝ έναντι μικρού τέλους. Η δομή της δικτυακής πύλης σχετικά με την παροχή των προϊόντων περιέχει διαφορετικές κατηγορίες πληροφοριών όπως ο κατάλογος με όλα τα προϊόντα, η αναζήτησή τους μέσω λέξεις-κλειδιά, οι τιμές, τα πακέτα των διαφόρων υπηρεσιών, οι αιτήσεις παραγγελίας, κάποια παραδείγματα χρήσεων κ.ά. Ο κατάλογος των προϊόντων συντίθεται συνολικά από δέκα τοπογραφικές και κτηματολογικές ενότητες. προϊόντα αεροφωτογραφιών ψηφιακό μοντέλο εδάφους κτηματολόγιο και κατάλογοι χάρτες (1:50.000, 1: , 1: ) Αυστριακοί χάρτες εκτίμηση του εδάφους χαρτογραφικά μοντέλα βασικές μετρήσεις ψηφιακό υψομετρικό μοντέλο εδάφους μητρώο διευθύνσεων Σχήμα: Κατάλογος προϊόντων υπουργείου τοπογράφων, μετρολογίας και γεωπληροφορικής Η ενότητα «κτηματολόγιο και κατάλογοι» έχει υποστεί τροποποιήσεις λόγω της νέας βάσης ακινήτων και περιλαμβάνει το ιστορικό κτηματολόγιο (παλιοί χάρτες): λειτουργεί ως πολιτιστική κληρονομιά και τεκμηριώνει την ανάπτυξη της πόλης του περασμένου αιώνα. αρχείο τοπογραφικών εγγράφων: εκπονείται από αδειοδοτημένους τοπογράφους και απεικονίζει αλλαγές στο κτηματολόγιο. Το σύνολο των αλλαγών, αφού πιστοποιηθεί, καταγράφεται στο αρμόδιο υποθηκοφυλακείο και στη συνέχεια στον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη. προϊόντα υποθηκοφυλακείων (υπουργείο δικαιοσύνης): ανήκουν πλέον στην ξεχωριστή βάση δεδομένων για τα υποθηκοφυλακεία. Πολλά από τα αποσπάσματα, αξίζει να σημειωθεί, ότι πριν συνήθιζαν να παρέχονται από το υπουργείο τοπογράφων (BEV). δεδομένα σχετικών ημερομηνιών: προέρχονται από τον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη, τον κατάλογο των ακινήτων και τα στοιχεία για τους ιδιοκτήτες. Ωστόσο, κάποιες ιδιοκτησιακές πτυχές καθημερινή ενημέρωση και όχι σχετικές ημερομηνίες. προπαρασκευαστικό επίπεδο (layer): είναι νέο προϊόν, το οποίο βασίζεται σε επίσημα σχέδια. Συνθέτει ένα ξεχωριστό layer στον κτηματολογικό χάρτη και εκφράζει μελλοντικές κτηματολογικές αλλαγές πριν τις εντολές των δικαστηρίων και την εφαρμογή του κτηματολογίου. κτηματολογικοί χάρτες με ορθοφωτογραφίες: λειτουργεί ως ένα είδος χαρτοφυλακίου και χρησιμοποιείται και ως συγκριτικό μέτρο μεταξύ κτηματολογικού χάρτη και ορθοφωτογραφιών. Στην συγκεκριμένη περίπτωση υπάρχει ένας κατάλογος ακινήτων, ο οποίος κατηγοριοποιείται σε βασικές μονάδες ιδιοκτησίας. κτηματολογικοί χάρτες, κατάλογος ακινήτων, ιδιοκτητών και υποθέσεων: Οι εγγεγραμμένες υποθέσεις ανήκουν στον κατάλογο ακινήτων αι συνιστούν τις υποδείξεις για κάθε αλλαγή ενός γεωτεμαχίου. Στην ίδια κατηγορία ανήκει και το «πρωτόκολλο των γεωτεμαχίων» με το σύνολο των αλλαγών από την νεότερη στην παλαιότερη. τεκμηρίωση των κρατικών συνόρων: είναι πάντοτε συνδεδεμένη με τις διμερείς συμβάσεις μεταξύ των γειτονικών χωρών και της Αυστρίας

82 ΤΟ ΟΜΟΣΠΟΝΔΙΑΚΟ ΓΡΑΦΕΙΟ ΤΟΠΟΓΡΑΦΩΝ διοικητικά όρια: περιλαμβάνουν κατηγορίες όπως οι κτηματολογικές ενότητες, οι περιφέρειες, οι δήμοι, οι περιφέρειες των δικαστηρίων, το τοπογραφικό δίκτυο και τα ομόσπονδα κρατίδια. Όσων αφορούν τις υπηρεσίες γεωπληροφορικής, η δικτυακή πύλη περιλαμβάνει την υπηρεσία των δικτυακών προϊόντων καθώς και τις υπηρεσίες της υποδομής χωρικών πληροφοριών (INSPIRE). Η υπηρεσία των «Web» προϊόντων αποτελεί την διεπαφή του συστήματος για την παραγγελία τους μέσω διαδικτύου. Οι υπηρεσίες της υποδομής χωρικών πληροφοριών επιτρέπουν στον χρήστη την αναζήτηση, την εύρεση, την περιήγηση, την παρουσίαση και τη λήψη των χωρικών δεδομένων μέσω διαφόρων μοντέλων. Αξίζει να αναφερθεί ότι υπάρχει η ανάγκη εναρμόνισης των διάφορων προτύπων μέσω της εφαρμογής υπηρεσιών μετασχηματισμού. Όλα το εισόδημα που προκύπτει από την πώληση των προϊόντων και ιδιαίτερα από τα αποσπάσματα του κτηματολογικού χάρτη, συλλέγεται από το υπουργείο οικονομικών και καταλήγει στην κυβέρνηση. Το υπουργείο μετρολογίας και τοπογράφων χαρακτηρίζεται από ένα μοντέλο τιμών, το οποίο χρήζει σημαντική την διάκριση μεταξύ εσωτερικών και εξωτερικών δικαιωμάτων χρήσης (τα εσωτερικά δικαιώματα σχετίζονται με τη χρήση δεδομένων που αφορούν το τεχνικό και διοικητικό προσωπικό, ενώ τα εξωτερικά δικαιώματα απευθύνονται στα δημόσια δεδομένα). Το μεγαλύτερο μέρος των εξόδων αποδίδεται σε έξοδα με σκοπό την κάλυψη των αναγκών πληρωμής του προσωπικού, ενώ μικρότερη συμμετοχή έχουν οι εισφορές των εργαζομένων, τα έξοδα μετακίνησης, τα λειτουργικά έξοδα και τα κόστη υλικών. Έχει υπολογιστεί ότι τα συνολικά έξοδα για την τρέχουσα περίοδο ανέρχονται σε Το τμήμα των τοπογράφων θεωρείται ως η μεγαλύτερη πηγή δαπανών για το υπουργείο και το κόστος κυμαίνεται σε 50 εκατομμύρια ευρώ. Το κτηματολόγιο είναι ο μεγαλύτερος τομέας εξόδων για τον τοπογραφικό τομέα (22 εκατομμύρια ευρώ), ενώ ακολουθεί η τοπογραφική καταγραφή (11,5 εκατομμύρια), η χαρτογράφηση (4 εκατομμύρια) και η αξιολόγηση του εδάφους (2 εκατομμύρια). Παρόμοια, το σύνολο των εσόδων παράγεται από το τμήμα τοπογραφίας και γεωπληροφορικής και τα έσοδά του για την περίοδο εκτιμώνται σε ευρώ. Η κύρια πηγή εσόδων προέρχεται από τις πληρωμές που προκύπτουν από την γεωβάση για τα ακίνητα (τομέας τοπογραφίας). Το συγκεκριμένο ποσό εσόδων υπολογίζεται σε , ενώ η συνολική συμβολή του τοπογραφικού τομέα σε Η παγκόσμια οικονομική κρίση δεν άφησε ανεπηρέαστο το υπουργείο και συγκρίνοντας τις δύο τελευταίες εκθέσεις αποδοτικότητας (2010, 2011) παρατηρήθηκαν μειώσεις τόσο στα έξοδα όσο και στα έσοδά του. Τα συνολικά έξοδα μειώθηκαν κατά 3 εκατομμύρια ευρώ και τα συνολικά έσοδα κατά 2,3 εκατομμύρια σε σχέση με το προηγούμενο έτος. Κεντρική παράμετρος για τη μείωση των εσόδων είναι η ασθενέστερη συνεισφορά του τοπογραφικού τομέα, ο οποίος παρουσιάζει μείωση της τάξης των 2,6 εκατομμυρίων ευρώ. Ακόμα τα τέλη από τον ψηφιακό κτηματολογικό χάρτη μειώθηκαν σημαντικά, με μείωση που ανέρχεται σε 3 εκατομμύρια ευρώ

83 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING 4 FEDERAL MINISTRY OF METROLOGY, SURVEYING AND GEOINFORMATION (BEV) 4.1 STRUCTURE Organogram Figure 12: Organogram of BEV (Source: Leistungsbericht 2011, BEV) As it has been mentioned on chapter 2 ( ), the Ministry of Metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation (BEV) requires special attention. Therefore it will be analytically outlined in this chapter. Firstly it is essential to deepen our understanding of the organogram of the Ministry. BEV splits the responsibilities into many different sectors. The top of the organisational hierarchy belongs to the head of BEV. The head is responsible for the general guidelines, which regard to all the surveying- and metrology activities. The Ministry constitutes one of the most important coordination points concerning the field of Geoinformation. The field of Metrology functions mainly through a Physic-Technical Service (PTP). BEV is separated in two main sectors and three main groups. The first sector is named Rights and Resources. Rights and Resources includes departments as: a) Rights and General Administration, b) Staff- Management and Development and c)

84 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Economic- and Financial Management. The second sector regards to the Information and Marketing. Information and Marketing comprises departments as: a) Information Management, b) International Affairs and State Boundaries, c) Information s Technique and d) Marketing and Sales. In reference to the three central groups, they are currently classified to the: 1) Metrology Group, 2) the Group of Metrology and Cadastral offices and the 3) Surveying Group. The Metrology group combines departments as the department for electricity and radiation, the department for mechanics and flow measurements and the department for technical service. Furthermore the second group is composed by the Metrology- and Cadastral offices. The group of Metrology and Cadastral offices comprises a considerable number of information and teleworking centres in combination with the department of the cadastral archive. Last but not least the third group is related with the part of Surveying. Surveying group encompasses departments, which are interwoven with Basis Services, Remote Sensing, Landscape Information, Cartography and Publishing of Geoinformation Cadastral offices BURGENLAND 2 CARINTHIA 4 LOWER AUSTRIA 8 UPPER AUSTRIA 9 STYRIA 7 SALZBURG 3 TYROL 4 VIENNA 1 VORARLBERG 2 Figure 13 and 14: Cadastral Offices in Austria (Source: BEV, 2011) Austria has 41 cadastral offices, which are assigned to the nine different provinces (Figures 13 and 14). However they are supervised by the BEV and not by the local governments. The number of the cadastral offices per province depends on the size of each province. Therefore the biggest provinces as Upper- and Lower Austria have 7-9 offices, while the smallest provinces as Salzburg and Burgenland encompass 2-4 offices. The capital city Vienna has only one cadastral office. Also each cadastral office is characterized by a specific number of employees, which ranges from 8 to 25 employees

85 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING per office. The official cadastral offices work in combination with a considerable number of informal offices. Informal cadastral offices are required, especially in cases of new projects conducting. Also they provide access to data for land owners without Internet access or computer knowledge. Informal cadastral offices provide explanations for laypersons. 4.2 MAIN TASKS Working areas BEV can be regarded as the public corporation, which deals with the most crucial areas of Metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation. As regards to the metrology tasks, BEV functions as the national metrology institute. The metrology service of BEV maintains the national standards (Etalons) in order to realize the legal units of the measurements. The legal units are disseminated to the users through the calibration and the comparing measuring instruments with the national standards (PTP) 15. The comparison of the measurements aims to ensure the international equivalence of the standards and the recognition of the calibrations. Concerning the main activities within the Surveying and Geoinformation area, BEV is interwoven with the: 1) Management of the Fiscal Cadastre (Kataster): Deals with the storage and the management of parcels boundaries at national level and the maintenance of them at regional level. Many Cadastral elements operate simultaneously as components of the ownership cadastre (Grundbuch). 2) Topographic and Mapping Survey: undertakes the production and the maintenance of topographic data with national coverage. The whole task encompasses Official measurements points (positions and elevations fixed points) in the reference frame of MGI (Military Geographical Institute) Gauss Krüger Projection and of ETRS 89 (European Terrestrial Reference System). Satellites services by the Austrian Positioning system( APOS) in the reference frame of ETRS 89, Digital landscape (DLM) and terrain altitude model (DGM) and Official Austrian maps and Orthofotos in connection with aerial images. 3) Record and determination of land use and classification attributes: is interwoven with the production of the official maps but also with the cartographical models, the soil evaluation and the Inspire Services. The costs of this activity are included in the fiscal cadastre : Physic- Technical Service 16: The categorization of the Surveying activities is based on the Economic analysis of BEV by Andrew Frank in

86 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Conceptual base As it has been before mentioned, one of the central activities of BEV concerns to the management of the Kataster. Kataster provides proofs in relation with the geometrical part of the parcels. The geometrical part encompasses each parcel s- Position, Size and Type of the land uses. There is a priority to clarify that each parcel is either registered in the Property Tax - (Grundsteuerkataster) or in the Boundary Kataster (Grenzkataster). 1) Property Tax Kataster (Grundsteuerkataster): was based on the property tax system that Emperor Kaiser Franz I. implemented (1806). Property Tax Kataster was used as a taxation foundation and constituted the graphical presentation of the cadastral communities (Katastralgemeinden). Maps were based on local coordination systems and encompassed: the parcels, their boundaries, the land uses and the owners. Property Tax Kataster now uses the digital cadastral map (DKM) only with the aim to illustrate the position of each parcel. The position is now respectively identified by each parcel s- surface area, types of use and other details as in the past. However the parcels in the Property Tax Kataster are not accompanied by a legal security of the boundaries. Therefore in the specific case boundaries don t serve as significant ownership evidence. Only in exceptional cases Property Tax Kataster illustrates the boundaries of a parcel. Last but not least it must be clarified that all the boundaries disputes require from the beginning the involvement of the courts. 2) Boundary Kataster (Grenzkataster): was introduced in 1968 by the establishment of the Surveying law. The central core of the Boundary Kataster lies in the fact that in contrast to the Property Tax Kataster, it constitutes a legal binding proof of a parcel s boundaries 17. Furthermore it is accompanied by the geometrical information as the parcels- area, the types of use and other details, as well as the postal addresses of the parcels in combination with the buildings that belong to each parcel. Boundary points are precisely determined by coordinates in centimetre accuracy 18. The measurement must obligingly be connected with the fixed point field. Also the coordinates should fit in the Austrian coordination system (Gauss-Krüger Projection). The measurements of the boundary points require the agreement of the neighbouring owners. Only if all the neighbouring owners agree about the demarcation of the boundaries, starts the procedure of the measurements. 17: The legal binding proof of the boundaries constitutes the content of the ar.8 of the Surveying Law. 18: It must be mentioned that the necessary accuracy of the Cadastre Field s measurements has been increased. Two complete separated measurements of a boundary point should fit together less than 0, 05 metre (Rupert Kugler, 2012). Boundary Kataster is often characterized as the highest quality authority

87 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING In cases that parcel s boundaries deemed to be undefined, cadastral offices and authorized surveying persons undertake the responsibility to re convey them. Generally the usual occasion, in comparison with Grundsteuerkataster, doesn t include the interventions of courts. The definition of boundaries may go to the court. However after the definition, a re-establishment of the boundaries doesn t require courts. Even in cases where the jurisdiction of the courts is involved, the adverse possession of a parcels part is considered as impossible. Generally it must be clarified that until now approximately parcels are already annexed to the Boundary Kataster (new real estate database). It is important to be noted that both types of cadastre are shown in the same graphical representation. The difference lies in the evidence provided by the lines (For example Here is a boundary vs. the boundary is here ). 4.3 BEV- PORTAL (WWW.BEV.GV.AT) Products BEV- Portal, as it has been mentioned on chapter 2 (2.2), is online since The portal of BEV enables the customers, the citizens as well as the business and the public administration authorities to acquire surveying products. The products are mostly named as e- Geodata in Austria. The acquisition of the e- Geodata is mostly accompanied by the registration of the interested customer. However, some products can be ordered without registration. On numbers the department of Surveying and Geoinformation measures approximately 5078 customers and 6370 users, who are registered (2011) 19. The products are mainly submitted via and in some cases via CD. The procedures spectrum from the informing part regarding to a specific product until to the ordering and the delivery part, includes different information categories (Figure 15). The alphabetic- and the hierarchical catalog contain all the products on lists. The products search enables the customers to select every product that they need. Information relating to Prices and Services packets provides elements for the prices as well as the payment s mode of each product. It must be also mentioned that every product can be requested though ordering forms and is accompanied by characteristics examples of its use. Last but not least the customer has the ability to download a product without using the Shop (portal) of BEV, only through Geoinformation services as the Web Service of BEV Hierarchical catalog The hierarchical catalog contains a comprehensive description of all products, which are divided to surveying units. 19: The quantitative information is derived from the final efficiency report of Bev during 2011 (Leistungsbericht 2011)

88 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Alphabetic Catalog Service Packets Hierarchical Catalog Examples Search PRODUCTS Order's Form Geoinf/tion' services Price Information Official Actions Figure 15: Components of products description (Source: BEV -portal) There are ten surveying units and they cover purely surveying but also cadastral products 20. 1) Aerial Images Products Coloured Orthofotos Black White Orthofotos Photogrammetric Basis Multispectral Images (4 canals) 2) Maps in scales: 1:25.000V 21 UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), 1: UTM 1: UTM 1: UTM 1: UTM Names Catalog (Map 1: ) Fields maps (1: or 1: enlarged) Historical Maps 20: As it can be easily understood, the emphasis is given to the products that have cadastral aspects. 21: V stands for Vergrößerung (enlargement). It is an enlarged reproduction of the 1: maps

89 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING 3) Cartographical Models in scales: 1: (vector & raster form) 1: (raster form) 1: (vector form) 1: (vector &raster form) 1: (vector form) 1: (raster form) 4) Digital Landscape Model (DLM) Water bodies Geographical Names Settlements Transport 5) Digital Terrain Elevation Model (DGM) Elevations grid Contour lines Structure s information 6) Austrian Maps Fly version 5.0 Online 7) Basic Measurements APOS GIS-grid Elevation-grid Geoids and vertical deflections Elevation fixed points Positions fixed points MGI Positions fixed points ETRS 89 Fixed points overview Parameters of transformation Gravity field Elevation s differences between the neighbouring countries 8) Kataster and lists Historical Kataster- Old maps Survey document archive Grundbuch Products Data of the relevant dates Pre-Implementation Layer Cadastral maps with Orthofotos, parcels- and owners catalog Cadastral maps, parcels-,owners- and business case catalog Documentation of state boundaries

90 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Administrative boundaries 9) Soil estimation Soil estimation s results Samples Items (Musterstücke) 10) Address Register Basic measurements At the specific point are analytically outlined the products of the seventh unit. APOS: composes the satellite s positioning service of BEV. It uses GNNS signals (GPS and GLONASS) with the aim of improving the accuracy of the satellite- based measurements. Each reference station is characterized by centimetre accuracy. Also the service centre provides correction parameters 22 as Virtual Reference Stations in order to yield the measurements of the short lines. Generally APOS real time offers two accuracy classes: a) APOS-RTK (cm accuracy) and b) APOS-DGPS (sub-meter accuracy) for GIS applications. In addition, through the integration of GNNS reference stations among the neighbouring countries, APOS provides homogeneous 3D coordinates in the European Terrestrial Reference System (ETRS 89). The basic network of GPS includes approximately 500 control points in an accuracy of 1 cm. APOS can be used for both Cadastral measurements and GIS surveys. The transformation to the exact reference system is performed via the subsequent example (figure 16). Figure 16: Transformation MGI-ETRS 89 (Source: BEV Portal) 22: Correction parameters: e.g. satellites orbits, clocks, troposphere and ionosphere

91 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING GIS-grid: is used with the aim of transforming coordinates between the Austrian land measurement system MGI 23 - Lambert Raster (based on the Lambert conformal conic projection) and the European Terrestrial Reference system ETRS 89. The specific grid is based on the national transformation method NTv2 (Version II) and its format has been standardized in GIS technology. In Austria the grid was created between the latitudes '-49 03' and the longitude 9 30 ' ' in a regular grid of 30" x45 "(1kmx1km). The elevation element is not currently defined. Elevation grid: consists of two parts, a) Elevation grid and b) Correction values for the elevation grid. The elevation grid allows the transformation of the orthometric altitudes in the European Vertical Reference System (EVRS) into altitudes of MGI in accordance with the Adriatic Sea. On the other hand correction values are used for the correction of the position fixed points (Point s maps). The aim lies in the harmonic correlation with the GNSS measurements. Correction values are reflected to the function of the laser scanning. Geoids and vertical deflections: The geoid is characterized by the constant gravity level which corresponds to the average sea level. The geoid undulations N in Austria express the distance from the GRS80 international ellipsoid (ETRS 89) and from the Bessel ellipsoid (MGI). The maps depict contour lines in accordance with the two ellipsoids, while the values range from northeast to Ötztal Alps and from west eastern to Tyrol. Geoid and vertical deflections are used for surveying applications concerning to geodynamics and isostasy. Elevation fixed points: constitute a levelling network of control points. Elevation fixed points were measured since 1883 by the military Geographic Institute (MGI) and since 1921 by BEV. The elevation is referred to the water level gauge Trieste/Italy, while the fixed points embody numeric, graphical and attributive data. Elevation fixed points are used for surveying and hydrological applications. Moreover it is useful to be highlighted that they represent the Austrian Vertical Reference Frame and they compose the foundation for every altimetry in Austria. Positions fixed points MGI: encompass the triangulation points (TP), and the switching points (EP) 24. The triangulation points compose a three-dimensional network ( points), while the switching points are estimated to Lastly, the coordinates of the position fixed points are presented either digitally or in form of maps, which are accompanied by sketches. Fixed points MGI are used for land surveying and registration as well as for GIS. The regulation of the Surveying act (2008) established the measurements of the geodetic reference systems, by using the measurements of the reference system of the satellites. Therefore since then the specific measurements are included to the Surveying tasks. 23: Military Geographic Institute, 24: TP: Triangulierugspunkte and EP: Einschaltungspukte (on German)

92 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Furthermore the Surveying regulation 2010 determined European Terrestrial Reference system (ETRS 89) as a 3D system. The projection that was used was the international UTM system (Universal Transverse Mercator). The relation between the geometrical- and the geoid heights is defined according to the Ellipsoid GRS-1980 as well as to the Bessel Ellipsoid. Since 2011 BEV launches a new product that is named ETRS 89- Fixed Points 25. Position s fixed points ETRS 89: Each position fixed point, which is connected with the system ETRS 89, is now presented via not only a map in the geodetic datum of MGI (Gauss Krüger-Projection) but also via a map in ETRS 89 system. Also each fixed point in ETRS 89 system is now accompanied by the measurement date. The measurement date contributes to securing the boundary Kataster in landslide areas. Last but not least, it is planned that until 2015, a considerable number of switching points measurements (APOS- RTK), will enable the conversion of Boundary Kataster into the system ETRS 89. Fixed points overview: enables the presentation of the elevation- and the positionfixed points through diverse geographical information. Since the end of 2011 the triangulations points (ETRS 89 system) have been estimated as , while the switching points range to Last but not least fixed points serve as an orientation guide for Orthofotos and maps. Parameters of transformation: enable the transformation between the reference system MGI and ETRS 89. The set is totally consisted of 7 parameters (3 shifts, 3 rotations and 1 scale). Gravity field Elevation s differences between the neighbouring countries: are created by the overlapping measurements of the boundaries lines. They are mainly used for cross borders surveying projects (e.g. transportation routes) Kataster and lists The eighth unit of the hierarchical catalog is connected with the Kataster field. It must be mentioned that the analysis of the cadastral products encompasses the changes and the adaptations, which arose from the new structure of the real estate database (7.May of 2012). Historical Kataster- Old maps: constitutes a hand coloured original analogue drawing, which depicts the land- and the culture s boundaries of the anterior monarchy. The documents are protected on micro-film. The historical map is considered as a cultural heritage and is used with the aim of documenting the city development in the past century. 25: The specific paragraph is based on the efficiency report of BEV (Leistungsbericht, 2011)

93 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Figure 17: First Cadastral Map, about 1850 (Source: Cadastre in Austria, Ernst 2006) Survey document archive: composes the plan that emanates from a surveying authorized person (e.g. licensed surveyor) and depicts changes in the Kataster. Firstly the changes are certified from the authorized cadastral office. Afterwards, they are recorded to the ownership cadastre (Grundbuch) and thereafter in the Digital Cadastral Map (DKM) 26. Before the implementation of each change only authorized persons, who work for the responsible office, have the right to control the content of the map. The new map extract is publicly available and can be ordered via BEV- Shop Plus or Web service 27 only after the implementation of each change. However, due to the new structure of the real estate database, the survey document archive of the Kataster has changed. Cadastral offices get now the information relating to the decisions of Grundbuch online by the digital archive of Grundbuch and not by the archive of Kataster (Kugler, 2012). Archive plan is now contemplated as PDF form and it must be referred that all the digital plan certifications are included to the digital cadastral archive since the May of Grundbuch Products (Ministry of Justice): Grundbuch database, due to the division of the old real estate database, differs now from the base of Kataster. Though it must be highlighted, that before the extracts could also be ordered via BEV. Data of the relevant dates: are produced at the beginning of the second and fourth quarter of each year. Relevant dates are generated from A) the Digital Cadastral map (DKM), B) The Parcels Catalog and C) the information about the owners. Relevant dates are normally used in GIS technology as well as in construction projects. However, some ownerships aspects use daily updated- instead of relevant dates data. DKM, parcels catalog and owners information are subsequently defined. 26: Sometimes there are cases of exception. 27: DKM, BEV shop plus and BEV Web- Service will be subsequently outlined

94 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING A) Digital Cadastral Map (DKM): constitutes the graphical representation of the cadastral data, in accordance with the coordination system of the Austrian land measurements. The first maps have finished since the late 19 th century, while the first foundation was the existing analogues maps. DKM is not based on new measurements but on the improved, digitized version of the last analogue maps. Analogue maps serve now as a presentation of older stages of cadastre and as an illustration of the relative positions between parcels. DKM provides a coordinative documentation of the boundaries of the parcels, which are already incorporated into the Boundary Kataster. Kataster database has approximately 11 million parcels of which 1 million are already in the Boundary Kataster. DKM covers whole Austria and combines elements as the: Parcel s number (Grundstücksnummer), Parcel s Boundaries, Number of fixed and boundaries points (Fest und Grenzpunkte), Delineation of land uses (Benützungsarten), and Other identifiers (e.g. code relating to survey regulation). It must be clarified that all the data are characterized by consistence with Kataster database. As regards to DKM scales, they normally range from 1:500 and 1:1000 (urban areas) to 1:2000 (rural areas) and 1:5000 (alpine areas). B, C) Parcel s & Owner s Catalog (Grundstücks- & Eigentümerverzeichnis): Parcels catalog depicts the cadastral parcels and functions according to the cadastral communities (cadastral zoning). Parcels catalog contains graphical vector data for each parcel, which include the Parcel s number (Grundstücksnummer), Land use of the selected part (Benützungsarten), Total area on the reference ellipsoid and separate parts area in m 2 (Fläche) and Other details. Furthermore as concerns to the owners catalog, parcels information are characterized as textual and encompass the Grundbuch Number Cadastral Zoning number (Grundbuchnummer, GN), the basic property unit (Einlagezahl, EZ) and the Personal information about the owners as Name, address and share of the joint ownership. As regards to the delivery of the products via the official portal, it should be highlighted that DKM is presented through Vector graphics in DXF or SHP format. In case of DXF format, the cadastral communities are divided to map sheets. Both parcels catalog with or without the information about the owners are offered in ASCII format. In addition, the new database s structure determined a couple of changes and adaptations. Relating to

95 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING DKM, fixed points don t include information about the elevation anymore. Furthermore the attributes those accompany the symbols of traffic area as the street number (SKZ) are deducted. As concerns to the parcels catalog, there is a need of changing the structure of columns and of abolishing the number of map sheets. Last but not least the owners catalog doesn t seem to be subjected to significant changes. Pre-Implementation Layer: composes a separated layer in the DKM, which expresses future cadastral changes, before the orders of courts and the Kataster implementation. Pre-implementation layer is a new product (new database, May of 2012) and is based on official plans by authorized persons. Certified plans are generated from surveying offices and are required for every change in relation with the boundaries of a parcel. Therefore, plans that fulfill the requirements of both Surveying law (VermG) and Surveying regulation (VermV) are certified. As a consequent, the content of the specific plan is illustrated in a separate layer of the DKM 28. The layer combines not only graphical- but also textual data. On the one side graphical data comprises information about parcel boundaries, boundary points and land uses. On the other side textual data includes elements as the business cases number and notes. The graphical data are available in DXF and ASCII format, while the object s data are available in SHP and ASCII format. Cadastral maps with Orthofotos, parcels- and owners catalog: are the extracts of DKM, which are enriched with Orthofotos (figure 18). In the specific case there is a parcels catalog, which is classified into basic property units (EZ). The specific product functions as a kind of house portfolio and combine graphical and textual data. The extracts of DKM can be also used for the comparison between DKM and Orthofotos. On the one side graphical data contain both raster and vector information, while the output of the data set (graphical and textual content) is in a form of PDF. Last but not the new structure of the database induced changes as the 1) abolishment of the maps sheet number and the 2) replacing of changes indications (VH) with business case numbers (GFN). As regards to the owners catalog, the non- more processable products are accompanied by the last diary number (last decision of courts) and seals (open business cases of the ownership Kataster) 29. Cadastral maps, parcels-, owners- and business cases catalog: include extracts from DKM and parcels-, owners-, business cases- as well as historical catalog. It must be clarified that the registered business cases are components of the Geodatabase and belong to the parcels catalog. They constitute the indications for all the changes concerning to a parcel (e.g. notes for future registers in both Boundary and Property Tax Kataster) and they are available in PDF form. In addition the historical catalog is a new product and composes the status of properties in relation with a free selectable relevant date. 28: The layer has the prefix N, 29: A subsequent example will lead to the unambiguous understanding of the catalog content

96 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING In addition the historical catalog is a new product and composes the status of properties in relation with a free selectable relevant date. Another product that belongs to the same category is named Parcels Protocol. Parcel s protocol depicts all the business cases of a parcel in an order from the newest- to the oldest case. Generally the product that includes the above elements operates as an authentic indication of the ownership, especially concerning to themes as constructions requests and boundaries disputes. Figure 18: Extract of DKM with Orthofotos (Source: BEV portal) Documentation of state boundaries: Austrian boundaries are characterized by a length of km and are determined through the approximate boundariesas well as the break points. The documentation of state boundaries is always connected with bilateral contracts between the neighbouring countries and Austria. Austria provides information regarding to the boundary points, their documentations and the competences of the Boundary commission. Boundaries documentation is considered as essential because it contributes to the protection of the international law among the boundaries line that connects two neighbouring states. The respective documents encompass boundary maps and coordinates catalog. Furthermore they are often used not only for Kataster but also for exploration of natural resources and transnational projects. A usual map has a scale of 1: and depicts the Austrian boundaries in combination with the lengths of each selected part as well as with the shares of federal - and neighbouring states. Maps are available in analogue copies, ASCII and CSV format. Administrative boundaries: are the boundaries of the Austrian administrative units. The different categories include the boundaries of 1) the cadastral communities, 2) the districts, 3) the municipalities, 4) the districts courts, 5) the surveying network and 6) the federal states. Administrative boundaries constitute the foundation for planning, orientation, geo marketing and many thematic applications. Last but not least they are available in both DXF and SHP format

97 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Soil estimation and land register The 9 th and 10 th unit of the hierarchical catalog are connected with the soil estimation results and the address register. 9) Soil estimation Soil Estimations results: comprises an estimation layer, the respective map and a layer of vector data with attributes. The estimation layer composes the graphical presentation of the results in a DKM s sheet without the DKM. On the other side the estimation map embodies the DKM and the additional layer (vector data) represents the results with attributes. Soil estimation is mainly used with the aim of providing soil quality information in relation with the boundaries of the parcel. Moreover the underlying purpose is the taxation. In addition both the estimation- layer as well as the maps are available in analogue form and are provided mostly by a PDF archive in scales 1:1000, 1:2000 and 1: Last but not least the layer with attributes is available in digital form and is based on the cadastral municipalities. The figure 19 that follows presents an extract of the estimation map in a scale of 1:1000. Figure 19: Soil estimation map in 1:1000 (Source: BEV Portal) Samples Items (Musterstücke): compose comparison surfaces of the soil estimation, which contain information since Sample items operate as a foundation for control valuations in one current period. They are divided to federal and provincial samples. On the one side, federal samples are the main points of soil evaluation and ensure the uniformity among the Austrian federal republic. On the other side provincial samples are selected only in cases that the current principles of the provinces indicate it. 10) Address Register: expresses all the official assigned addresses according to the municipalities. The central database of the addresses register is a component of the

98 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Boundary Kataster (art.9 of the Surveying law). A considered number of each parcel features are entered in a central list and the features are permanently being updated. Address Register is available in various forms and is accompanied by much additional information. Furthermore each address is characterized by one unique key (address code) and a precise mapping of the spatial coordinates (Geocoding). In case that more than one building have the same address, the distinction is accomplished via a 3 digitaldimensional sub code. The sub- code in conjunction with the address code builds the address number of each parcel. Last but not least, it must be referred that the geographical reference of each address is based on the DKM Extract of the digital cadastral map The entities and the characteristics of the digital cadastral map (DKM) are presented in the subsequent extract, which illustrates a part of the city Graz (Figure 20, 21). The extract of the DKM is provided in a PDF format and is accompanied by a simple legend (Figure 22). In addition the parcels- and the owners catalog integrate the example and provide information about the Boundary- and Property Tax Kataster. Figure 20: Extract of DKM (Source: BEV-portal)

99 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Figure 21: Extract of DKM (Source: BEV- Portal) The following legend, explains both the DKM s- entities and all the abbreviations. LEGEND OF DIGITAL CADASTRAL MAP (DKM) PARCELS NUMBERS Numbers Numbering of Parcels (Property Tax Kataster) 670/2 189 Numbering of Parcels (Boundary Kataster) 670/2 189 Orientation Point. 3 Triangulation Point (TP)- Main Point FIXED POINTS (FP) SWITCHING-,POLYGON-, MEASUREMENT- AND ELEVATION POINT Switching Point (EP)- Main Point Polygon Point (PP) Measurement Point (MP) Elevation Point (HP)

100 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING BOUNDARY POINTS (GP) Unmarked Boundary Points Marked Boundary Points BOUNDARIES,LINES AND SIGNS Parcels Boundaries Houses Boundaries Other Boundaries Affiliation of Base Areas One use Affiliation of Section Uses One parcel USES SYMBOLS Buildings Fields, Grazing Garden Figure 22: Legend of the cadastral extract (Source: BEV portal) The above examples are connected with the parcels- and owners catalog. Figure 23: Parcels Catalog (Source: BEV- portal)

101 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING 1) G: Boundary Kataster (Grenzkataster). If the field is empty, then the parcel belongs to the Property Tax Kataster. 2) Parcel Basic Property Unit: In the specific field are entered the legal relationships in a form of an ownership body. Basic Property Unit is defined by a unique ownership and homogeneous property rights. Each property unit can consist of one or more adjacent or geographically separated parcels. Last but not least parcels are classified into ascending inserts. 3) Determination of surfaces: composes the way of the areas calculation. Graphical Arithmetical (From coordinates). 4) Yield - Measuring Number/Figure: constitutes an estimation basis for the taxation of cultivable land surfaces. Yield figure depends on the product of the parcels surface and is determined through a field- or grassland number (Numerical Values of the land estimation). 5) Uses: represent the actual uses of the specific parcel. The actual uses were established through the land uses regulation (2010). 6) Additional legal information: is independent from the plot s area. 7) Sealed Business cases: document each change in the Boundary Kataster or in the Property Tax Kataster. 8) Open Business cases: consist of a Business case number: Consecutive number/date (JJJJ)/ Surveying change, a Business case type and Notes: constitutes the reason of the change or the erasure. Figure 24: Owners Catalog (Source: BEV- portal)

102 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING 1) Parcel Basic Property Unit: It has been above outlined. 2) Current number: Every share of an ownership is entered in a current number. 3) Share of the Ownership. 4) Diary number: is related with the last decision of the district court and it has the form of current number/date (JJJJ)/District court. 5) Seal(s): The open business cases of the ownership Kataster (Grundbuch) consist of; current number/ date (JJJJ)/ District court. 4.4 GEOINFORMATION SERVICES Products Web Service (PWS) As we have earlier understood, the hierarchical catalog outlines the content of each product. However the mechanism that enables the customers the access to the Geodata via Internet is the Geoinformation service of BEV. The utilising of the Geoinformation services requires the registration of the customer through a password and is based on the area of each product. Also it must be cleared up that for each customer is foreseen a minimum contract period of 1 year. The BEV Products Web service constitutes the system s interface for the ordering of downloads products. Each customer can order the diverse download products without the need to visit the BEV Portal shop. Web Service operates though applications software of each customer and requires a basic fee (approximately 10 Euros for each product per month). Moreover, it is accompanied by a few prerequisites. Each authorization of the portal requires a security certificate, while the Web Service is only available to subscribed customers.in case that a customer has been registered with the aim of being free user, the system will make automatically a conversion into a subscription. Therefore the main steps that must be followed for the process integration include: a) a subscribed customer with a debit card, b) the order via a formulate, c) a notification of the security certificate via an and d) the activation of each customer through the customers service of the ministry. In addition concerning to the access of the PWS via the portal network the client must send via third software a request for e-geodata Austria (EGA, database) to the basic portal of BEV (Figure 25). Afterwards the portal of BEV checks the requests validity and in case of a positive estimation, forwards it to the applications portal. The applications portal sends it respectively to the PWS. Lastly, after the response from the Web Service, the basic portal is eventually informed and therefore the response is provided to the customer. Each request is written in XML (Extensive Mark-up language) format and the Product Service offers several methods to ensure the ordering of geo products. The methods are seven and include the following: Get Products- Creation of products list, Search, Query- Research and Price information,

103 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Get Map-Interrogation of the previous window, GetOrderToken-Request for a generated token, OrderProduct, and Get Order Status- Production of the product. Figure 25: Configuration of Web Service (Source: Specification Version 2.0, BEV) Changes of Geodata base products and Shop Plus The real estate database (GDB, Grundstücksdatenbank) contains the e- Geodata for Austria. The division of the old database led to changes not only concerning to the general institutional framework but also concerning to the Geo products. The subsequent information composes the changes in relation with all the products categories of the old database. The categories are presented in the next figure. Figure 26: Geodatabase content 1) The Parcel (Grundstück, GST) is replaced by Parcels- and owners catalog in PDF format, Parcels- and owners information in ASCII format and Open Business Case information in ASCII format. 2) The Regional Information (KG) is replaced by Free Search- Functions and Regional Information for statistics in CSV file. 3) The changes indication (Veränderungshinweis,VHW) is replaced by Businesses case catalog in PDF format, Businesses case catalog in ASCII format and Parcels Protocol in ASCII format

104 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING 4) The personal catalog (Name, NAM) is replaced by the free search for authorized persons. 5) The parcel address (Grundstücksaddress, GST-ADR) is replaced by Free Search Functions in BEV Shop and BEV Shop Plus and CSV Products (Since Dec. of 2011, Products Web Service). 6) The basic Property Unit (Einlagezahl, Kataster, EZ) is replaced by Parcels catalog according to Property Units in PDF Format and Parcels catalog according to Property Units in ASCII Format. Respectively are outlined the main changes regarding to the Digital Cadastral Map (Figure 27). Figure 27: Digital Cadastral Map in GDB 1) The Digital Cadastral Map (DKM) is replaced by DKM Raster graphics. 2) The DKM- Vector Graphics (VEK) is replaced by DKM in DXF/SHP format. 3) The Map Sheet Information (MBL) was removed without replacement. 4) The Boundary Points (Grenzpunkte, GP) are replaced by Boundary- and State boundary Points in ASCII/ CSV format. 5) Last by not least the Switching (Einschaltungspukte, EP) and Triangulation Points (Triangulierugspunkte, TP) are replaced by Position fixed Point in ASCII/ CSV format and Position Points Map in PDF format. The changes of the surveying products could not let uninfluenced the BEV Shop Plus. It constitutes the web shop, which provides the spatial data only to customers. BEV Shop Plus appears differences concerning to the Search Tools. Search belongs to the first step that encompasses the areas- and products determination. The older BEV Shop Plus combined tools as the Parcels Address, Fixed Points, Geographical names, Grundbuch s property units, Parcel, Maps window, Administrative Unit, and Polygons or lines

105 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING The new BEV Shop Plus (after the Geo database s division) encompasses new Searches as the Owners (Only for Authorized persons), Business Case, Parcel (including historical parcel), and Diary INSPIRE Services Figure 28: Datasets of INSPIRE- WMS in BEV (Source: Leistungsbericht, 2011) The Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE) was established in the context of the directive 2007/2/EC of the European parliament (art.11) as well as of the Council of 14 th March The directive entered into force on the 15 th May Aim of the specific directive is to secure that the spatial data infrastructures of all the Members States are usable and compatible in a community and cross-boundary context. As a consequent Geodata infrastructure law (GeoDIG) established a Geodata Infrastructure in Austria. INSPIRE Services enables the users to search, find, browse, present, and download spatial data. However each state manages its Geodata in different models and systems. Therefore is required a harmonization of the models with the implementation of transformation Services. Inspire Services of BEV Portal combine a search service as well as presentation services. Search Service: enables the users a free available catalog service (CSW). Users through the corresponding metadata can search for Geo-data sets and services

106 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Each search service can accessed through two protocols, protocol- REST and SOAP 30. Both protocols require a) a service description (get Capabilities) and b) a query in relation with the metadata s entries (Get Records). Presentation Services: form free Web map services (WMS), which allow the graphical presentation of the INSPIRE data sets of BEV (Figure 28). The Presentation services enable the users the multi kind editing of the geodata, as for example their presentation in GIS players, their navigation and overlaying (Layers). Presentation services are divided to 9 categories: 1) WMS Coordinates Reference Systems, 2) WMS Geographical Grid s Systems, 3) WMS Geographical Markings, 4) WMS Administrative Units, 5) WMS Addresses, 6) WMS Open plots/parcels (Cadastral Parcels), 7) WMS Heights, 8) WMS Land covering, and 9) WMS Orthofotography. Furthermore on May 2012, E.M Unger, G.Navratil and S. Klotz introduced a semantic model with the aim of implementing a transforming service in Austria within the context of INSPIRE. The semantic transformation enables the reconstruction of the data (supplementation or reduction) in order to be fit in a target model. Therefore can be achieved the exchange of heterogeneous data. Semantic transformation requires a source- and a target model. However the main problems are generated from the fact that each data mapping has losses and that the bijectivity of the rules from source- to target model is not always secured. The source model for Austria is based on two components (Figure 29): 1) Kataster (DKM) and 2) Ownership Kataster. The source model consists of the Parcel (Grundstueck), the Parcels basic Property Unit (Grundstueck_EZ) and the cadastral zoning (KG). Each cadastral zoning includes many parcels. In addition many parcels can be characterized by one property unit. That explains the mapping: 1-n (KG-P) and n-1 (P-EZ). Furthermore the target model encompasses the three components of the source model, by the supplementation of Boundaries. Subsequently follows the utilising of Humboldt Alignment Editor. Humboldt Editor is an open source tool and has been implemented within an EU project. The specific editor has a transformation function that is named Hale. Despite the limits of the transformation s implementation, the semantic model is generally possible. Austria data model fulfils the INSPIRE target model, while the tool is still under development. Last but not least the semantic model is currently implemented at BEV (Download- Transformation Services). 30: REST=Representation State Transfer, SOAP= Simple Objects access protocol

107 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Figure 29: Source Model for Austria (Source: E-M. Unger, G. Navratil, S. Klotz, 2012, Semantic model transformation within the context of INSPIRE ) 4.5 FINANCIAL ELEMENTS Policy and price model The biggest parts of every income, which emerges from fees that mainly accompany the granting of Digital Cadastral Map s abstracts, normally return to the Ministry of Finance. The policy, which is prevailed, reveals a kind of financial hierarchy. That can be easily clarified, because the income of BEV, which is collected by the Ministry of Finance, finally ended up to the state government. BEV achieves the promotion of its products through a policy, which accompanied by a price model. The price model considers as an essential characteristic the distinction between the internal and external use rights (Standardentgelte und Nutzungsbedigungen 2012, BEV). From one side internal rights term to the data use in relation with internal technical and administrative staff of the customers, while the external use rights direct to the public data. It is worth referring that the context of the internal use includes a couple of prices factors. The first factor determines that the standard fee for analogue products is based on each data layer and its output size or on its objects data according to the number of the respective objects. The data layer practically defines the type of the related data and the output size forms the leaf s format. By outputting on paper, is observed a surcharge of 100% because PDF format requires a standard fee. In addition, the second factor terms to the digital products standard fees and it is considered that each digital fee is based on each data layer and the surface of the selected area or on the objects numbers. Moreover, the standard fee for the internal use appears increasing, when the number of workplaces is extended. Last but not least the third factor terms to the geo information services fees and it is entrenched that each kind of fee depends on the use s frequency. It should be though mentioned that the constructive and operational costs of the services are settled

108 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING through a basic fee. Apart though from the internal use, the set of the external use rights are reflected to a couple of respective fees in the backdrop of Geoinformation, which are above schematically demonstrated. External Use Right Notes Use s fee Free Working uses Distinction of 4 cases Apart from the internal fee, it is not required an external uses fee. Standard Uses Distinction of 5 cases Apart from the internal fee, it is not required an external uses fee. Analogue or Digital Products Products in versions of paper, CD-ROM, DVD, memory card It depends on the number of copies or of the licences. WEB- View WEB-Application for the data s visualisation It has been estimated as the 15% of the internal use s standard fee. WEB-Service WEB-Application that emerges from the pure data s visualisation It is either totally the 40% of the internal fee or the 5% of the internal fee pro transaction. LBS-Service Use of data for spatially- related information services It agrees with Web Service s fee. Digitalisation s Right Digitalisation of analogue products It is provided freely for individual use; else it depends on the internal fees of the corresponding digital products. Figure 30: External Use rights (Source: Standardentgelte und Nutzungsbedingungen 2012, BEV) As concern to BEV expenses, mainly for employee s salaries, a contract with a minimum amount of money has been established in order to determinate the range for each employee s categorization. In case that some employees are judged with special effectiveness, their salaries will be increased, whilst special rewards are not largely used. In addition, a number of special agreements have been noticed, with the aim of investments conducting and database s and system s renewing Costs and revenues Every year a final efficiency report presents the latest news that accompanies the diverse Ministry s sectors and groups. The sector of Right and Resources, where the department economic and financial management belongs to, estimates the set of costs and revenues, which were noticed during the last year. The biggest part of the costs, which ranges approximately to 74%, is attributed to expenses, which are destined for the personnel s payment. The main subclasses are the salaries, the employees contributions and the travel expenses. The other costs types term to the running costs of BEV and to material costs. The uses differ from maintenance s or communication s reasons to rents and travels needs. The specific two costs types take part with smaller percentages like 25% and 2.7%. It is worth highlighting that the total costs are calculated as 87 million Euros. The whole costs analysis is demonstrated through the following table

109 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING COST S TYPE COSTS ( ) SHARE PERSONNEL COSTS % Notional Personnel Costs % Employer s contributions Disposable Personnel costs % Rewards, productivity bonuses, multi-capacity compensations, allowances, Voluntary social benefits Without disposability Personnel Costs % Income, Salaries, Employers contributions, travel expenses RUNNING COSTS % External Costs % Third Parties Services Maintenance s Costs % Buildings, Motor Vehicles, Machines Notional Running Costs % Notional depreciation Communication expenses % Telephone( Mobiles and Landline) MATERIAL COSTS % Rent Costs % Rooms rental Other neutral Costs % Travelling Costs % Inland Travelling (incl. Metrological and Surveying exterior services and international business trips)

110 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Other Costs % Transactions Expenses, Public Levies BEV-TOTAL COSTS % Figure 31: Costs and Revenues at federal level (Source: BEV, Leistungsbericht 2011) The department of Surveying can be characterized as the biggest expenses root, namely its costs range to 50 million Euros. In the backdrop of the costs analysis, surveying field is divided to eight sectors, while it is ascertained that cadastre forms the sector with the biggest expenses (22 million Euros). Topographical recording follows with the amount of 11.5 million, while cartography and soil evaluation have much smaller costs, like 4 and 2 million. The figure 32 depicts the diverse sectors and the amount of their cost contribution. Figure 32: Distinction of Surveying Costs From the other side, as concern to the Ministry s revenues, they largely come from the departments of Metrology and Surveying but from other revenues as well. The biggest revenues root is considered to be the department of Surveying and Geoinformation. Its percentage has been estimated as 75% of the total revenues, while it is mainly composed by the payments, which emerge from the geodata base. During 2011, revenues from surveying approximate 7 million Euros. Secondly, the Metrology Department contributes with a percentage of 12%, while the revenues puzzle integrates the participation of other revenues with a percentage of 14%. The total amount of revenues ranges to 9 million Euros

111 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING REVENUES OF BEV REVENUES SHARE Department of Metrology % Department of Surveying % Revenues from sovereign outputs % (Standard Payments according to art.48 of the surveying act, geodata base) Surveying Fees according to art.47 of % the Surveying act Other Revenues % BEV-TOTAL REVENUES % Figure 33: Revenues of BEV Crisis and cost recoverability It has been easily become understood that an important part of the costs terms to employees salaries, travel expenses, rent and maintenance costs. By the comparison of the two latest Efficiency Reports of BEV (2010, 2011), it has been noticed not only a reduction of BEV costs but also a reduction of its revenues. Characteristically in accordance with the diagram 34, it is issued that total costs have been reduced in an amount of 3 million Euros during the years The reduction of costs dues to a set of parameters and characteristically as some of the most important are considered to be external, maintenance and travelling costs. In the backdrop of economic crisis, in disposable personnel costs like incomes and salaries, seems to present imperceptible changes. From the other side, total revenues perform a reduction of 2.3 million Euros in relation with the previous year. Pivotal reason is contemplated to be the weaker contribution from the Surveying field, which presents a reduction of 2.6 million Euros. The specific revenues reduction is approximately the same in comparison with the total revenues difference, therefore it is appeared a kind of reflection between them. It must be also referred that during the year , the fees which come from the conjunction of digital cadastral map and art.48 of the Surveying act, decreased considerably. The results of 2010 showed an amount of revenues that range to 7.5 million Euros, while the next year presents almost 3 million less

112 THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SURVEYING Figure 34: Costs and Revenues Comparison (million Euros) 5 ΜΗΤΡΩΟ ΓΗΣ (GRUNDBUCH) Το αυστριακό μητρώο τίτλων υπάρχει στη σημερινή νομική του μορφή από τον Ιούλιο του Το μητρώο τίτλων λειτουργεί ως μία νομικά δεσμευτική απόδειξη της αυστριακής ιδιοκτησίας αλλά και των υποχρεώσεων ιδιωτικού δικαίου καθώς και των δικαιωμάτων που τη συνοδεύουν. Το 1980, η εδραίωση του νόμου περί ψηφιοποίησης του μητρώου τίτλων έδωσε τη δυνατότητα μετατροπής του μητρώου σε ένα αυτοματοποιημένο σύστημα δεδομένων. Το αυστριακό μητρώο βασίζεται σε επτά αρχές: δημοσιότητα, νομιμότητα, απόδειξη, επιγραφή (δικαιωμάτων), αναφορά, αρχή των προκατόχων και αρχή της χρονικής προτεραιότητας. Λειτουργεί μέσω επαρχιακών δικαστηρίων. Κάθε επαρχία περιλαμβάνει έναν αριθμό επαρχιακών δικαστηρίων, ικανό για να καλύψει τις ανάγκες της. Στην Αυστρία τα επαρχιακά δικαστήρια χαρακτηρίζονται από ανεξάρτητες αποφάσεις, δεν επηρεάζονται από τα ανώτερα δικαστήρια και δεν υπόκεινται σε οδηγίες (μεγάλη δύναμη των δήμων). Συνολικά η Αυστρία περιλαμβάνει 141 επαρχιακά δικαστήρια, 18 πρωτοδικεία, 8 εφετεία (διοικητικά δικαστήρια) και 1 ανώτατο δικαστήριο. Το πλαίσιο λειτουργίας του μητρώου ανήκει στον τομέα του αστικού δικαίου και περιλαμβάνει ως βασικά νομικά επαγγέλματα 1)τους δικηγόρους, 2)τους συμβολαιογράφους και 3)τους δικαστικούς υπαλλήλους. Οι δικηγόροι και οι συμβολαιογράφοι είναι ελεύθεροι επαγγελματίες, οι δικαστικοί υπάλληλοι ανήκουν στο δημόσιο τομέα. Το μητρώο τίτλων είναι διοικητικά χωρισμένο σε κτηματολογικές ζώνες. Κάθε κτηματολογική ζώνη που περιλαμβάνει πολλές ιδιοκτησίες παρουσιάζεται στο σύστημα τίτλων μέσω 5 ψηφίων. Κάθε ιδιοκτησία χαρακτηρίζεται από ένα μοναδικό αριθμό ιδιοκτησίας. Ακόμα τα δικαστήρια κάθε επαρχίας διαχειρίζονται το μητρώο τίτλων εντός των κτηματολογικών ζωνών που ανήκουν σε κάθε αντίστοιχη περιφέρεια. Η αμέσως μεγαλύτερη διοικητική βαθμίδα είναι η πολιτική περιφέρεια, η οποία χωρίζεται σε πολλές μικρότερες περιοχές που καλύπτονται από τα επαρχιακά δικαστήρια. Κορυφή της ιεραρχίας θεωρείται η επαρχία (9 συνολικά στην Αυστρία)

113 ΤΟ ΜΗΤΡΩΟ ΤΙΤΛΩΝ Επαρχία Πολιτική περιφέρεια Επαρχιακά δικαστήρια Κτημ/κή ζώνη Ιδιοκτησία Σχήμα: Ιεραρχική υποδιαίρεση Η νέα ψηφιακή μορφή του μητρώου τίτλων (νέα βάση δεδομένων) αποτελείται τα συνθετικά: εξής Κύριο βιβλίο/μητρώο: καταγράφει τις καταχωρήσεις όλων των ιδιοκτησιών και αποτελείται από τρία μέρη. - Φύλλο Α (γεωτεμάχια), - Φύλλο Β (ιδιοκτήτες) και - Φύλλο Γ (εμπράγματα βάρη). Τα εμπράγματα βάρη που συνοδεύουν κάθε ιδιοκτησία μπορεί να είναι υποθήκη, περιορισμοί πώλησης, πραγματικές δουλείες, μισθώσεις και δικαιώματα μισθωτών, δικαίωμα- προαγοράς, δικαίωμα εκ νέου αγοράς και μεταπώληση. Βοηθητικοί πίνακες: στηρίζουν την αναζήτηση μέσω της νέας βάσης δεδομένων. Τα αιτήματα επιτρέπουν τον προσδιορισμό τόσο της κτηματολογικής ζώνης που ανήκει η ιδιοκτησία, όσο και του αριθμού της ίδιας της ιδιοκτησίας. Οι βοηθητικοί πίνακες περιλαμβάνουν τρία μέρη: - Κατάλογο αγροτεμαχίων, - Κατάλογο ιδιοκτητών και - Κατάλογο διευθύνσεων. Συλλογή των εγγράφων/τίτλων: Η ομάδα των εγγράφων κατηγοριοποιείται ανά έτος με βάση έναν συγκεκριμένο αριθμό που έχει ο κάθε τίτλος. Αυτός ο αριθμός είναι γνωστός ως «αριθμός ημερολογίου», αριθμός που χαρακτηρίζει κάθε περίπτωση ιδιοκτησίας. Οι τίτλοι κρατούνται και επεξεργάζονται μόνο από τα επαρχιακά δικαστήρια, που είναι υπεύθυνα για τις συγκεκριμένες ιδιοκτησίες. Από τον Μάιο του 2012 (νέα βάση δεδομένων), το κτηματολόγιο δεν περιλαμβάνει πλέον τα έγγραφα/τίτλους, τα οποία διατίθενται πια μόνο από τη βάση δεδομένων του υπουργείου δικαιοσύνης (υποθηκοφυλακεία). Μητρώο ακυρωμένων εγγραφών/ ιστορικά αποσπάσματα: χρησιμοποιείται για την εκκαθάριση των άχρηστων πληροφοριών του βασικού μητρώου και περιλαμβάνει όλες τις ακυρωμένες εγγραφές

114 ΤΟ ΜΗΤΡΩΟ ΤΙΤΛΩΝ Το σύνολο των εγγραφών μεταφέρεται και προστατεύεται ηλεκτρονικά στα επαρχιακά δικαστήρια μέσω των «ηλεκτρονικών νομικών συναλλαγών της δικαιοσύνης» (ηλεκτρονική επικοινωνία με υψηλού κόστους λογισμικού). Συνολικά υπάρχουν τέσσερα στάδια εγγραφής: Μεταβίβαση: είναι σημαντική τόσο για την απόκτηση όσο και για την απώλεια των δικαιωμάτων σχετικά με μία ιδιοκτησία. Το συγκεκριμένο δικαίωμα μεταφέρεται χωρίς την ύπαρξη περαιτέρω προϋποθέσεων. Χαρακτηριστικό παράδειγμα αποτελεί το ενέχυρο ή η δουλεία καθώς και η διαγραφή τους (διαγραφή ενεχύρου, διαγραφή δουλείας). Αν και συνήθως η εφαρμογή της μεταβίβασης γίνεται μόνο γραπτώς, από τον Νοέμβριο του 2012 η κατάσταση διαφοροποιείται. Απλές εφαρμογές, όπως ακύρωση, απλή μεταφορά ονομάτων ή πρόδηλα σφάλματα υποβάλλονται πια προφορικά μέσω των επαρχιακών δικαστηρίων. Σημείωση προτεραιότητας: παρουσιάζει την γνωστοποίηση για μία μελλοντική απόκτηση ενός δικαιώματος ή για μία μελλοντική απώλεια του. Η πιο συνηθισμένη περίπτωση είναι η σημείωση προτεραιότητας για μία μεταβίβαση. Η σημείωση αυτή χρησιμοποιείται όταν τα υποχρεωτικά έγγραφα δεν πληρούν όλες τις απαιτήσεις ή το πιστοποιητικό εκκαθάρισης της φορολογικής υπηρεσίας δεν έχει δημοσιευθεί. Σε περίπτωση μη εκπλήρωσης των απαραίτητων προϋποθέσεων, η ανακοίνωση προτεραιότητα ακυρώνεται κατόπιν αιτήσεως. Σημείωση ιεραρχίας: εξασφαλίζει την κατάταξη (στη βάση δεδομένων) για μία πώληση ή ένα ενέχυρο, ένα χρόνο μετά την έγκριση της αίτησης. Με αυτό τον τρόπο, η καταχώρηση του δικαιώματος στην ιεραρχία αποτελεί τρόπο προστασίας του εκάστοτε ιδιοκτήτη. Μάλιστα με τη δημιουργία της νέας γεωβάσης, η συγκατάθεση του προσώπου που εμπλέκεται στην σημείωση ιεραρχίας, επεξηγείται σε ξεχωριστό έγγραφο. Παρουσίαση: σημαντικών πληροφοριών που συνοδεύουν τις μεταβιβάσεις. Τέτοιες πληροφορίες είναι η αιτιολόγηση των δουλειών, οι περιορισμοί δημοσίου δικαίου (π.χ. επικίνδυνες ζώνες) καθώς οι χώροι κατασκευής των ακινήτων. Το μητρώο τίτλων περιλαμβάνει δύο τύπους δικαιωμάτων: απόλυτα και σχετικά. Τα απόλυτα δικαιώματα χωρίζονται σε πλήρη και περιορισμένα δικαιώματα. Μόνο η ιδιοκτησία θεωρείται πλήρες δικαίωμα. Δικαιώματα όπως η υποθήκη, η δουλεία, οι περιορισμοί και το δικαίωμα κατασκευής ανήκουν στην κατηγορία των περιορισμένων δικαιωμάτων. Τα δικαιώματα αυτά περιλαμβάνουν επιμέρους υποκατηγορίες όπως το δικαίωμα χρήσης, η επικαρπία, το δικαίωμα κατοικίας, οι περιορισμοί σε ύψη κτιρίων, το δικαίωμα παροχής νερού κ.ά. Τα σχετικά δικαιώματα διαφοροποιούνται στο γεγονός ότι ισχύουν μόνο μεταξύ συγκεκριμένων προσώπων. Αν η ιδιοκτησία αλλάξει, χαρακτηρίζονται ως άκυρα. Τέτοια δικαιώματα είναι αυτά των περιορισμών των βαρών, της μίσθωσης, της μεταπώλησης, κ.ά. Τέλος στο παρόν κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζεται διεξοδικά η διαδικασία της εγγραφής, η οποί συνδέει τους φορείς κτηματολόγιο και υποθηκοφυλακεία. Το παράδειγμα αφορά την εγγραφή πώλησης ενός μέρους μίας ιδιοκτησίας στη Βιέννη

115 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH 5 LAND REGISTER (GRUNDBUCH) 5.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND Grundbuch exists in its present legal form since the act of 25 July 1871, which prepares the background for the introduction of the general law for land register (Allgemeines Grundbuchsgesetz) 31. Land register functions as a legally binding proof of ownership as well as of the associated private-law obligations and rights. The legal regulations are embodied to the General- Civil law (Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch), the Grundbuch law and the law for the installation of a new land register (Grundbuchsanlegungsgesetz). In 1980, the Grundbuch Digitization Law (Grundbuchsumstellungsgesetz) established the statutory regulation with the aim to converse Grundbuch into an automation-based data system (ADM). Land register [as has also mentioned in chapter 3 (3.1)], is governed by 7 legal principles that are subsequently outlined. Publicity (Publizitätsprinzip): consists of 1) Formal publicity (Öffentlichkeitsprinzip): Each person has the right to inspect cadastral data and to acquire copies. 2) Material Publicity (Vertrauensprinzip): Everyone can trust in the correctness and the completeness of those data. There is always a strained relation between publicity and privacy, which has to be regulated by law (Twaroch). Everyone has the right to inspect the entries, excluding the draft versions of an entry that are intended only for internal use and the involved parties. Legality (Legalitätsprinzip): The cadastral data as well as the documents that accompany them must be subjected to the laws. This fact is the kernel of the Austrian title system. Only if the state can guarantee the content of the public register, the title system is considered reliable. Evidence (Beweisprinzip): Both property rights and legal facts can be entered in Grundbuch in order to provide evidence for the public or to create a legal effect. Examples for legal facts can be the - The evidence of restrictions that are imposed by law (e.g. protection of historical monuments, rare), - The evidence of height restrictions near airports, - The evidence of the restricted competence of an owner (during the execution process), and - The evidence of land use (some land use categories have also legal effects, as e.g. forests that are protected in conjunction with the cadastral documentation. 31: General Grundbuch law was established in 1955 and defined the principles of the cadastre, the types of the registered rights as well the registration- types and procedures

116 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Inscription (Eintragungsgrundsatz, Intabulationsprinzip): Rights can be categorized into three types - Civil rights, which are only valid by registration (ownership), - Civil rights, which are valid though they are not registered (as exemptions) and - Public rights that are related to the land and have as pubic rights an overall validity (e.g. protection of historical monuments). Only properly registered rights, are valid (Twaroch, Muggenhuber, 1997). The rights can be acquired, restricted, cancelled or removed only through the registration in the ledger book (Hauptbuch). However there are some exceptions as the ownership by inheritance, the ownership by auctions, the ownership by possessing and the ownership lost by governmental expropriation. Petition (Antragsprinzip): Each right is inscribed only after the acquisition of a report in the cadastral organisation. A petition is necessary to charge data (e.g. if there isn t a petition, there isn t a charge). The specific principle protects everyone who acquires a right and is relied on the entries of Grundbuch, even when it deviates from the actual legal status. Predecessor (Grundsatz des bürgerliches Vormannes): The inscription of the rights is allowed only against the beneficiaries of registered rights. Priority (Prioritätsprinzip): The older petition which arrived earlier at the cadastral authority is more important than the younger one. The rights are established in the order by first-come-first-principle. For rights, which are registered in a timely sequence (e.g. mortgages), the rights that have registered earlier have priority. For example in case of two mortgages, the older one is paid first in an auction. If there is still money left, the second mortgage will be paid (not a percentage of both). 5.2 STRUCTURE CLARIFICATIONS District Courts Ownership Kataster is maintained by districts courts. Districts courts are characterized by independent decisions making because they don t get influenced by higher courts and they aren t subjected to directives. Higher courts are involved only in cases, when for example one person doesn t comply with the decision of the court. Higher courts always deal with appeals and encompass the courts of first- and second instance (Landesgericht, Oberlandesgericht) as well as the highest courts (Figure 35). Due to the fact that districts courts are responsible for the ownership Kataster within the local districts, Austria is characterized by a considerable number of courts (141, figure 36)

117 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Highest Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) Courts of second instance (Higher regional courts, OLG) 8 District courts (Bezirksgerichte, BG) 141 Courts of first instance, (State courts, LG) 18 Figure 35: Organisational structure of Grundbuch (Source: Figure 36: Districts courts in Austria (Source: Legal Professions The function framework of Grundbuch, which belongs to the field of civil law, is subjected under the laws by the district courts. The main legal experts encompass the Lawyers: represent their clients in front of all higher- and district courts. They safeguard people s interests and act as general legal advisors. Although they constitute an integral part of the legal system, lawyers do not provide contracts for Grundbuch. Notaries: acquire a special position in the land registration, because they can create public documents and only those can be registered (licensed surveyors have also this ability). Furthermore, they serve the special task of acting as court commissioners by assisting in the performance of probate proceeding or in public auctions. The

118 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH difference between notaries and lawyers is that notaries are neutral advisors, while lawyers act in the interest of their client. Rechtspfleger : are courts employees with special training in first instance civil law jurisdiction (e.g. certain execution cases or inheritance matters). In addition, they take part in the maintenance of Grundbuch and deal with the personal bankruptcy cases. These kind of legal professions complement each other and apart from Rechtspfleger, the professionals have the same theoretical training. Lawyers and notaries work as members of the liberal professions, while Rechtspfleger are in a public work employment relating to the Austrian state. However, when a notary works as a court commissioner, he is an agent of the court and doesn t belong to the framework of the liberal profession Hierarchical subdivision The ownership Kataster is sorted in Cadastral units/zoning (Katastralgemeinden, KG). Each Cadastral unit encompasses many properties/ Grundbuch body and is presented in Grundbuch via 5 digits (1 st digit: provincial code, 1 st and 2 nd :surveying office, 1 st,2 nd and 3 rd :district court and 1 st, 2 nd,3 rd,4 th and 5 th : cadastral unit). Properties are characterized by a unique property unit number/entry number (Einlagezahl, EZ). District courts (Bezirksgerichte, BG) manage the ownership Kataster within the cadastral units that belong to the corresponding court district. Districts courts are displayed in Grundbuch via 3 digits. Furthermore many cadastral units compose a political district (Politische Bezirke, PB), which is bigger than a court district. A political district is divided to many courts districts and its form has 5 digits including the abbreviation PB. Last but not least many political districts constitute a province. The following figure illustrates all the above hierarchical subdivisions. Province Political District (PB) District Court (BG) Cadastral Unit (KG) Property (EZ) Figure 37: Hierarchical Subdivision

119 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH 5.3 COMPONENTS Figure 38: Ministry of Justice, new Grundbuch Digital Ownership Kataster consists of five main components: Main ledger (Hauptbuch), Auxiliary schedules( Hilfsverzeichnisse), Collection of documents (Urkundensammlung), Maps (Grundbuchsmappe) 32, and Register of invalidated inscriptions/historic extract (Löschungsverzeichnis). 1) Main ledger: is responsible for the recording the ownership Kataster entries. Main ledger is divided to cadastral units and each property is characterized by a unique unit number (EZ). Main ledger can be electronically acquired in the new database (Ministry of Justice) via the field of the Grundbuch extracts (figure 39). There is the possibility that someone can request for a complete or limited extract. Each property unit consists of three parts (sheets): Sheet A property particulars is classified into two parts; - Sheet A1: encompasses all the parcels that belong to a property, accompanied by their numbers. - Sheet A2: comprises the rights, which are associated with the ownership of the parcels 33 as well as with public-law restrictions. Also in Sheet A2 are registered elements as property changes due to the value adjustment or depreciation of the parcels. 32: Since May 7 th of 2012, they don t exist anymore in the database of Justice. Now they are available in BEV database as Katastralmappe, Grundstücksverzeichnis or Katastralmappe mit Orthofoto. 33: These kinds of rights are for example the right to access a parcel via a neighbouring parcel. Therefore if the first parcel is next to the street and the second parcel can be reached by crossing the first one, the structure will be as follows.(-a2-sheet of 2: right to cross parcel 1 an -C-Sheet of 1: Obligation to let people pass to reach parcel 2)

120 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Sheet B property owners: are entered all the owners of a property. In each case, after a serial number, are indicated elements as the - Shares of the joint ownership in a fractional form and the - Names of the joint owners. Besides that, here is always incorporated a document, which serves as foundation for the acquisition of the ownership. Each document is included to the Collection of documents/deeds. Apart from deeds, all the restrictions that each owner has are entered in the Sheet B. The restrictions can encompass minority, bankruptcy or curatorship. Sheet C- encumbrances on the property: contains all the encumbrances, which are associated with the ownership of the property/property shares. The encumbrances can be mortgages (Pfandrechte), sale- or burden restraints (Veräußerungs- und Belastungsverbote), easements/ real servitudes (Dienstbarkeiten), leases (Pachten) and tenant rights (Bestandrecht), rights of preemption (Vorkaufsrecht), re-purchase (Wiederkaufsrecht) and resale (Rückverkaufsrecht). Such burdens can be included to the entire property or to a part of it. In the case that a burden is related to a part of a property, the burden is indicated through the note on B-share-right (part of property- impending right). In cases of sale or buying, burdens follow the new owners. When the seller loses such burdens by a sale, the occasion is named burdens exemption. Though entries in Grundbuch don t denote something about the actual height of the debt, which is still outstanding. Debt may be already partially or completely erased. In each case is essential to ask for the current status. Figure 39: Main ledger via the ministry of Justice 2) Auxiliary schedules: represent the requests opportunities that real estate database has. Requests are based on search items and help citizens to find the cadastral

121 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH community (KG) and the property unit number (EZ) of each property that must be identified. The auxiliary schedules encompass the owners-, the parcels- and the streets catalog. Owners catalog (figure 40): contains the names and the addresses, which are registered in Grundbuch for each province, or the names and the addresses of the already registered owners and construction entitled persons. The owners are divided to natural and juridical persons. In case of juridical persons, there is the possibility to note the name of their firma. Search s possibility is usually restricted from private reasons. Also two check-boxes enable the final result to encompass both the deleted owners and the owners with priority. Figure 40:Owners catalog (Source: Grundbuch_Online_ Abfrage_Benutzeroberfläche) As a consequence, someone has to demonstrate to the responsible district court through a Grundbuch inspection a legal interest, which must be documentary proved. Parcels catalog: encompasses all the parcels numbers for each KG. Figure 41: Parcels catalog

122 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Addresses catalog: includes all the addresses of the properties for each local municipality, district or political district. Figure 42: Addresses catalog 3) Collection of documents/deeds (figure 43): Documents constitute the necessary prerequisite in order the land entries to be accomplished. These documents are regulated into age classes on the basis of diary numbers (case numbers of ownership Kataster, TZ). Diary numbers are preceded by the electronic conversion of the documents. The specific documents are normally kept by the responsible district court or by each land archive that conducts the land registration. Deeds are often tested on validity and can be viewed only via the district courts. Since 2006 all the documents are stored in the archive of the Ministry of Justice. The inspection of these documents is achieved in a similar way as in the ledger book. Furthermore since 1 May 2012 the documents, especially these that are electronically forwarded, must be readable and appropriate for their integration to the documents data base. Figure 43: Collection of deeds

123 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH 4) Maps: depict the position of the parcels (parcels numbers) and their boundaries. Maps haven t mayor significance for Grundbuch, but they serve only for finding the basic property unit of specific parcels numbers. By the creation of the new real estate database (May 2012), the digital archive of Grundbuch doesn t offer anymore digital cadastral plans because BEV provides these kind of information online. 5) Register of invalidated inscriptions/historic extract (figure 44): includes the records of the main register, which have been cancelled. Main register empties via this list from useless information. The output in the database provides complete- or limited extracts or only diary numbers. 5.4 LAND REGISTRATION Entries types Figure 44: Historic extract There are four kinds of registration: conveyance, priority notice, note and display. Entries (e.g. summary proceedings, applications, submissions and dispositions) including any other attachments are electronically protected and transferred to the districts courts via the electronic legal transactions of Justice (ERV) 34. ERV serves as a foundation for the electronic communication between the courts, which collect the fees. Everybody can theoretically use the electronic legal transactions. However, due to the high costs of the required software, this isn t recommendable. ERV is destined for specific persons, as lawyers, notaries but also banks, insurance companies, social insurance agencies, pension institutes and the main association of social insurance agencies. ERV is subjected to the automation of courts procedures, which encompasses various functions. Such functions are the administration of court cases, the statistics, the court fees, the index of names (whole Austria), the national insurance inquiries (identification of unknown third party debtor in case of garnishee), the electronic legal communication (ELC), the external electronic inquiries and the online help. 34: ERV is the German abbreviation of electronic legal transactions (electronischer Rechtsverkehr)

124 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Conveyance (Einverleibung) of a property: is important for the acquisition of rights that accompany it as well as for the loss of them. A specific right is transferred from one person to another without any further conditions. A characteristic example is the ownership right, a pledge or an easement, but also the deletion of each of them (deletion of a pledge or deletion of an easement). The locally competent district court is responsible for conveyances, except the district court for commercial matters (Vienna) and the rail records (e.g. the district court of Linz or the district court of the inner city of Vienna). Courts communicate to each other via ERV by transferring submissions and applications. Grundbuch applications are introduced in writing. However from November 2012, simple applications as cancellation, names change (manifest errors) and simple transfers are submitted orally via courts (courts transcripts). The costs of conveyances are various (figure 45). The entry fee for an application at the electronic legal transactions of Justice has been estimated at 40 Euros, while applications that don t belong to ERV cost 56 Euros. In addition for the registration (conveyance), the acquisition of the ownership and the building regulations amounts to 1, 1 % of the rights value (theoretical value) 35. Mortgages require the payment of the stamp duty, which amounts to 1% of the secured amount or 0, 8% if the mortgage is destined for the secure of a loan agreement. For the registration (conveyance), the acquisition of a mortgage/ the recognition of the title to a property amounts to 1, 2% of the rights value and is paid by the party that registers each mortgage. Furthermore, the ranking of each intended pledging is 0, 6 % of the value, while the ex posts registration (conveyance) in the ranking costs 0, 6 % of the rights value. In case that a mortgage secures loans, is also accompanied by ancillary expenses that are destined for the commission. This kind of expenses should not exceed 2% of the amount of the loan in case that the transaction is subjected to the Realtors Regulation (section 15, par.1, Immobilienmaklerverordnung, IMVO). In case that a transaction isn t within the specific framework, the commission must not exceed 5% of the amount of the loan (www.ehl.at, EHL Immobilien GMBH). Priority note (Vormerkung): presents a notification of a future acquisition of a right or of a loss of it. Priority notice is based on the acquisition, the conveyance, the restriction or the expiration of civil rights. The most common case is the priority notice of conveyance. Priority notice is used when the compulsory documents don t fulfill all the requirements or the clearance certificate of the tax office isn t published. The applicants preserve their rank and prevent other persons from the acquisition of rights to a property before the conveyance is integrated. If the requirements aren t fulfilled, the priority notice is cancelled upon application. 35: The value of a right is the value, which serves as the basis for the calculation of fees. In sales contracts the value is mostly identical to the purchase price, in donations is 3 times the rateable value and in handing over is the sum of the agreed consideration. The different kinds of taxes (e.g. land transfer tax) are confirmed through clearance certificates by a tax authority. Clearance certificates are presented in connection with the acquisition of the property and with trade

125 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Otherwise priority notice is replaced by the conveyance. The competent district courts are identical to the conveyance case. In a similar way, the entry fee for an application that belongs to ERV is 40 Euros, while an application that doesn t belong to the electronic legal transactions costs 56 Euros. In addition, for the registration (priority notice) the acquisition of the ownership and the building regulations amounts to 67 Euros. By both conveyance and priority notice, the hierarchy of the registered rights of a property can be changed (with the consent of all parties). application ownership and building regulations Mortgage 40, at ERV 56, not at ERV 1,1% of the "rights" value 1% of the secured amount for the stump duty (0,8% for mortgages that secure loans) 1,2 % of the "rights" value 0,6% of the value (ranking of each pledging) 0,6% of the "rights" value (ex posts pledges at the ranking) For mortgages that secure loans: 2% of the amount of the loan for the commission (5% if the transaction isn't subjected to the Realtors Regulation) Figure 45: Conveyance s costs Note (Anmerkung) of the hierarchy: ensures the rank for a sale or for a pledge for one year after the approval of the application. The responsible district court displays an order of the hierarchy in a simple copy. The owner, who has the specific order, is protected as long as he has entered his right in the hierarchy during the fixed date. From 1 May 2012 (new database) the consent of the implicated person for the note is explained in a separate document. In this case the signatures must be certified by a notary or by court and the note can be transferred via ERV as well. Other notes can be the note of dispute by a residential property applicant against the owner in relation with the delayed conveyance of the ownership, the note of the forced administration of a property, foreclosure or The note for the commencement of bankruptcy proceedings 36 e.t.c. 36: Bankruptcy is a legal procedure of cost-saving assets of insolvent debtors. The goal is the equal sharing between the creditors

126 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH A note can be also made in favour of a specific person, with the prerequisite that the owners of the specific property consent and make such an application (hierarchy of names). This kind of note can be transferred, with the prerequisite that the previous entitled person gives his consent via a request. The costs of the notes are identical to the costs of the previous kinds of entries (40 Euros for an application that belongs to ERV and 56 Euros for an application that doesn t belong to it). In addition, the notes for the justification of the priority notice (acquisition of ownership and building regulations) costs 1, 1% of the rights value. The note of the hierarchy of the pledge amounts to 0, 6% of the rights value and the ex posts registration (conveyance) of pledge costs 0, 6 % of the rights value. The last kind of entry is the display. Display concerns to the legally circumstances as the justification of easements, public law restrictions (danger zones for example) and property site for building. Display, note and pledge are words that are mainly useful for Grundbuch applications Inspection of Grundbuch (extract) By the implementation of the new database (May of 2012), all owners of real estate properties have the right to look and control the content of the new database 37. The inspection of Grundbuch is accomplished in both the main ledger (Hauptbuch) and in the collection of deeds (Urkundensammlung). By the acquisition of land (residential property, home ownership and parcel) is essential for each person to be informed about the civil owners of each object as well as about its encumbrances. Grundbuch extracts are displays of the owners of a property, of its components, of the land uses as well as of the encumbrances that accompany it. Grundbuch extracts are widely used and during the year 2011 the number of them amounted to (www.justiz.gv.at). A Grundbuch extract (Figure 46) is structured as follows Top - cadastral zoning, - property unit and - competent court Indications - date of request and - header Inscription - latest diary numbers (TZ) and - seals (represents the requests that are still in progress) 37: The description of the new database is preceded by chapter

127 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Sheet A1 - Plots number, - Affiliation to the boundary cadastre (Grenzkataster), - Parcels area and - Address of the specific parcel Sheet A2 - Changes of Grundbuch, - Public law obligations and - Rights in rem (which are connected with the specific property) Sheet B Sheet C - Joint ownership shares, - Owners (of the joint ownership), - Date of birth and address and - Rights facts - Encumbrances (pledges, real servitudes, e.t.c) and - Serious right facts Indications (end) - Information about the issuing office, - Rows that are subjected to charge and request s fee, - Indications about fees waivers, and - Security code. Figure 46: Grundbuch extract (Source:

128 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH BA EZ LNR FWGN G GR GST ΗΕ TZ VuZZ W Abbreviations types of use in cadastre (Benützungsarten) property unit (Einlagezahl) serial number (Laufende Nummer) entity for residential purposes (Für Wohnzwecke genutzte Einheit) garage (Garage) business premises (Geschäftsraum) parcel (Grundstück) basic property unit (Haupteinlage) diary number (Tagebuchzahl interest on arrears and compound interest (Verzugs- und Zinseszinsen),for pledges dwelling (Wohnung) Figure 47: Abbreviations of useful terms A restriction of a report of a property is indicated in the top of the extract (special transcript) in connection with the characterization of the sheet 38. The information of the plots that are indicated to the Grundbuch extract as for example the land uses type, the land area and the addresses belong to the cadastre and are not legally binding. That means that the usage type by the surveying office arises from the nature and isn t connected with the zoning that is managed by the municipalities. When next to the types of use, there is an asterisk (*), that indicates that the area has been calculated on basis of coordinates. The land area is represented with a precision of 1 m 2. Furthermore, when next to the land area is found the indication change of the area in preparation, this denotes a future change of the specific area due to a new measurement (mostly for the need of a subdivision) 39. Therefore, someone has to consult in each case the municipality in order to collect the latest information. Entries in the sheets A2, B and C are categorized into numbers (LNR) and in particular into lower case letters. Each entry is accompanied by a lower case letter. Entries that don t belong directly to another entry are categorized chronologically. Each entry starts with the diary number (TZ). The word deleted ( gelöscht ) is appeared only when a registration is included to the list of deleted items. As regards to the joint ownership shares, the relationship between the new and old shares as well as the presentation of the title transfer is indicated via the list of deleted items. By the acquisition of a wider, different- burdened share the unification between the new and the old share remains also in the sheet C. In case that a share is partially burdened, the encumbrance must be also shared. If the report of a property doesn t include the sheet C, it doesn t mean that the property is without encumbrances. By the encumbrance of specific shares, the relationship between the registration in sheet- C and B is indicated by the number of the share after the note in share B serial number (LNR). If the note is missing, the right refers to all the shares. In the end of each extract must be encompassed a security code, which shows if the specific extract is generated from the real estate database or not. 38: An example is B-LNR 3. 39: The indication in German can be found as Änderung der Fläche in Vorbereitung

129 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Without this security code there isn t documentation for the correctness of the property s report. The security code consists of the date, the time and a distinction- key. Sometimes the content of the extract can be unclear especially in case of a big condominium. Then the extract can be restricted to specific shares. Circumstances, which are represented in the extract but are missed by the purchaser, cannot be claimed as a defect. The responsible court can be each court (without local restrictions), except the district court for commercial matters in Vienna. Grundbuch extracts from the main ledger and extracts from the auxiliary catalogs cost 13 Euros. Specifically the subsequent table contains all the fees for each type of request. The fees are invoiced in accordance with the Fees Ordinance of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour. Type of request fees current Grundbuch extract (full request of a property unit number) 3,20 current partial extract (request of sheet- A,B or C) 1,70 request of the latest diary number (seal) 1,60 request of the collection of deeds (for each document, PDF form) 1,00 request of the persons catalog (for each person) 1,60 request of the historic unit numbers of the last 5 years (list of deleted entries) 1,60 request of the historic unit numbers without time restrictions (list of deleted 3,80 entries) Grundbuch extract of a specific date (for each property unit number) 3,80 Grundbuch-partial extract of a specific date (for each sheet) 2,20 request of the latest diary number of a specific date 1,90 request of information about the diary number (additional information) 1,60 search for sales contract (each cadastral community) 1,60 requests from the digital cadastral map (DKM) until 250 m and until 500 m 3,20 until m 11,00 until m 42,00 extract of the parcels catalog without address of the parcel (for 1-10 parcels) 3,20 extract of the parcels catalog without addresses of the parcels (for ,00 parcels) extract of the parcels catalog with address of the parcel (for 1-10 parcels) 3,40 extract of the parcels catalog with addresses of the parcels (for parcels) 13,00 search for property addresses in the addresses catalog until 10 results 1,00 until 100 results 3,20 until 1000 results 32,00 requests from public law corporations 1,50 Figure 48: Fees from the new real estate database (Source: Rights Rights on a property

130 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH A right is related with whole parcels. Except from easements, there isn t a possibility to establish a right upon a part of a parcel. Grundbuch encompasses two types of rights: absolute- and relative rights. On the one hand rights that influence everybody are named absolute rights or rights of property. Rights that by the signing of contracts affect only the current owners of a parcel are considered as relative rights. Absolute rights are divided to full rights- and limited rights of property. Apart from the ownership right (full right of property), all other rights are considered as limited. Limited rights are split up into mortgages (Pfandrechte), easements (Dienstbarkeiten), obligations (Reallasten) and construction right (Baurecht). Mortgage: is a valid claim in rem, which enables the creditor (mostly banks) to produce receivable bills on a certain thing of a debtor (www.help.gv.at). Mortgages guarantee the repayment of the borrowed money, by using as lending base the parcel. Mortgages are acquired through the register of immovable property in Grundbuch as well as the physical transfer of movable property. In case that the debtor, who is usually the owner of the parcel, cannot pay the money back the parcel goes to auction. The creditor has the right to access to the debtor s property up to the amount that is entered in Grundbuch. There are two types of mortgages, the conventional fixed amount mortgage (Festbetragshypothek) and the maximum amount mortgage (Höchstbetragshypothek). A fixed mortgage is a pledge of real estate and is based on a written mortgage agreement (Pfandbestellungsvetrag), including the costs and the interests that must be registered in Grundbuch. The agreement must encompass the declaration of the creditor for the registration of the mortgage in Grundbuch and to allow the absolute registration (Einverleibung) in the sheet C (encumbrances). Maximum mortgage expresses the limit of the mortgage and not the actual debt. It covers only the request itself and it is not possible to understand if a request of Grundbuch is connected with the maximum mortgage by a simple search. In order the registration to become effective, the responsible parties must validate their signatures by a notary or by court. In case that more than one property is affected by the same debt, the mortgage is called simultaneous mortgage (Simultanhypothek). Figure 49: Examples of mortgages (Grundbuch, Ministry of Justice, 2005)

131 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Ownership right (full right of property): is a fundamental and inviolable right as in most of the European countries, also in Austria. Ownership denotes that the owner has full authority about a thing 40. Ownership encompasses the sole ownership (Alleineigentum), the co-ownership (Miteigentum) and the condominium ownership (Wohnungseigentum). Sole ownership is related to one person, while co-ownership is referred to the ownership of property by two or more persons. Condominium ownership enables a co-owner to use a certain unit in a building that is located in a specific real estate. A unit can be an apartment, am office premise or a parking space. The Austrian law indicates that the ownership encompasses both the areas above and below the surface of earth. Restrictions of the ownership are reflected to the restriction of the rights, mainly for persons without contractual capacity 41. The ownership is acquired via four modes: inheritance, eminent domain, purchase and donation. By inheritance the ownership of the deceased person is transferred to the heirs. Therefore the heirs must register the new ownership in Grundbuch. Eminent domain doesn t create private ownership. Only the state can receive ownership with this method. Eminent domain can involve the courts judgement and happens only if there is a public need and the owner doesn t want to sell his parcel against the common price. Both inheritance and eminent domains are exceptions to the principle that only the owner can inscribe rights. Sale and donation constitute the voluntary transfer of the ownership via receiving money (sale) or via freely giving (donation). The acquisition modes are documented by certificates of inheritance, judgements, contracts and deeds of donation. Figure 50: Ownership right due to inheritance and donation (Ministry of Justice, 2005) Easement on a property is called real servitude and is considered as a limited use right in rem on a foreign immovable property. The specific right belongs to the owner of the beneficiary property and contributes to the better exploitation of the property s use. Easements are acquired by adverse possession or are statute barred owing to non- usage (www.help.gv.at). 40: Definition by 354 of general civil code (German): Befugnis mit der Substanz und den Nutzungen einer Sache nach Willkür zu schalten und jeden anderen davon auszuschließen.41: According to Krejci in 1995, someone loses his contractual capacity when he is too young (under 19) or follows a decision of a court (mainly due to mental disease or handicap)

132 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Easements transfer is achieved via contract, via prescription, via inheritance and via court. Easements are divided to basic- and personal easements (Grund- und persönliche Dienstbarkeiten). After the easements expiration, the unencumbered ownership is expanded again (elasticity of property). Some types of easements are the following: - Right of use (Gebrauchsrecht): constitutes a personal easement and satisfies only the needs of the beneficiary. An example is the right that someone has to use an apartment for his own benefit. - Usufruct (Fruchtgenuss): is the right to enjoy the use of real estate or to get profit from its exploitation (personal easement). Usufruct is similar to the right of use but it doesn t satisfy only the personal needs of the beneficiary. A usufruct can be established in case that a farmer is retired and wants to transfer his farm to another person. Therefore the farmer can transfer his fruits production to another person. - Residence right (Wohnungsrecht): combines the right of use and the usufruct (personal easement). If the beneficiary rents a house or apartment (right to use a habitable part of a house), it is about a usufruct. Otherwise the residence right is only interwoven with the right of use and is considered as usufruct without restrictions. - Restriction of a height of a building: is installed in case that a construction prevents the light from the neighbouring parcel (the building is too high). The restrictions may encompass height classes and minimum side distances from the boundaries in the development plan ( Bebauungsplan ). - Right of building tunnels (Untertunnelungen): The right of ownership is valid both for the surface of earth but also for the space below each parcel. The specific right enables a different owner than the beneficiary to create a tunnel below a parcel. The right was used to distinguish the ownership of the parcel from the ownership of a tunnel. - Right of building bridges (Brücken Rechte): is subjected under the same framework than the right of tunnels. The right is used to distinguish the ownership of the parcel from the ownership of the bridge. - Water right (Wasserrecht): enables a different person than the owner of a parcel to get water from an encumbered parcel. The entity of the water belongs to the owner of the specific parcel. - Right of way (Wegdienstbarkeiten, Geh- und Fahrrechte): constitutes the most common case of easement. Right of way (walking and driving rights) provides the right for one person, who is different from the owner of a parcel, to use a specific part of it. The use can be either walking or driving across a specific parcel 42. Sometimes the right is related to animals passage across a parcel. 42: The basic information is based on the diploma thesis of Navratil, 1998: An object-oriented model of a cadastre

133 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Figure 51: Presentation of right of way (Source: Twaroch, 2003) Construction right (right to create a building): The construction right distinguish the ownership of the parcel from the ownership of the buildings. The construction right holder is the construction owner but not the land owner. The construction right is transferable and inheritance right and enables the construction of build-ings on or beneath a specific land piece. Very often the ownership of the buildings is shared between different owners. Respectively encumbrances of the buildings and the parcel often vary (different folders). Therefore there is a possibility to establish a right, e.g. mortgage on one part without effects on the other part. The construction right has time limitation that amounts to years. After the expiry of the contracted period, the owner of the building is obligated to pay compensation. By the establishment of a construction right, the value of the parcel is decreased and replaced by the exploitation of the right. Construction rights are denoted in cadastre via the land uses. Furthermore the knowledge of the building regulations that accompany construction is connected with the outline of the ownership restrictions (ownership of buildings). Construction right is designated for immovable property and can be registered separately in Grundbuch. Figure 52: Construction right via land use (Ministry of Justice, 2012)

134 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Superädifikat 43 /Überbauten: The specific right constitutes a construction right, which enables a person to create a building that is owned by another person. The constructor of the building is the owner of it. Therefore, the building is considered as a movable thing and stays temporarily on the parcel. Superädifikate are usually used for the legal cancellation of ongoing constructions with the aim of avoiding the building regulations that accompany them. They can also be registered separately in Grundbuch. A characteristic untypical example is the erection of the Vienna University of Economics around the railway station of Franz- Josef in the ninth district (Twaroch, 2003). Superädifikate are presented in Grundbuch via construction cards index, which though don t guarantee public faith. Superädifikat doesn t constitute part of the cadastre due to its relationship with movable things. Real obligations (Reallasten): are burdens of a property, which require specific actions from the owners of the specific property. A form of real obligations is the so called annuity. By the annuity the latest owners transfer the right of ownership to another person (by contract). In return the person, who is the new owner, is obligated to pay a specific fee in favour of the previous owner. Apart from real obligations, there are also public real obligations (öffentliche Reallasten). However, public obligations are not necessary to be registered, because Grundbuch needs only to list the private rights Relative rights Relative rights are valid only between specific persons (Navratil, 1998). If the ownership changes, then the right is considered as invalid (except the tenant rights). Burden restraints (Veräußerungs- und Belastungsverbote): This right regards only to close relatives and has the aim of prohibiting a sale or a debt. In case of sale, the construction of a family house is based on a housing subsidy. Consequently by subsidized objects, it is necessary that the funding body agrees with each purchase. A sales restraint in Grundbuch is presented for example by the form 73 a 314/2005 Veräusserungsverbot gem. WFG 1993 für Land Steiermark. Tenant rights (Bestandrecht): The right of a tenant was established in order to secure the tenant rights in case of a sale. The right of renting is relative, so the tenant could lose this ability after a sale. The specific right is protected by the principle of inscription (Intabulationsprinzip) and afterwards by the rental law (Mietrechtsgesetz). Rights of pre-emption (Vorkaufsrecht): enables the previous owner of a parcel to buy it in case that the current owner desires to sale it. Only when the previous owner refuses to buy the parcel, the current owner can start the search of a next buyer. The previous owner/ entitled person of the pre-emption, has usually 1 month to decide if he want to buy the parcel or to refuse this offer : There is not an English correspondence. Superädifikate are buildings that are built on a parcel with the intention that they will not stay permanently in this parcel (www.help.gv.at). 44: The information about the time limitation relating to the pre-emption right is based on the association for consumer information (VKI), March of

135 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Re- purchase right (Wiederkaufsrecht): gives the previous owner the ability to buy his/her parcel back when the current owner cannot fulfil the necessary requirements within a specific period. Local authorities usually require considerable costs for the creation of parcels with the aim of constructing buildings inside them. That constitutes a kind of warranty, because it secures that the owner is capable of covering all the construction costs. However, if the owner doesn t start the beginning of the building procedure (within 3 years for example), the local authority buys the parcel back. Priority (Vorrang): enables the change of the hierarchy of the property rights. Figure 53: Example of relative rights, pre-emption right Procedure of land registration (connection cadastre- Grundbuch) Grundbuch processes The main processes in the cadastre are interwoven with the inscription of rights and the data requests. Each case has its own structure and enables both the adding of new data (inscription) and the retrieval of existing ones (request). In the sphere of data requests, there are also the procedures of changing data in the ownership cadastre 45. The central difference between the inscription and the data request is that inscription of rights can be subjected to restrictions, while data request cannot. Everybody can freely make a request but there are restrictions from adding new rights in the ownership cadastre. The inscription is accompanied by a considerable number of documents. Except the documents, which are destined for the creation of specific rights, the cadastre allows the inscription of the following documents: Transfer of a parcel, Merging of a parcel, Subdivision of a parcel, Restriction of the ownership and Invalidation of a right. Each document after its arrival is subjected to various formal checks. The formal checks (short checks) are used to secure that the document encompass all the necessary information. 45: The changes in the ownership cadastre are depicted in the Sheet A2 (main ledger)

136 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Afterwards, the document is registered in the database of Grundbuch (now ministry of Justice). The registration in the database fulfils the principle of publicity. In order the principle of validity to be proved, the document is forwarded to be detailed checked. In case that a document presents fails, either it is corrected and goes back to the detailed checking, either it is completely removed. Only when the detailed checking is successfully completed, the changes are validated in the Grundbuch database (Navratil, 1998) Step by step analysis (example of an owner wanting to sell a part of his parcel) In the beginning of the registration process (figure 54), the owner of the parcel applies to a licensed surveyor in order to subdivide his/her parcel. The owner gives the essential information about the size of both sides. The licensed surveyor undertakes the negotiation with the owners (case of co-ownership or condominium). A first purpose is the creation of a surveying document, which proves the agreement between the owners through the existence of their signatures. After the owners agreement, follows a survey of the parcel and therefore, the production of the surveying document. The surveying document is stored in the electronic archive of licensed surveyors. The next movement requires the forward of the surveying document to the competent cadastral office. The licensed surveyor (representative of the owner), makes an application for the certification of the document at the cadastral office. After a formal checking (e.g. checking for the completeness of the owners agreements, for the date of the document s creation, for the signatures, for the use of the actual cadastral map, for the old and the new situation), the cadastral office certifies that everything is technically correct. The main checking procedures, which are used by the cadastral offices, are derived mostly from lawyers. By the creation of the new separate databases (May, 2012), the database of the cadastre doesn t include anymore the decisions of the courts. Each cadastral office can get this information online by the digital archive of Grundbuch. Courts need a period, which ranges from minimum 2-3 weeks to maximum 1 month. This happens because sometimes the local court indicates when the decision must be made, but the paper isn t needed to be sent directly. During this period the cadastral office changes the information in electronic forms. At the cadastral offices, the digital cadastral map (DKM) encompasses one legal layer (legal certification) and one preview layer. When a cadastral office gets the surveying document, it updates the preview layer. Also at this stage, when the office receives the decision of the court in an electronic form, the subdivision is brought from the preview layer to the legal layer. The specific period lasts from one hour to one day. Afterwards the change is visible to the actual DKM 46. The surveying documents are stored in the digital archive of BEV (federal ministry of surveying). The surveying procedure lasts a few weeks or months (approximately until 2 months). 46: Parts of the information arises from the Doing business in a more transparent world, economy profile: Austria, World Bank

137 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH However, in Vienna lasts approximately 6 months. After the receiving of the surveying certification, the owner makes an application for registration to the responsible district court (Bezirksgericht), usually with the help of a notary/attorney at law. The surveying certification is major importance document and without it, a local court cannot register the surveying document ( ). As of March of 2006, there is now the possibility to query electronically the documents archive of Grundbuch (data requests, ). Consequently the electronically submissions procedures have been simplified. Generally neither all district courts offer the online option to request documents and nor all the documents of those courts have already switched to the new database (Grundbuch database). However the number of the available documents and the number of district courts offering this service are rapidly rising. The electronic documents require only 1 day after the submission in order the extract of the district court to be obtained (a typical sample costs 12 Euro). In contrast, the period that is required in order a document, which cannot be electronically edited, is ranged to one year. After the registration of the surveying document, the parcel is eventually divided. If the parcel belongs to a special planning area, the owner has also to acquire except from the surveying document, an agreement for the subdivision from the local municipality. Such agreements are needed in urban areas and in some provinces (for example in Burgenland, where the parcels are very narrow, the size of the parcel has to be from 10m and 2000 sqmeter (area) in order to be subdivided). Also some cases require permission from the forest tree agency (Forstrecht). The notary submits all the documents and the application before the court and if everything is judged as correct, the responsible court changes the information in the ownership cadastre. It is easily understood that the sequence district court- municipality changes, in these kinds of cases. Therefore either the owner via a notary applies first in the district court and afterwards in the municipality either the opposite (mostly he applies first at the district court). However, if the owner wants to sale one part of it for example, he needs a contract for the current sale. The case of sale requires authentication of the signatures, authorization of the representatives and a property acquisition tax clearance from the notary. Separately, at the notaries office the parties can combine the following steps. The signatures of the owner of the parcel (seller) and the buyer have to be authenticated on the contract. That can be accomplished by the notary or by court (according to the notary the time in order to be completed is normally 1 day and costs approximately for a typical example Euros per person). In case of a corporation both as seller and buyer, the authorization of the signing representatives must be proven. At the notaries office that is done uno actu with the authentication of the signatures. Otherwise High Court (Landesgericht) produces this certified extract, which has to be presented to the ownership cadastre (the time in order to be completed is normally 1 day and costs approximately 8 Euros per corporation)

138 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Furthermore the parties must pay property acquisition tax or transfer tax 47 (Grunderwerbssteuer), which in the case of sale amounts to 3, 5% of the purchase price. The parties must present a clearance certificate (Unbedenklichkeits bescheinigung) in Grundbuch, which was furnished by a tax authority and certifies that the tax was paid (the tax assessment lasts about 4 weeks and the time in order the certificate to be obtained after paying the tax is further 2 weeks without additional costs). The clearance certificate can be substituted by a self-assessment declaration (Selbstbemessungserklärung), which is submitted by a notary or a lawyer (attorney at law/solicitor), who cooperates with the tax authorities 48. The responsible notary or the lawyer requires the payment of the real estate tax (3, 5% of the purchase price) and the registration fee for Grundbuch (1, 1% of the purchase price); in order the certificate will be immediately issued. The specific step, which is accomplished in case that the owner wants to sale a part of the divided parcel (authentication of the signatures, authorization of the representatives and a property acquisition tax clearance) requires totally 1-3 days (sample) and costs Euros per signatures+ 3,5% of property value +1,1% of property value (5.4.1). The last step encompasses the file of the application at the responsible district court. As of 2009 (1 November), the applications that transfer and register a property are submitted electronically via an online data-exchange system called Web ERV (5.4.1). Web ERV is an online-based form of communication between the courts, notaries and lawyers for submission of claims, applications and delivery of court transcripts, orders and decisions. This system provides standardized masks for the registration of the ownership, the registration of mortgages, the priorities and the invalidated inscriptions. It is mandatory for notaries and attorneys at- law to submit their applications using this system. The documentation by the district court must include the sales agreement, the confirmation of the tax authority and the current changes. A typical sample indicates that the average time in order the last step to be completed ranges from 7 days to 28. Last but not least the applications that use the system Web ERV cost approximately 38 Euros, while applications that don t have this ability are more expensive (approximately 53 Euros). 47: Land transfer tax is triggered on the transfer of Austrian real estate or the transfer of shares in corporations that hold Austrian real estate. 48: In late 2005, the act concerning the changes in the vocational law of notary publics, attorneys at-law and civil engineers created the legal basis for the online registration and the electronic notarial attestation(the reform is effective since 2007)

139 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH 1 The owner of the parcel applies to a licensed surveyor (order of subdivision) 2 Negotiation with the owners and afterwards survey of the parcel 3 Production of the surveying document and storage of it in the electronic archive of licensed surveyors 4 Electronical transfer of the document to the competent cadastral office* Required Time: 2 months 5 Application for the certification of the document at the cadastral office* (In Vienna 6 months) 6 Formal checking of the document (completeness of the owners agreements, signatures and use of the actual digital cadastral map) Time: 1 day 7 Changing of the information in the digital cadastral map (DKM) 8 Storage of the surveying document in the digital archive of BEV 9 Granting of the surveying certification *Steps 4 and 5 take place simultaneously

140 LAND REGISTER- GRUNDBUCH Required time: 1 day (online documents requests), Or 1 year (without online requests) Application for registration to the responsible district court by a notary/ attorney at-law (possibility for electronic requests by a consirable number of courts) Registration of the surveying document and granting of the extract from the district court In case of a special area, steps 9 and 11 take place at the same time. Required time: Acquisition of a subdivision agreement from the local municipality (e.g. that the parcel belongs to a special planning area) Subdivision of the parcel Authentication of the signatures, authorization of the representatives and property acquisition tax clearance from the notary (contract)* 1) Creation of new property unit (EZ). 2) Entry of parcel in the new EZ. 3) Sell of the EZ. Authentication of signatures: 1 day Authorization of representatives: 1 day Tax assessment: 4 weeks Payment of the land transfer tax (3,5 %of the purchase price) and the registration fee (1,1% of the purchase price)* Presentation of a clearance certificate by a tax authority in Grundbuch* Required time: 2weeks 17 File of the application at the competent district court (WebERV) Figure 54: Land registration procedure (example of subdivision in combination with sale) *: The steps 14, 15 and 15 take place simultaneously

141 Η ΑΓΟΡΑ ΑΚΙΝΗΤΩΝ- Η ΒΙΕΝΝΗ 6 Η ΑΓΟΡΑ ΑΚΙΝΗΤΩΝ- Η ΠΕΡΙΠΤΩΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΒΙΕΝΝΗΣ Κάθε αγορά ακινήτων αποτελεί τον συνδυασμό των θεσμικών οργάνων, των σχέσεων και των προτύπων, τα οποία καθορίζουν τις συναλλαγές που αφορούν στα ακίνητα. Οι τρόποι εκτίμησης της ακίνητης περιουσίας καθώς και η διαμόρφωση των τιμών της αγοράς εξαρτώνται από μία σειρά από παραμέτρους όπως η οικονομική ανάπτυξης κάθε χώρας, ο φόρος του εισοδήματος και οι χρήσεις γης. Βασικό πυλώνα για την πραγματοποίηση των συναλλαγών και την αποτελεσματικότητα κάθε αγοράς ακινήτων αποτελεί η διασφάλιση της ιδιοκτησίας. Η ύπαρξη ενός κτηματολογικού συστήματος με ακρίβεια πληροφοριών, μειώνει τους κινδύνους σε συναλλαγές και επενδύσεις. Η Αυστρία ως χώρα διαθέτει ένα δυνατό οικονομικό υπόβαθρο και σύμφωνα με την παγκόσμια τράπεζα (World Bank) θεωρήθηκε η 3 η πιο πλούσια χώρα της Ευρώπης για το Γενικά η αγορά ακινήτων στην Αυστρία θεωρείται ως αγορά «χαμηλού κινδύνου» από άποψη μεταβλητότητας. Η εθνική στεγαστική πολιτική χαρακτηρίζεται από σταθερότητα και δίνει έμφαση τόσο στους ενοικιαστές (μεγάλος τομέας ενοικίασης), όσο και στους οικοδομικούς συνεταιρισμούς περιορισμένου κέρδους. Οι νέες κατασκευές βασίζονται σε συστήματα στεγαστικών επιδοτήσεων, τα οποία έχουν σχεδιαστεί από τις κυβερνήσεις κάθε επαρχίας. Ο τραπεζικός τομέας διαδραματίζει σημαντικό ρόλο, καθώς συχνά διοχετεύει επενδύσεις προς εγκεκριμένα στεγαστικά έργα. Τέλος η εκτίμηση τη γης συνδυάζει ομάδες διαπιστευμένων εμπειρογνώμων που διορίζονται από τα δικαστήρια καθώς και πιστοποιημένους εκτιμητές. Η αυστριακή αγορά ακινήτων χωρίζεται σε δύο κατηγορίες: 1) ιδιόκτητα ακίνητα και κατοικίες μίσθωσης και 2) επενδυτικά ακίνητα. Μία μεγάλη κατηγορία του αυστριακού πληθυσμού κατοικεί σε πολυκατοικίες μίσθωσης. Το απόθεμα των κατοικιών περιλαμβάνει τα εξής: Ιδιοκατοίκηση - Μονοκατοικίες (46%) - Πολυκατοικίες (12%) Τομέας ενοικίασης - Ιδιωτική ενοικίαση( μονάδες, 17%) - Δημοτικά διαμερίσματα ( μονάδες, 10%) - Πολυκατοικίες (12%) Άλλα (3%). Ένας σημαντικός παράγοντας της Αυστριακής αγοράς απαρτίζεται από τους συνεταιρισμούς, οι οποίοι έχουν κατοχή περίπου 2,4 εκατομμυρίων κτιρίων. Οι συνεταιρισμοί συνδέονται συνήθως με επιδοτήσεις, οι οποίες είναι ιδιαίτερα σημαντικές σε τοπικό επίπεδο. Οι επιδοτήσεις βοηθούν τις πωλήσεις σε περιοχές που χαρακτηρίζονται από πολύ υψηλές τιμές για τα νέα διαμερίσματα (πχ στο Ίνσμπρουκ οι τιμές ανέρχονται σε 4.000/μ 2 ). Οι συνεταιρισμοί συνδέονται ακόμα και με τον τομέα της κοινωνικής κατοικίας. Ο τομέας της κοινωνικής κατοικίας στην Αυστρία χαρακτηρίζεται από αυστηρές

142 Η ΑΓΟΡΑ ΑΚΙΝΗΤΩΝ- Η ΒΙΕΝΝΗ νομοθετικές ρυθμίσεις και ανήκει στην αρμοδιότητα οργανισμών περιορισμένου κέρδους καθώς και μη κερδοσκοπικών ιδρυμάτων. Μάλιστα τα τελευταία δέκα χρόνια σε επιδοτούμενες νέες κατασκευές στην Αυστρία, η ιδιοκατοίκηση έχει αντικατασταθεί σταδιακά από την κατασκευή κατοικιών προς ενοικίαση, με δυνατότητα αγοράς μετά από δέκα χρόνια. Οι κύριοι συμμετέχοντες είναι φορείς όπως οι τράπεζες, οι μεσίτες, οι εταιρείες ακινήτων (αυστριακοί επενδυτές και υπηρεσίες εκτίμησης), τα αμοιβαία κεφάλαια ακίνητης περιουσίας (ανοιχτού και κλειστού τύπου), οι κτηματικοί σύμβουλοι, οι δημόσιες αρχές για την φορολογία, τα δικαστήρια σε περιπτώσεις κατασχέσεων κ.ά. Επενδυτές Κτηματικοί σύμβουλοι Μεσίτες Δικηγόροι Εταιρίες Φορ/κές αρχές Αγορά ακινήτων Αμ/βαία κεφάλαια Δικαστή -ρια Κρατικές επιχ/σεις Πελάτες/ χρήστες Ελεγκτές Σχήμα: Συμμετέχοντα μέρη αυστριακής αγοράς ακινήτων Επειδή όμως η αγορά ακινήτων δεν θα ήταν εύκολο να αναλυθεί για την περίπτωση όλης της Αυστρίας, το παρόν κεφάλαιο εστιάζει στην περίπτωση της Βιέννης που είναι η πρωτεύουσα και η πιο δυνατή επιχειρησιακή τοποθεσία. Ακόμα διαθέτει τους περισσότερους οικονομικού πόρους σε σύγκριση με τις άλλες 8 επαρχίες (ΑΕΠ= εκατομμύρια ευρώ). Η Βιέννη αποτελεί επενδυτικό κόμβο μεταξύ κεντροανατολικής και νοτιοανατολικής Ευρώπης. Η αγορά ακινήτων στην Βιέννη συνδυάζει τους ακόλουθους τομείς:

143 Η ΑΓΟΡΑ ΑΚΙΝΗΤΩΝ- Η ΒΙΕΝΝΗ Οικιστική αγορά (τομέας πώλησης και ενοικίασης): Ο τομέας της ενοικίασης δεν παρουσιάζει σημαντικές αλλαγές. Υπάρχει ζήτηση για τη δημιουργία ανακαινισμένων διαμερισμάτων σε πολυκατοικίες, οι οποίες προορίζονται για πώληση. Αγορά γραφείων: Η Βιέννη έχει εξελιχθεί ως μία από τις πιο ελκυστικές αγορές σχετικά με τα γραφεία. Οι τιμές κυμαίνονται σε σταθερά επίπεδα. Λιανική αγορά: Η ζήτηση σε αυτόν τον τομέα κινείται σε πολύ υψηλά επίπεδα, ενώ η προσφορά χαρακτηρίζεται ως μηδενική. Οι κορυφαίες τοποθεσίες περιλαμβάνουν το χρυσό τρίγωνο στην πρώτη συνοικία της Βιέννης, το οποίο αποτελείται από τους εμπορικούς δρόμους «Kärtner Strasse, Graben και Kohlmarkt». Εμπορική αγορά: είναι περισσότερο από ποτέ συνδεόμενη με την οικονομική ανάπτυξη της πόλης. Οι απαιτήσεις για τη σύγχρονη υλικοτεχνική υποστήριξη, καθώς και για τις βιομηχανικές και εμπορικές περιοχές αποτέλεσε 1) τη βάση για αυξημένες τεχνικές απαιτήσεις για τα κτίρια καθώς και μηχανισμό πιστοποίησης της πράσινης ανάπτυξης (περιβαλλοντική προστασία). Επενδυτική αγορά: εμπεριέχεται σε όλους τους προηγούμενους τομείς της αγοράς. Ο φόβος του πληθωρισμού στη Βιέννη διατηρεί τη ζήτηση σε υψηλό επίπεδο, ενώ οι μακροπρόθεσμες συμβάσεις (σταθερά επιτόκια) που συνοδεύουν τις συναλλαγές είναι περιζήτητες. Ο τραπεζικός τομέας διαφαίνεται επιφυλακτικός στη χορήγηση δανείων (συγκεκριμένα κριτήρια για τους υποψήφιους αγοραστές). Η αγορά ακινήτων περιλαμβάνει τοπικούς (ιδιωτικούς και θεσμικούς) αλλά και διεθνείς επενδυτές. Η αγορά ακινήτων είναι άμεσα συνδεδεμένη με την κατασκευαστική διαδικασία. Συνεπώς το παρόν κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζει τη διαδικασία που πρέπει να ακολουθηθεί για να χορηγηθούν οι οικοδομικές άδειες στην περίπτωση μίας αποθήκης, η οποία εδράζεται στη Βιέννη. Τέλος παρουσιάζονται οι βασικοί τύποι αυστριακών τραπεζών και τα βήματα χορήγησης ενός δανείου στην περίπτωση ιδιωτών (μη εταιρικό κεφάλαιο). 6 REAL ESTATE MARKET- THE CASE OF VIENNA 6.1 OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK Real estate regulation General Civil Code 1811, as amended by the Federal law Gazette 2009/52 (Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch). Building Right Act 1912, as amended by the Federal law Gazette 1990/258 (Baurechtsgesetz). Grundbuch Act 1955, as amended by the Federal law Gazette 2009/52 (Grundbuchsgesetz). Tenancy Act 1981, as amended by the Federal law Gazette 2009/30 (control of lease agreements for apartments, Mietrechtsgesetz). Building Development Contract Act 1997, as amended by the Federal law Gazette 2008/56 (Bauträgervetragsgesetz)

144 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Condominium Act 2002, as amended by the Federal law Gazette 2009/25 (Wohnungseigentumsgesetz). Real Estate Investment Fund Act 2003, as amended by the Federal law Gazette 2008/69 (Immobilien-Investmentsfondsgesetz). Energy Performance certificate (Energieausweis- Vorlage- Gesetz). Building laws of the nine federal states (Bauordnungen). Property valuation act (Liegenschaftsbewertungsgesetz, LBG). Fees act (for the written lease agreements and lease renewals, Gebührengesetz). Companies act (Unternehmensgesetzbuch). Austrian mortgage act (Hypothekengesetz). Laws concerning to the acquisition of land by foreigners in the nine federal states (Grundverkehrsgesetze) Conceptual base Real estate constitutes the connection between the physical objects (land, apartments, buildings, railways, e.t.c), people (natural persons and legal entities), and Rights (Twaroch and Muggenhuber, 1997). A real estate market is consisted of the sum of the institutions, the relationships and the norms, which determine the real estate transactions. The configuration of the interest in a property is based on the advertisement and the advanced methods that exist in order that people can search and find physical objects (effective availability of data). The valuation of the real estate as well as the price formation depends on parameters as the rate of the economic growth, the tax income and the use of land. Due to the fact that the transactions are connected with legal procedures and are established via contracts, real estate markets need secure and accurate land data. Therefore securing of ownership is considered as one the most essential prerequisites for the reduction of risks in relation with the transactions and investments (figure 55). Figure 55: Characteristics of real estate markets

145 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Real estate market in Austria Structure Austria is characterized by a strong domestic wealth and according to World Bank (2010) was ranked as the 3 rd richest country in the Europe. The GDP per capita is more than 40% higher than the EU-average and the unemployment rate is the lowest in Europe (4, 2% in 2011). Austria is characterized as a competitive economy, which has infrastructures that secure adequately the Austrian ownership (chapter 4 and 5). However, some acquisition cases (as for example the acquisition of the farms), are partially regulated (E.g. the land transfer commission in Tyrol) 49. The property market in Austria is considered as a low risk market in terms of volatility. The housing policy is characterized by stability and is sustained via the following elements: Housing legislation constitutes a federal responsibility with a clear emphasis on the protection of the tenants (big rental sector) and the regulation of limited profit housing associations 50. New construction is based on systems of housing subsidies, which are designed by the regional governments. The federal government transfers tax revenues to the nine provinces with the aim to secure the long-term focus on the housing development. The limited profit housing sector has adequately developed and underpins the implementation of the housing policy sector (e.g. concerning energy efficiency). The banking sector plays an important role in channelling investment towards approved housing projects (Source: Structured Financing allows for affordable rental housing in Austria, 2009). Furthermore the land market value corresponds more to the German system. The valuation profession is characterized by accredited court experts (are appointed by court) and by certified valuers (e.g. via guidelines for the collection of insurance data, REV). Land use is determined by building laws, which comprise planning codes and regional development principles. However, in some areas there are still restrictions on the purchase of second homes : The commission in Tyrol must determine whether the prospective buyer qualifies for the purchase of a farm and the determination in the past used to be a difficult process. 50: Limited profit housing associations will be presented below. 51: Therefore a new designation has been established, holiday residences. In some cases foreigners can acquire such holiday residences even without having a primary residence in Austria

146 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Housing stock and land tenure The Austrian property market can be divided into two categories: A market for freehold and leases properties and A market for investment properties. Whole market varies among the different regions. The residential properties in Austria comprise the newly built and the existing freehold and leasehold apartments as well as the residential building land. Buildings in Austria encompass the following: Single- family houses (are more common in rural areas), One or two family houses (the most common building type), Condominiums in multi-storey buildings (in Austrian urban areas) and Non-residential buildings (e.g. historical buildings). The ownership structure of apartments comprise apartments, which owned by private individuals, public sector, cooperatives, and Other legal entities. The predominant part of the Austrian population lives in multiple tenant buildings. The tenant buildings are basically owned by cooperatives and a few of them by institutional investors. Furthermore the federal government, in conjunction with the provincial and municipal governments has developed the limit profit housing. Limited profit housing restricts 1) the activities to limited profit cost capped housing, 2) the interests on financing and 3) the administration costs including the income ceilings for managers. Also is involved with the rent rules and imposes the re-investment of the profits into construction and renovation. Limit profit housing is managed by limited profit housing associations (LPHA) but also by municipal housing companies. That justifies why Austrian property market is characterized by a low owner- occupancy rate (46 % single family home and 12% condominiums) and a strong rental sector (14% private renting and 26% limited profit housing associations and municipal housing). Rental market consists of 1) private rental properties ( units, 17% of the housing stock) and 2) municipal flats ( , of them council flats, and 10% of the housing stock). The majority of rental stock is affordable housing (figure 59) 52. Cooperatives are considered to be a commercial factor of major importance in Austria and have in its assets approximately 2, 4 million buildings. Cooperatives are not profit- oriented and are connected with governmental subsidies, grants and housing allowances, as rents are subjected to strict regulations. 52: The source is Geschäftsbericht,

147 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Subsidies are really helpful in some cases, especially in local areas, where the prices for new flats are really high (e.g. In Innsbruck the price amounts to Euro/sqm). Cooperatives are also involved with the sector of social housing. The social housing market in Austria is featured by subsidies and strict legal regulations and is dominated by cooperatives, limited- and non-profit institutions (local authorities and publicly owned companies are also providers). Social housing can be rented and sold, even though sale is not applied broadly. During the last 10 years in subsidized new constructions in Austria, owner- occupied housing has been replaced by construction of rental dwellings with an option to buy them after 10 years. Apart from the residential property market, Austria is based also on the commercial property market, which consists of offices, retails, hotels and logistical properties. Most of the offices are held by institutional investors, pension funds, insurance companies, banks, closed and open funds and wealthy individuals. Retail market is characterized by many international chain stores, especially in the big cities as Vienna. Furthermore the logistic sector is based on the good international exports of the Austrian industries as well as on the business relations with other European countries. Last but not least, the hotel sector attracts private and institutional investors. In Austria there is another part of real estate market, which sets up special purpose vehicles (SPV) with the aim of developing the facilities for the public infrastructure. Most of these technical infrastructures are financed by public institutions. The segment of forests, which covers a big a part of Austria, is dominated by private foundations, federal republic and church. Housing stock by legal status Private rental (17%) Municipal rental (12%) Condom. rental (12%) Municipal flats (10%) Single family houses (46%) Other (3%) Figure 56: Structure of housing stock by legal status (for primary residences) in Austria (Source: The Austrian system of social housing finance )

148 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Main participants The basic participants of each real estate market are the investors (buyers), the creditors, the owners (sellers) or the state (local authorities bodies). Also the value appraisers of land and the value services play a primary role in the markets determination. In Austria, the involved parties are below presented: Banks (main creditors): are used for lending purposes and some of the most well known are: Österreichische National Bank, Erstebank, Österreichische Volksbank, Raiffeisenbank, etc). Real estate funds (open- and close-ended) and especially listed real estate companies (investors and valuation services): Open- ended funds are an investment scheme, in which an investor can purchase shares in the fund directly from it rather than from the existing shareholders. Unlike open funds, close- ended funds issue all the shares in the beginning and thereafter these shares are tradeable between investors. Concerning to valuation services, they are responsible for the valuation of transactions and the regular revaluation. Real estate investors: private and institutional, domestic and international investors. Generally private or institutional investors in Austria (mostly a limited liability company) acquire real estate (if it is required by law for example German real estate funds, or if the owner isn t a Special Purpose Vehicle, SPV) 53. Otherwise the buyer with a minority shareholder acquires all the real estate in a special purpose vehicle (SPV), in order to avoid land transfer tax. On the one hand private investors are persons or private companies, whose shares are privately held and aren t traded on a stock market. On the other hand institutional investors are organisations, which invest their sums of money in securities, real property and other investments assets (banks, insurance companies and pension funds). Institutional investors are interested in real estate- investment trust (REITs) and derivatives, which are commonly used since late The open-ended funds and the private investors are the largest group in Austria. However, foreign investors play also an important role. Brokers Real estate consultants Auditors, who often act for third parties: their competence is connected with the valuation mainly for logistical purposes. Courts for foreclosure sales Lawyers Public authorities for taxation and land management: regulate taxes as the land tax and the capital transfer tax. 53: SPV (also as bankruptcy-remote entity): A special purpose vehicle is usually a subsidiary company with a legal status that makes obligations secure even if the parent company goes bankrupt. Also it can be used as counter party for swaps and other credit derivative instrument

149 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA State owned companies and Real estate users and customer groups Taxes and expenses on real estate acquisition under the Austrian law Land (agricultural and forestry assets, real estate and business premises) is generally subjected to land tax (Grundsteuer), which is calculated in the basis of standard value (Einheitswert). The standard value is calculated, in turn, by the tax authority for stamp duties and is normally lower than the actual real estate value. Tax rates vary depending on each municipality. Land without buildings or other types of construction is subjected to an annual federal tax on its standard value at 1% (if the land has standard value that doesn t exceed 14,600 Euro, the tax isn t payable). In case of purchase agreements, all taxes, ancillary expenses and charges on disposal of a property amount to approximately 10% of the total purchase price. 1. Real property transfer tax: 3, 5% of the amount of the consideration. In some discounts or exemptions are possible. 2. Grundbuch registration fee (title to property): 1, 1%. 3. Costs of drafting of the agreement and registration: are agreed according to the fee regulations of the person, who prepared the contract as well as cash expenses for certifications and stamp duties. 4. Costs for the declaration and self-assessment of the real estate gains by a legal counsel or a notary: are agreed in the fee provisions of the respective drafter of the title deed. The average costs range from 2 to 3% of the purchase price. 5. Costs of proceedings and administrative charges for real estate transactions: are different from province to province. 6. Housing loans for owner- occupied houses or condominium properties transfer to the purchaser: In addition to the regular redemption instalment, extraordinary redemption up to 50% of the outstanding principal or early redemption is also possible. 7. Additional property charges: Only if any, pursuant to the municipal bill of charges. They can be development costs and costs for the preparing the plot for construction as well as connection costs as electricity, gas, water, telephone e.t.c. 8. Commission (maximum commission as provided for by law): - In case of purchase, sale or exchange of A) real properties or shares in real properties, B) shares in real property which is subjected to a condominium ownership or with respect to which condominium ownership will be established pursuant to an agreement and C) business enterprises (any kind): The charges are related to the consideration for buildings on land owned by a third party. At values of Up to ,42 Euros and from ,42 to ,49 Euros: 4% each (1,453 Euros, the threshold provision according to Real Estate Brokers act)

150 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA From ,50 Euro: 3% each (by seller and purchaser). In each case is inserted the general tax rate (20%). However, sometimes the tax rates vary from the typical percentage of 3, 5%. For example the tax rate between relatives is 2%, while the tax rate for private foundations is about 6%. Generally the sale is exempted from the value added tax (VAT). - In case of mortgage loans, the expenses comprise 1. Grundbuch registration fee: 1, 2% of the purchase price. 2. General order of priorities for pledging: 0, 6%. 3. Costs of drafting of the contractual document /debt instrument: are agreed according to the fee regulations of the person, who prepared the document. 4. Cash expenses: are destined for certifications and stamp duties pursuant to fee regulations. 5. Cost of evaluation: Only if any, fees according to the expert fee regulations. 6. Commission: The fees must not exceed 2% of the amount of loan, if the transaction is subjected to the Realtors regulation (Section1, paragraph 1). However if there isn t such correspondence, the commission must not exceed 5% of the amount of the loan 54. Last but not least, a lease in writing is subjected to stamp duty at 1% of the rental payments, including operating costs and value added tax, which must be paid by the tenant to the landlord during the term of the lease. The Value added tax must be paid at 20% of the rent for business premises and 10% for apartments. For fixed- term contracts, stamp duty is calculated in the basis of rental payments for the whole term (up to maximum of 18 years or three years for apartments). In case of indefinite contracts, stamp duty is calculated based on three annual rent payments. Apart from the above kind of taxes, there are also the income taxes. Specifically the taxes vary as follows. Corporations: 25% income tax Private equity holders: pay up to 50% of the progressive tax (the tax rate increases as the taxable base amount increases). Residential property disposal: is exempted from taxes after 2 years of permanent residence or after 5 years of permanent residence within 10 years. Private foundations: 25% corporate income tax Facts and figures 54: In some expenses, the percentages weren t available. Source constitutes the report Outline of Ancillary Expenses and additional information for the purchase or sale of real property by EHL, Immobilien GMBH (Vienna)

151 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Austria has a total size of approximately 83,879 km 2 and the land use is split into the following categories: 43% forest, 34% agricultural land, 13% buildings and improved land, water bodies, barren areas, other areas and 10% grass land. The stock of living space in Austria amounts to more than 370 million sqm, which equals approximately 45 sqm per person. Austria has a housing stock of 4, 14 million units, in which 3, 62 million households live as primary residence (2009). 41 % of the private households don t have any real estate possessions and only 22% of them have a second property in addition with the primary dwelling. In 2011, for the new constructions the number of the new building permits has been estimated as more than (including new dwellings in existing buildings). According to the last census, there are totally 3, 86 million apartments (about 1,355 million thereof in urban agglomerations) and 2, 05 million buildings in Austria. Private individuals hold a percentage of 54% of the apartments (mainly one or two family houses), while the public sector has in its assets 37% (16% cooperatives and 21% non- profit organisations). The remaining proportion (9%) is owned by other legal bodies, mostly by private companies (figure 57). The buildings are divided as follows: 75%: are one or two family houses and every tenth building has three or more apartments (multi-storey buildings). 14%: are non residential buildings. 1%: community buildings. Non residential buildings are owned by other legal bodies, while community buildings belong to the public sector. Private companies 9% Public sector 37% Private individuals 54 % APARTMENTS Figure 57: Apartments tenure in Austria

152 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA The social housing presents a fostering, mainly by the state and the municipal subsidies. Public subsidies accounted for about 1% of the Austrian GDP, out of which 70% was used for new constructions, 20% for renovation and 10% for housing allowances (2009) 55. Austria has about 192 limited profit institutions, which manage property units, while the municipalities hold a percentage of 9%. The Austrian social rental housing sector acquires 24% of the total housing tenure. The commercial market and especially the office properties constitute the 27% of the investment volume for the year During the period the total investments volume has been increased and amounted to approximately 1, 7 billion Euros (the increase is 7%, compared to 2010). The main players of investments continue to be the private investors and the open- ended funds. A percentage of 30% of the investments belongs to foreigners. Austria s private real estate assets amount to approximately 880 million Euros, while the average real estate value is about Euros per household. Primary residences hold the main part of the total asset value (about 52%) and second residences are characterized by a smaller percentage (28%). During 2011, it has been estimated that 22% of the Austrian households have taken out debt to finance housing. In Austria most of the housing loans are variable rate loans. Furthermore the higher a household income is, the lower LTV (Loan to value) ratio has (68% for lowest incomes and 42% for the highest incomes) 56. The median share of the disposable income that is used by Austrian household to pay back their loans is 50% in the lowest incomes and only 12% in the highest. Austrians use also foreign currency loans. That explains why 29% of all indebted households have at least one loan in foreign currency. During the year 2011, Austria has based its real estate sales on the sales of dwellings (36, 7%), parcels (24, 5%), buildings (16, 3%) and single family houses (11, 8%). Secondarily have taken part with lower percentages other types of real estate as commercial properties (office, businesses) and rented houses (figure 58). Figure 58: Sales division in Austria (Source: Grundbuch + RE/MAX Immobilien, Austria) 55: The numerical data were derived from the publication EU 27 country report- Austria, by Amann and Springler. 56: LTV=Mortgage amount/ Appraised value of the property

153 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA According to current information, the parcels (without buildings) in Austria have an average sale price of 56 per m 2 (REMAX immobile company, 2012). The highest sale price is indicated in the capital, Vienna (334 ), while the provinces as Tyrol (155 ), Vorarlberg (141 ) and Salzburg (134 ) follow. In contrast, the lowest prices are connected with the provinces as upper- and lower Austria (49 and 41 per m 2 ), Carinthia (38 ), Styria (36 ) and Burgenland (18 ). Respectively the apartments have an average sale price of Euros (2012). The most expensive apartments are indicated in provinces as Vorarlberg ( ), Salzburg ( ), Tyrol ( ) and Vienna ( ). Provinces as Carinthia ( ), upper- and lower -Austria ( and ), Styria ( ) and Burgenland ( ) are characterized by lower prices (figure 59). Figure 59: Sale price of apartments in Austria (Source: REMAX Immobilien, 2012) Focus on Vienna Key-elements Vienna is the capital and the biggest city in Austria. According to the last census ( ), its population amounts to inhabitants ( Wien in Zahlen 2012 ). The focus on the real estate market in Vienna is justified by the fact that Vienna constitutes the strongest business location in Austria and has the best financial resources comparing to the other provinces (GDP: million Euros,26, 2 % of the total Austrian GDP). Also it stands out in relation with the quality of life and the growing of its population, combination that makes its property market attractive. Vienna s area is really important within the Austrian society concerning real estate market and composes a hub for investments in CEE- and SEE (central-east and south Eastern Europe) countries. The Viennese real estate market is characterized as prosperous and stable, without significant changes of its core. It encompasses the sectors of Residential market (sale- and rental market): For the first time the residential market can be considered as buyers market. The rental sector doesn t present major

154 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA changes, while there is a demand on creating newly refurbished condominiums that are destined for sale. Office market: Vienna is characterized by reasonable rents prices of offices and has emerged as one of the most stably priced office locations in Europe. Retail market: The demand for new retail spaces is currently at high level. Vienna s top locations belong to the golden triangle of Kärtner Strasse, Graben and Kohlmarkt. Generally there is hardly any supply and the demand is concentrated on these locations. Viennese retail market is now among the top 20 in the world. Commercial market: is more than ever determined by the economic development of Vienna. The requirements for modern logistics as well as industrial and commercial sites are on the one hand base for significantly increased technical requirements for buildings and on the other hand certification for green building (environmental protection) or blue building (management costs). Investment market: is encompassed in all the previous markets sectors. Vienna is characterized by an inflation increase fear, asset that keeps the demand in high levels. The long- term contracts that accompany transactions are sought after, while the demand for properties in secondary locations (sale and lease) has been slightly influenced because of crisis. Banks are cautious concerning lending schemes, while regulations prerequisite specific criteria for the prospective buyers. The real estate market in Vienna is dominated by local - (private and institutional) and international investors. The activities of international investors are limited to large retail areas, office buildings, sometimes hotels and logistic premises. Vienna has an unusual framework concerning this sector. Even though in European Union (EU) and European economic area (EEA) citizens and companies are treated in the same way as Austrian citizens and companies, Vienna is characterized by a different situation. The competent authorities don t apply restrictions to companies if the major shareholder is a foreign Austrian or an EU/EEA company (often Austrian/Cyprus holding structures are used) Office market The total office space in Vienna amounts to 10,780,000 sqm. Viennese office market is characterized by a largely stable rental price in spite of the financial and debt crisis. However, the recovery that is hoped for in 2011 failed to occur. The most expensive district of Vienna, 1 st district (Innere Stadt) increased its average prime rent for the year 2012, mainly due to the number of prime schemes that are handed to the tenants. The rental prospects in Vienna are strong in good locations, especially concerning new structures (e.g. space efficient relocations). However the potential tenants presented to be more cautious in relation with the assessment of the risks. 57: Source Real estate transactions in Austria for third countries investors, Eberhardt, May

155 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA The office-space rental volume in Vienna in 2011 amounted to about 260,000 sqm, around 5% below the previous year s level (KGAL real investments, 2012). The vacancy rate increased slightly over That affected mostly older properties, which no longer have the latest standards. The vacancy rate in Vienna amount to 6, 9%, while the prime rent costs approximately 28 Euro/sqm/month. The average rental price varies as follows. Prime locations: Euros/sqm/month, Quality location: Euros/sqm/month, and Standard locations: 9-12 Euros/sqm/month. The main office development axes are mostly concentrated around the underground stations and include parts of the districts: 1, 2, 3, 10, 19, 20, 22 and 23 (figure 60). Figure 60: Office development axes (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) Retail market The prime locations in Vienna are mostly around the Golden Triangle (the streets for pedestrians, Kärtner Strasse, Graben and Kohlmarkt, 1 st district). For the first half of 2012, this prime segment appeared an increase of rent of almost 14% over end of Also well- frequented locations are considered to be the streets as Mariahilfer Strasse and

156 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Favoritenstrasse as well as Meidlinger Hauptstrasse. The extremely limited space for these locations (vacancy rate <1%), led to the fact that there is hardly any supply. Concerning shopping centres, the biggest space increases in 2010 were the expansion of Donauzentrum and the opening of Riverside in the south of Vienna. During 2011, Vienna west railway station (BahnhofCity Wien West) added approximately 17,000 m 2. At the moment, Railway Station Wien Mitte and Gerasdorf add about 30,000 and 70,000 m 2. Kärtnerstrasse, Graben, Kohlmarkt and Tuchlauben constitute the most expensive streets with rent prices that range from about 120 Euro/sqm to 350 Euro/sqm/month (rents are quoted exclusive operating costs and Value added tax). Furthermore, streets as Mariahilferstrasse, Seitengasse and Seilergasse follow with lower prices. The strongest shopping canters as well as the most important shopping streets are subsequently depicted (figure 61). Figure 61: Shopping- canters and streets (Source: Immobilienmarkt 2011/2012, EHL Company) Commercial market The demand in the industrial and logistics real estate market has been increased significantly compared to the previous year. However, due to economic crisis, any influence on the market (e.g. loan defaults) means a slowdown. The requirements for modern logistics as well as for industrial and commercial sites constitute the basis for the certification of green building (environment) or blue building (management costs). Those affect mainly the older Viennese properties ( ), which cannot comply with the current standards. Consequently their sale is only possible at prices of land minus

157 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA demolition. At the moment land prices in Vienna show a slight but stable decline compared to the period Logistics and industrial real estate as investments are dominated by transactions for the personal need of centrally-located industrial properties as well as for logistic spaces in mint condition with long term contract duration. Most industrial areas are concentrated on the outer circumference of the districts: 10 (Favoriten), 11 (Simmering), 21 (Floridsdorf), 22 (Donau City) and 23 (Liesing). Therefore Viennese industrial areas belong mostly to the southeaster and south part of the city (figure 62). Figure 62: Industrial areas (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) Residential market Even though Viennese private real estate market was slightly affected by the financial crisis, changes (mostly consumers behaviour) are noticed. The decisive factors for buying residential real estate aren t so much yields expectations, but rather stability or increase in value of a prospective. That fact led to a price increase of 5 % in good-, and up to 10% in the top locations within the last year (2011). Generally there is a higher supply of apartments even in the centre of the city than other years (conversion of office space into refurbished condominiums). For the first time the market can be named as buyer s market (more projects compared last year). However, some individual apartments appear difficulties concerning their sale even months after their completion. The extended sale periods caused by high prices or by unwelcome apartment sizes. At the moment, there is a focus on the construction of big and luxurious apartments, which

158 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA appear a sale advantage in the upper floor, but a sales handicap in the lower ones. Currently, an average selling price of 8,000 m 2 can be assumed in the inner city (district 1), price that exceeds the limit that even many wealthy buyers have. -Sale market: In the 1 st district, the most popular apartments have a size that ranges from 120 to 170 m 2. Smaller apartments (60-70 m 2 ) are used for investment purposes, while apartments above 200 m 2 are mostly sold in the super top locations. In Vienna prices differences between individual streets and neighbourhoods, can reach up to 50% (1 st district). The purchase prices vary from Euros to Euros/ m 2. First district is characterized by really expensive prices and future increase of them (up to 20%). Also in the 1 st district about 50% of the buyers are Austrians; in other districts they represent a percentage of 90%. Also the 2 nd - and 9 th district are considered to be really good locations. However, there the prices differences vary up to 30% depending on the proximity to the centre (towards Gürtel prices are decreasing). The price for a sale ranges from about 3,000 Euro to 6,500 Euro/sqm (less sought after locations). The spectrum of the current sale prices within the 23 districts of Vienna is following presented. Figure 63: Purchases prices in Vienna (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) -Rental market: Compared to last year the rental market is considered as almost stable. The budget reduction can be noticed only in case of the high-priced segments and in the long vacancy period of apartments with a total rent of more than 3000 Euro/m 2. The popular apartments are those with good public transportation and infrastructure, mainly in sizes of either m 2 (single apartments, up to 1,200 Euros) or m 2 (maximum rent of Euro). For sought- after objects in the first district rents can reach up to 21 Euro/m 2 (figure 64). At less attractive areas (not in the top locations) the

159 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA rental price per m 2 amounts to 7-9 Euros. Last but not least, the lower rents are noticed in districts as for example 10 th (Favoriten) or 12 th district [(Meidling), 6, 5 Euro/m 2 ]. Figure 64: Rent prices in Vienna (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) Multi-family apartment buildings The fear of inflation as well as the desire for stable prices led many wealthy individuals and institutions to invest in apartment buildings. Compared to the previous year (2011) the number of transactions has increased, but the volume has almost remained stable. Generally there were less large transactions compared to Buyers of apartment buildings are private people and foundations as well as institutional investors. Prices increases are noticed only in the prime segments, where the quality in combination with the location of the buildings makes them sought-after. Houses are characterized by a good average yield of 3% 58 especially within the Gürtel. However, each district is featured by different land prices and yield calculations. It can be assumed that during the next years, yield could reach the annual percentage of 5%. During last year there is a tendency for apartment buildings with office use (yield reached 4% even in the 1 st district). The most popular areas are the 1) Quarters around Rochusmarkt and Arenbergpark (3 rd district), and 2) The quarter around Schwarzenbergplat (4 th district) and the inner quarters of 2 nd (Leopold city), 7 th (Neubau), 8 th (Josefstadt) and 9 th district (Alsergrund). 58: Yield constitutes the income return on an investment. It is referred to the interest or dividends received form a security. It is normally expressed annually as a percentage based on the investment s cost and its current market or face value (investopedia). Yield isn t identical to the return on investment (ROI). ROI is one way of considering profits in relation to capital invested. ROI is calculated on the basis of the value of each enterprise. Also it expresses the social effects concerning the required investments (the value of the enterprise is divided to the existing investments)

160 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Also 15 th district (Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus) showed a positive development. Generally Vienna is marked by an average rental price of 8 Euros/m 2 for apartment buildings and by a complicated tenancy law. In 2011, there were hardly any foreign investors of apartment buildings. Only in the first district the sale price per m 2 living space can reach up to Euros/ sqm for houses with apartments (categories A to C). Generally concerning categories A to C, the districts are characterized by prices that range between Euros/sqm. In case of categories A to D, the prices are decreasing and amount to approximately Euros/sqm (figure 65). Figure 65: Apartment sale prices in Vienna, prices in Euros/ m 2 living space (Source: Market_Report_2011, Colliers international) New demands and economic crisis The new demands are classified according to the sectors of the Viennese market and comprise the following. Office market: - Flexible and efficient spaces: have as main purpose the cost optimization. - Relocations: have as main motives the efficiency enhancement and the space optimization. By relocating to space efficient new structures, companies in Vienna reduce their space requirements by up to 20% for the same number of employees. The specific trend penalises all older properties, which are featured by comprehensive modernisation actions

161 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA - Green buildings: enable companies to reduce their running costs. This tendency has affected by the rising prices of electricity and gas. Retail market: - New spaces (preferable modern): refers to the prime locations of Vienna as the Golden Triangle, which consists of the streets for pedestrians, Kärtner Strasse, Graben and Kohlmarkt. - Retail space for the big station projects: An example constitutes the BahnhofCity Wien West. - Modernising and upgrading existing space: Such an example is the retail park of Gerasdorf. - Expansion and development of existing properties (e.g. Neusiedl am See): aim to grow quality standards. Commercial market: - Properties centrally-located with flexibility and modern equipment: is a need especially for growing businesses and consolidated enterprises. - Provision of modern ramp systems and increased clear ceiling height: are mainly useful for logistical use and production. - Flats for pension: caused by the fact that the contributions made to pension schemes are accompanied by tax reliefs. - Green building (environment) or blue building (management costs): were certified by the requirements for modern logistics as well as for industrial and commercial sites. - Logistic spaces in mint condition with long term contract duration. Residential market: - Residential properties: is considered as an investment alternative to traditional forms of investment (Vorsorgewohnung). - Small residences that are destined for rental purposes: caused by the decrease of the ownership s trend. - The locations within Gürtels. - The transforming of office space into refurbished condominiums for sale. - Large apartments for sale in higher floors. - Apartments between m 2 for sale in the first district. - Apartments above 200 m 2 for sale in the super top locations. - Apartment buildings (often in the range of m 2 per investment): due to the inflation fear and the desire of stable prices. - Resale of apartment buildings: causes to the high demand and the lack of knowledge of the initial private sellers. - B-plus locations. - Subsidies by mainly limited profit housing associations (social housing). - Prices changes pursuant to the new Energy Performance Certificate Template Act 2012 (EAVG 2012)

162 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Buyer: - Open ended funds and insurance companies and - Private foundations: especially in smaller objects and multi-tenant properties. The logic, which accompanies the demands of the Viennese real estate, is subjected to the framework of the internationals standards. Issues as the liquidity of the capital, the reduction of the market debt and the transparency of the processes and regulations are considered to be of major importance. The new demands are also affected by the economic crisis, which added new needs. Vienna compared to other cities in Europe, hasn t largely influenced by the economic crisis. Therefore the situation concerning Viennese real estate is considered to remain in the same levels. During , for the first time the crisis started to be perceived and the investors faced a decline in relation with the finance of real estate. This was also the first time that both the prime rental rate as well as the investment volume started to be decreased. However, in 2008 began also decisively the establishment of the two-room apartments and many real estate agencies in Vienna invested there in order to get the return of investments (ROI). The investment in apartments influenced the market in a positive way. Generally the investors in Vienna focused on low risk segments and didn t want to invest in the prime districts. The investment in less sought after locations developed the investment volume in the B-plus areas. As a consequent, in 2010 an increase of investments volume was noticed compared to The Viennese market during next two years ( ) is characterized by small decreases of yields but important prices increases especially in the prime areas, element that leads to some kind of balance. Hopeful is, that the institutional investors present high liquidity levels concerning their investments- capital. During 2011, the total investments have been estimated as about between 1, 2 and 1, 5 billion Euros Example of procedures Construction permits Figure 66: Pillars of dealing with construction permits in Austria (Source: World Bank, 2012)

163 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA The three main pillars concerning constructions permits are time, costs and procedures (Figure 66, World Bank, 2012). The example is referred to a construction of a warehouse in Vienna by an estimated- value of 1,691,000 Euro. Generally it appears a combination of Α) a cost in about 60.8 % of income per capita, B) a number of 13 procedures and C) approximately 194 days 59. The procedures in combination with the time and costs combine the following. 1) Obtaining location site permission: In case that someone issues a location site permit, the municipality grants only the right to build on a plot. Municipality cannot authorize the actual construction. However, the location site permit constitutes an essential prerequisite for the rest of the procedures. Pursuant to the building regulations, the developer must apply for a building permit. According to the Administrative Procedural Act (1991), the limit of the time for any public service is 6 months. Therefore the authorities mostly respond in 1 month in case where everything is correct. The specific fee ranges between Euros. The average time is estimated as about 1 month and the costs to complete this first step are about 380 Euros. 2) Obtaining proof of land ownership: Building CO should obtain and submit the building permit a proof of land ownership that is not older than 3 months. Even though the procedure can be conducted online, sometimes the authorities require the applicants to visit the local Grundbuch office (district court) just for verification. The average time for the completion of the procedure is 1 day, while the costs amount to approximately 10 Euros. 3) Obtaining the approval of heat and noise regulation: The specific approval is provided by an engineering expert in issues of insulation. The average time the procedure needs is about one month and the costs are 5,000 Euros. 4) Obtaining the expert opinion on structural engineering: Each company has to request the opinion from an independent expert. The average time the procedure to be completed is 11 days and the costs are about 5,000 Euros. 5) Obtaining the energy certificate (Energieausweis): The practice of the energy pass is subjected to the context of the Directive of European Union (2002/91.EC). The issuing of the energy pass II (Energieausweis) was compulsory for all projects in the municipality of Vienna since January of Until 1 December 2012 the presentation of the Energy Performance certificate isn t obligatory in cases that the provincial buildings codes don t require them. However, in December of 2012, the new Energy Performance Certificate Template Act 2012 (EAVG 2012) was established and made regulations more strict (penalties both for brokers and sellers, at about Euros). Since then, all the advertisement concerning real estate must essentially contain the indication of the energy certificate. Energy pass is required when someone applies for a building permit at the relevant authority of the City of Vienna (Municipal department 37-building inspection). Only the properties that belong to the list of the exceptions (is created since December of 2012), are absolved from this requirement. 59: The example is based on the Economy Profile-Austria, doing Business in a more transparent world, World Bank,

164 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Energieausweis is usually issued by licensed companies and individual engineers. The average time for the completion of the procedure is estimated as 10 days (for a building with overall size of sqmeter) and the costs are about 700 Euros. 6) Obtaining a building permit: Each building permit must be valid for a period of 18 months from the date of issuing. This period cannot be extended and within those 18 months the same applicants can request a duplicate if the zoning- and development plan hasn t changed. The procedure of the obtaining a building permit requires a number of documents. Application for building permit Approval of the land ownership of the registered land Current copy from the land register (not older than three months) Energy performance certificate (electronic form) and proof of noise control, heat and sound insulation Confirmation of the plan or author s plan in case of new additions or medications Proof of compliance with the parking requirement Preliminary design including smaller construction projects by experts Confirmation of the principles of accessible design and construction Design concept for garden areas and for new buildings (construction class III) Proof of the availability of sufficient water for fire fighting on the plan and providing information on hydrants Locations for waste receptacles Documentation of the risks for the enterprises that are subjected to the Seveso II Directive 60 and Documents for the architectural review of the Municipal Department of Architecture and Urban Design (MA 19).The average time for the integration of the building permit proceeds is considered to be 80 days and the costs are about 300 Euros. 7) On-Site inspection prior to the issuance of the building permit: The inspection is estimated at three hours and the inspection fee costs 7 Euros per half an hour. The building inspection of the city of Vienna (Municipal department 37) is provided after approval of construction projects. Building inspection functions with the aim of buildings monitoring, citizens safety and proper city s expansion. The competences encompass advices on 1) the planning- and building permit phase as well as 2) the construction and the safe maintenance of the building. The average time the on-site inspection to be completed is 1 day and the costs are about 42 Euros. 8) Requesting and receiving of the on- site permit before the beginning of the construction: The Building Control Office (MA 37) performs a physical control before the construction starts. However during each construction the building inspection is made by the building supervisor of the company, which has undertaken the project. In cases of irregularities during the construction, the designated (by the municipality) civil engineer will visit the site. The average time, which is needed for the completion of this step, is 1 day and there is no charge. 60: Seveso Directive applies to industrial establishments where dangerous chemical substances exist in quantities more than the threshold of the directive

165 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA 9) Notifying of the municipal authority about the integration of the construction works: After integrating the construction work, the building supervisor must submit the municipal authority a notification of construction integration. The specific notification must be certified by a civil engineer and encompass several reports. The average time is estimated as 1 day and costs about 35Euros. 10) Obtaining the industrial operating permit: The average for the industrial permit to is 80 days and costs amount to about 300 Euros. 11) Receiving the on-site inspection from the municipal authority: The physical inspection occurs before the issuing of the industrial permit. The inspection is requested by phone. The average time to receive the on-site inspection is 1day and the there is no charge. 12) Requesting and obtaining water and sewerage connection: The municipal authority provides both water and sewerages connections. The water connection fee is approximately 4,000 Euros and the sewerage fee is estimated at 6,000. The average required time for the water connection delivery takes 60 days, while the average time for the sewerage connection delivery is 1 month. 13) Requesting and obtaining the telephone connection: The average time for the obtaining a telephone connection takes 1 month and the costs range to 160 Euros. It must be mentioned that each step (between of the 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, 5 th, 7 th, 11 th, 12 th and 13 th ) takes place with another step Bank loans The Austrian banking sector consists of mostly universal banks with emphasis on retail and corporate banking. Investment banking is considered to play a minor role in the Austrian banking system. Austrian banks comprise Saving banks: promote and collect saving deposits from the public, grant loans and lines of credit to industrial, trade and commercial enterprises. They also provide funds for housing construction and municipal projects. Joint stock banks State mortgage banks: grant mortgage loans and loans to local authorities (provinces and municipalities) that are refinanced by own issues (as mortgage-backed bonds and public sector mortgage backed bonds as well as credit-backed loans). The difference between them is centered to the fact that in the first case the loan is secured by a mortgage, while in the second case by loans to the public sector. Raiffeisen banks Volksbank credit cooperatives Building and loan associations and Banks of special purposes

166 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Saving banks and mortgage banks constitute the main pillar and have a share of about a quarter of total assets in the Austrian banking sector (Ewald Norothy). Banks function by financing. Financing in Austria can be classified into three categories: Short-term financing: usually refers to a short-term loan that facilitates financial constraints for a few months or a year. For overdrafts, banks always calculate higher interest rates. Instead of short-term loans, personal loans from friends and family are considered to be good alternative. Medium-term financing: includes the consumer loans. Long term financing: encompasses loans for purchase, construction, maintenance or renovation of properties. They are also characterized as investment- or residential loans and are granted on a long-term basis. In long-term financing, the amount of the loans is higher than the amount of consumer loans in medium-term financing. However, purchases in long term-financing provide a stable value. Some characteristic categories of investment loans are the - Residential mortgage loan: is secured by a real property via the use of a mortgage note (land register), which evidences its existence. Residential loans are characterized by fixed interest rates or variable. Transactions are usually accomplished in Euros but there is also the possibility for foreign currency. Austria belongs to those countries, which enable non-secured housing loans. - Home equity loan: is characterized by the fact that the borrower uses the equity in his home as collateral. Home equity loans are often used to finance major expenses as home repairs, renovations e.t.c. A home equity loan creates a lien against the borrower's house, and reduces the actual home equity. Home equity loans are classified into A) Home equity term (fixed- term) and B) home equity line of credit (variable). - Annuity loan: is a type of loan, in which an annuity holder borrows money against the cash value of the annuity contract. This type of loan allows individuals to access their retirement funds without going through the hassle of cashing out the annuity and has the advantage that the monthly repayment doesn t change Terms for housing loans According to the information that the website of the Austrian Bank Raiffeisen (www.raiffeisen.at) provides, there are three different types of housing finance 61. Housing finance with land registration 61: Raiffeisen banking group constitutes a universal bank, which specializes in commercial and investment banking. Raiffeisen includes also (for financial services) the specialist companies: Raiffeisen capital management, Raiffeisen Insurance and Raiffeisen Leasing

167 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA - Loan amount: Euros per person, up to Euros per partnership - Total time: up to 31, 5 years - Entry rate: can be 2% for the first 1, 5 years or 2% for the first 1, 5 years and 3, 9 for 2 years (interest rate cap 6%) - Repayments: A) Standard rate (the interest is adjusted at each change of interest rates), B) Gradual rate (the transaction starts with a discounted rate, which is increased gradually every five years), and C) Fix rate (stable rate). Housing finance without land registration Loan amount: Euros per person, up to Euros per partnership Total time: 6, 5-11 years Interest: fixed interest rate, which amounts to 2, 9% for the first 1, 5 years and interest rate cap 6% Repayments: Standard rate Calculation example: Loan (with registration): Borrowing rate 2, 9 % for the first 1, 5 years Total loan term: 10 years, 11 months Monthly repayment: 250 Euros Annual percentage rate: 5, 1 % Calculation with borrowing rate: 4, 3% per year for 1.5 years Residential construction with instant credit: doesn t have credit limits with the land register (non- traditional funding) - Loan amount: Euros per person without land - Maximum total time: 30 years (land register), 10 years (without land register) - Fixed interest rate: is destined for 5 or 10 years, afterwards there isn t an interest rate limit (neither upper neither lower) - Interest: A) with land registration: 3, 9% fixed rate for 5 years, 4, 75% for ten years, B) without land registration: 4,4 % fixed rate and 5, 25% for ten years. - Repayments: Standard rate - Calculation example: Loan (with registration):

168 THE REAL ESTATE MARKET- CASE OF VIENNA Fixed rate: 10 years Loan term: 25 years Monthly repayment: 564 Euros Annual percentage rate: 4, 7 % Calculation with borrowing rate: 10 % per year for 3, 4 years Step by step analysis of taking a loan procedure (private clients) The following flow chart describes all the steps, which enable private clients to take a loan by the Austrian bank of their choice. Usually by comparing the Annual Percentage Rate (APR) of each bank Details as the loan- amount, tenure and terms and conditions Selection of the creditor (Austrian bank) Selection of the type of loan (usually by the discussion with the selected bank) Loan application (also other documents as e.g. electronic report of incomeand latest income tax notice of assessment from the responsible tax authority) Getting of a Pre- Approval letter (certification that the debt-to-income ration and credit score qualify the loan program) Processing the loan application (contact escrow, order and check -of credit report, valuation of property, verifications and miscount documents) 62 Underwriting the loan (in depth analysis and interpretation of the information in the loan package) Funding and Closing ( order loan documents, documents are signed and verified, the verification of documents is returned, final conditions, funds requested, title recorded Only selfemployed/comm issioned based clients, must submit the latest 2 years income notice 1) Order mortgage insurance 2) Analyze credit and property 3) Assign conditions Figure 67: Loan process (based on the website 62: Austria law firms and valuation companies are involved in the specific step

169 ΣΥΜΠΕΡΑΣΜΑΤΑ 7 ΣΥΜΠΕΡΑΣΜΑΤΑ Η ολοκλήρωση της παρούσας διπλωματικής εργασίας, οδήγησε σε μία σειρά από συμπεράσματα. Το σύνολο αυτών των συμπερασμάτων αποτελεί τον συνδυασμό τόσο της μελέτης των προηγούμενων κεφαλαίων, όσο και της κατανόησης των κυριότερων ζητημάτων (πλεονεκτήματα, αδυναμίες) για την περίπτωση της Αυστρίας. Σημαντική βοήθεια για τις νέες ανάγκες και τάσεις αποτέλεσε η επίσημη έκθεση της Παγκόσμιας Τράπεζας (Η άσκηση της επιχειρηματικότητας σε ένα πιο διαφανή κόσμο, 2012). Η έκθεση αυτή, μέσω της συγκριτικής αξιολόγησης 127 διαφορετικών οικονομιών, περιγράφει πως μία σειρά από κανονιστικές μεταρρυθμίσεις επηρεάζουν διαφορετικές χώρες (αναλυτική περιγραφή, παράρτημα Β). Μέσα στους τομείς που εξετάζονται, συγκαταλέγονται και η εγγραφή της ιδιοκτησίας καθώς και η προστασία των επενδυτών (μέρος της αγοράς ακινήτων). Για το 2012, η Αυστρία κατατάχθηκε μέσα στις 35 χώρες (από συνολικά 127 χώρες) με τα καλύτερα αποτελέσματα, στον τομέα της εγγραφής της ιδιοκτησίας. Το Αυστριακό σύστημα χαρακτηρίζεται από ακρίβεια των γεωμετρικών πληροφοριών της ιδιοκτησίας (εκτός από το δημοσιονομικό κτηματολόγιο, κτηματολόγιο των ορίων), καθώς και από το υψηλό επίπεδο διασφάλισης των τίτλων (αναλυτικοί έλεγχοι μέσω του μητρώου τίτλων). Η διαδικασία της εγγραφής βελτιώθηκε μέσω μία μεταρρύθμισης, που καθιερώθηκε κατά τη διάρκεια του Η ρύθμιση αυτή καθιέρωσε την ηλεκτρονική υποβολή των αιτήσεων για την εγγραφή των μεταβιβάσεων των ακινήτων, γεγονός που μείωσε σημαντικά τον χρόνο εγγραφής. Ταυτόχρονα η αλλαγή του ψηφιακού περιβάλλοντος των δεδομένων (νέα μορφή γεωβάσης, Μάιος του 2012) επέφερε κάποιες αλλαγές. Από την μία πλευρά, διαχώρισε τις αρμοδιότητες κτηματολογίου και μητρώου τίτλων και έτσι η εσωτερική οργάνωση του κάθε φορέα βελτιώθηκε. Ωστόσο αυτή η αλλαγή απαιτεί τον εκ νέου επαναπροσδιορισμό της ψηφιακής επικοινωνίας όχι μόνο μεταξύ των δύο φορέων μεταξύ τους, αλλά και της επικοινωνίας των επαγγελματιών που ανήκουν στον ίδιο φορέα. Έτσι πρέπει να ρυθμιστεί εκ νέου η επικοινωνία τόσο μεταξύ κτηματολογικών γραφείων και μητρώου γης, όσο και μεταξύ συμβολαιογράφων και δικηγόρων. Οι δύο βάσεις χαρακτηρίζονται από καθημερινή ανταλλαγή πληροφοριών, γεγονός που απαιτεί την αναζήτηση γρήγορων και εύκολων μεθόδων για την επικοινωνία τους. Οι δύο βάσεις στηρίζονται σε έξυπνα λογισμικά, τα οποία δίνουν την δυνατότητα πραγματοποίησης αλλαγών και σχετικά γρήγορης ανάκτησης των ηλεκτρονικών δεδομένων (data requests). Ακόμα το πλαίσιο των αλλαγών επέβαλε μείωση της διαδικασίας δημιουργίας νέων αγροτεμαχίων στο κτηματολόγιο και στο μητρώο. Έτσι όλα τα βήματα από τις μετρήσεις πεδίου μέχρι τη λήψη απόφασης και την ενεργοποίηση των βάσεων δεδομένων, καλούνται να ολοκληρώνονται μέσα σε μία περίοδο 1-2 μηνών (παλαιότερα ήταν 5-7 μήνες). Επίσης η δυνατότητα ελέγχου της βάσης από τους ιδιοκτήτες, στοιχείο που δεν υπήρχε με την παλιά βάση, βελτίωσε την διαθεσιμότητα της πληροφορίας. Στον τομέα του κτηματολογίου, το πλαίσιο της νέας βάσης επέβαλλε την ανάγκη γραπτής τεκμηρίωσης κάθε μέτρησης πεδίου, καθώς και την απλοποίηση της χρήσης της αυστριακής υπηρεσίας εντοπισμού (APOS). Οι ρυθμίσεις αυτές σε συνδυασμό με την

170 ΣΥΜΠΕΡΑΣΜΑΤΑ αύξηση της απαραίτητης ακρίβειας μεταξύ 2 μετρήσεων πεδίου για τα όρια μίας ιδιοκτησίας (μέγιστο σφάλμα 0,05 μ), κινούνται στον στόχο για τη βελτίωση της ακρίβειας των γεωμετρικών πληροφοριών της γης. Γι αυτό το λόγο γίνεται εύκολα κατανοητό, ότι η ταχύτερη μεταφορά μεγαλύτερου ποσοστού ακινήτων, στο κτηματολόγιο των ορίων (νομική απόδειξη ορίων), είναι αναγκαία περισσότερο από ποτέ. Εξάλλου, από έναν αριθμό ακινήτων που υπάρχουν αυτή τη στιγμή στη βάση του κτηματολογίου, μόνο το 10% (ένα εκατομμύριο ακίνητα) από αυτά, έχει ήδη μεταφερθεί. Από το 2008, η επίσημη δικτυακή πύλη του υπουργείου τοπογράφων, έδωσε τη δυνατότητα χρήσης των Web υπηρεσιών και διευκολύνθηκε η πρόσβαση στα ηλεκτρονικά γεω- δεδομένα. Επιπρόσθετα, η υποδομή χωρικών δεδομένων (INSPIRE) στην Αυστρία, αποτέλεσε την βάση για την προσπάθεια μετασχηματισμών με βάση εργαλεία του ανοιχτού κώδικα (π.χ. επεξεργαστής υπό ανάπτυξη,«humboldt Alignment Editor», 2012). Ωστόσο σε μία εποχή οικονομικής ύφεσης, ο αυστριακός κτηματολογικός τομέας δεν έμεινε ανεπηρέαστος και εμφάνισε μείωση των εσόδων του. Χαρακτηριστικά, κατά τη διάρκεια της περιόδου , τα έσοδα του υπουργείου τοπογράφων παρουσίασαν μείωση της τάξης των 2,5 δις (τα έσοδα του κτηματολογικού χάρτη εμφάνισαν μείωση 3 δις). Συνεπώς, η εύρεση μεθόδων για την ανάκτηση του κόστους, αποτελεί μία πρόκληση για τα επόμενα χρόνια. Σχετικά με τον φορέα του μητρώου γης, η νέα βάση προσδιόρισε την ανάγκη ενημέρωσης του νόμου του μητρώου και για αλλαγή της επικοινωνίας μεταξύ δικηγόρων και συμβολαιογράφων. Η αλλαγή αντιμετώπισης κάποιων διαδικασιών, όπως του τρόπου υποβολής (από γραπτή σε πλέον προφορική) απλών υποθέσεων στο επαρχιακό δικαστήριο (π.χ. πρόδηλων σφαλμάτων), κινείται με οδηγό την απλοποίηση και της μείωση της γραφειοκρατίας. Στον τομέα της αγοράς ακινήτων η οικονομική κρίση, η οποία γίνεται εμφανής στην Αυστρία από το 2008, επέφερε μία σειρά από αλλαγές. Μεγάλο πια μέρος των νέων κατασκευών, στηρίζεται στην βοήθεια επιδοτήσεων σχεδιασμένων από τις τοπικές κυβερνήσεις, ιδιαίτερα σε περιοχές που οι τιμές για νέα διαμερίσματα είναι ιδιαίτερα υψηλές (π.χ. Ίνσμπρουκ). Παρατηρείται ακόμη ανάπτυξη των συνεταιρισμών περιορισμένου κέρδους,ως προϊόν συνεργασίας τοπικών φορέων και ιδιωτών. Με σκοπό την μείωση των στεγαστικών εξόδων, η οικονομικά προσιτή στέγαση έχει αυξηθεί τα τελευταία χρόνια και προκύπτει ως μία από τις μεγαλύτερες ανάγκες. Η κοινωνική κατοικία στην Αυστρία μπορεί να ενοικιάζεται και να πουλιέται, αν και η πώληση δεν έχει ακόμα εδραιωθεί αρκετά. Παρατηρείται ακόμα η αύξηση των ξενώνων ή πανσιόν (είδος οικοτροφείων), ως εναλλακτική στεγαστική λύση με σκοπό τις φορολογικές ελαφρύνσεις. Επιπρόσθετα, η ανάγκη υλικοτεχνικής στήριξης στα κτίρια, αποτέλεσε τη βάση για την πιστοποίηση της πράσινης ανάπτυξης. Μάλιστα ο νέος νόμος για την ενεργειακή απόδοση (2012) επιβάλλει μία σειρά από αυστηρότερους κανόνες,τόσο για τους μεσίτες, όσο και για τους αγοραστές. Η περίπτωση της Βιέννης, ως η δυνατότερη οικονομικά πόλη της Αυστρίας, χαρακτηρίζεται από σχετική σταθερότερα, ιδιαίτερα στις πλέον περιζήτητες περιοχές (1 η συνοικία). Στο πλαίσιο της οικονομικής κρίσης και εξαιτίας των υψηλών τιμών στις πρώτης- ζήτησης περιοχές, παρατηρείται ανάπτυξη στις περιοχές Β-κατηγορίας. Το

171 ΣΥΜΠΕΡΑΣΜΑΤΑ μεγαλύτερο μέρος των επενδυτών αποτελείται από θεσμικούς επενδυτές καθώς και από διεθνείς. Στον τραπεζικό τομέα, αν και η οικονομική κρίση δεν επέφερε μεγάλες αλλαγές, αυξάνεται η ζήτηση των μακροπρόθεσμων συμβάσεων με σκοπό την επίτευξη σταθερών επιτοκίων. Ωστόσο η Βιέννη χαρακτηρίζεται από μία ιδιαιτερότητα. Αν ο κύριος μέτοχος μία επενδυτικής εταιρείας, ανήκει σε αυστριακούς με έδρα το εξωτερικό ή σε ευρωπαϊκές εταιρείες που δεν είναι αυστριακές, δεν απονέμονται περιορισμοί. Συνεπώς γίνεται κατανοητό ότι αποτελεί πρόκληση για τη Βιέννη, η ενσωμάτωση με τα διεθνή πρότυπα (ίδια αντιμετώπιση πολιτών και επιχειρήσεων από το πρότυπο της Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωσης), με στόχο την διαφάνεια των επενδύσεων. Ακόμα πολλοί επενδυτές, εμφανίζουν διαφορές με τις τιμές των ακινήτων που ορίζουν οι νόμοι (πολύ υψηλές τιμές αγοράς), με αποτέλεσμα να δημιουργείται η ανάγκη για εναρμόνιση με τους επενδυτικούς και οικοδομικούς κανονισμούς. Συνοψίζοντας, η περίπτωση της Αυστρίας μπορεί να αποτελέσει πρότυπο για την εγγραφή της ιδιοκτησίας και σε οικονομίες άλλης κλίμακας, με βασικά στοιχεία την ταχύτητα των διαδικασιών μέσω εξελιγμένου ψηφιακού περιβάλλοντος,την αυξημένη ακρίβεια των πληροφοριών και το υψηλό επίπεδο εξασφάλισης των τίτλων της ιδιοκτησίας. Στον τομέα της αγοράς ακινήτων (μέσω του παραδείγματος της Βιέννης), υποδεικνύονται στοιχεία όπως η σταθερότητα των τιμών, οι μακροπρόθεσμες συμβάσεις και η διαφάνεια των επενδυτικών κανονισμών. Τέλος αντικείμενο μεγάλης προσοχής, αποτελεί η επίτευξη ομαλών σχέσεων μεταξύ των φορέων του δημόσιου και ιδιωτικού τομέα. 7 CONCLUSIONS The completion of this thesis led to a number of conclusions. The sum of these conclusions constitutes the combination of the previous chapters study and the understanding of the main issues (strengths and weaknesses), in case of Austria. For the determination of the new needs and trends, the official report of World Bank ( Doing business in a more transparent world, 2012 ) is used. The specific report, describes through benchmarking 127 economies, how some regulatory reforms influence various countries (detailed description, Annex B). Within the areas that are examined, are included the issues of registering property and protecting investors (part of the real estate market). In 2012, Austria ranked within the 35 countries (among 127), which present the best results in the sector of registering property. The Austrian system is characterized by accurate geometric information of properties (apart from fiscal cadastre, boundary cadastre), as well as by high-level securing of title deeds (formal and detailed checks by land register). During 2011, a regulatory reform improved substantially the registration process. This regulation established the electronic submission of applications for the registration of real estate transactions, fact that reduced considerably the time of registration. In addition, the change of the digital environment of the information (new

172 CONCLUSIONS structure of Geo-database, May of 2012), introduced changes. On the one hand, the new structure distinguished the competences of cadastre and land register. Thereby, the internal organisation of each entity improved. However, this change influenced the digital communication many of the main professions. As a consequence, is the need for the redefining of the communication not only between the two entities, but also between the professionals, who belong to the same entity. During 2012, the digital communication between cadastral offices and land register as well as between notaries and solicitors has to be newly regulated (Kugler, 2012). The two new databases exchange daily information. Therefore, quick and easy methods for their communication are required. The two databases are based on intelligent software, which enable the accomplishment of changes and the recovery of data (data requests). Furthermore, the context of changes imposes the reduction of the time of some basic procedures, as the process of creating new cadastral parcels in cadastre and land register. As a result, all steps, from the field s surveys until the decision making and the actualisation in both databases, should need to be completed in a period of 1-2 months (before it was 5-7 months). In addition the ability that have the owners to control the content of the new databases (in comparison with the old database), improved information s availability. In the sector of cadastre, the new database requires the written documentation of each cadastre surveying field process as well as the simplification of the use of Austrian Positioning Service (APOS) by the private- licensed surveyors. All these kind of settings in combination with the increase of the necessary accuracy between two complete separated measurements of a cadastral boundary (maximum error 0, 05 m) aim of improving the accuracy of the geometric information of properties. Therefore, the rapid transfer of a higher part of properties to the boundary cadastre (legally binding proof of boundaries) is essentially needed. Moreover, only a percentage of 10% of the properties are currently converted into Boundary cadastre (totally properties in the database of cadastre). Since 2008, the official portal of the Ministry of Surveying enabled users the utilization of Web services and the easier access to the electronic geo-data (e- Geodata). Additionally, the spatial data infrastructure (INSPIRE) in Austria constituted the basis for transformation efforts, which are based on open-source tools (e.g. the underdevelopment tool, «Humboldt Alignment Editor», 2012). However, factors as the economic crisis couldn t leave the cadastral sector unaffected. Characteristically, during the period the revenues of the Ministry of Surveying presented a decrease of 2, 5 billion Euros (the revenues from the cadastral map s fees showed a reduction of 3 billion Euros). Therefore, finding new methods for the recovery of the costs constitutes a challenge for the following years. Concerning land register (Grundbuch), the new structure of the database identifies the need for the update of the land registry law as well as the newly regulation of the communication between solicitors and notaries (above referred). By changing some procedures, as the process of the filing mode (from written form, now orally) of simple cases (e.g. manifest errors), the efforts for the simplification and the decrease of the bureaucracy are highlighted

173 CONCLUSIONS In the field of real estate market, economic crisis became apparent in Austria since 2008, led to some changes. The part of the new construction, which is based on subsidies, has been increased especially in areas, where the prices for the new apartments are very high (for example in Innsbruck). In addition, there is development of the limit-profit associations, which function as a product of the cooperation between local authorities and individuals. Also with the aim of reducing the housing costs, affordable housing emerges as one of the greatest needs. In Austria social housing can be rented and sold, even though sale hasn t yet fully established. There is an increase of flats for pension, as an alternative solution, based on the tax reliefs that accompany it. Also the need for modern logistics formed the basis for the certification of green growth. The new Energy Efficiency law (2012) changes considerably the properties prices and imposes stricter regulations for brokers and buyers. The case of Vienna, which constitutes the strongest financial location in Austria, is characterized by stability (slight prices changes), especially in the sought after areas. In the backdrop of the economic crisis and due to the high prices in top locations, there is development in B-plus locations in Vienna. In the banking sector, even though crisis hasn t affected directly the basic structures, the loans that are accompanied by long term contracts and fixed rates are preferred. The largest part of investors consists of institutional- as well as of international investors. However, Vienna is characterized by a peculiarity. In case that the major shareholder of an investment company is a foreign Austrian or an EU/EEA company, the competent authorities don t apply restrictions. Therefore, Vienna has to face the challenge to be incorporated into the international standards (EU and European economic area (EEA) citizens and companies are treated in the same way as Austrian citizens and companies) with the aim of improving the transparency of investments. In addition, still many investors have problems to comply with laws (exceed the prices limit that is determined by law). As a result the harmonization with the investment and construction regulations is considered to be essential. To conclude, the case of Austria can function as a model for other countries concerning sectors as registering property. The key elements encompass rapid procedures via evolved digital environment, high accuracy of land information as well as strong security of ownership (title deeds). In the real estate sector, Vienna s example highlights as basic needs, issues like the stability of prices, the long-term contracts (loans) and the transparency of investment regulations. Last but not least, the achievement of efficient cooperation between public- and private sector (in cadastre and real estate market), remains always as one of the biggest challenges

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176 REFERENCES context of property valuation. Word Package 3. IMMOVALUE, IEE/07/553/SI KGAL International Real estate department Market Report, Office Real Estate Market Vienna. Klotz, S GDB neu Informationsveranstaltung BEV Produktabgabe für GDB-neu. BEV - für Eich- und Vermessungswesen. STARTSEITE/GDB-NEU/BEV-PRODUKTABGABE_FUER_GDB-NEU.PDF. Kugler, K Austrian Cadastre and Land Register. BEV-Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen. Zagreb, Madl, P. and Tichy, W Austria. Corporate Real Estate 2009/10. %20handbooks%20real%20estate% Mansberger, R. and Muggenhuber, G Geo-Data Infrastructure for Land Management in Austria. FIG Working Week Greece, Athens, Muggenhuber.pdf. Mansberger, R., Muggenhuber, G., Navratil, G. and Twaroch, C Potentiale der Landadministration: Ist der Kataster noch zeitgemäß?. Vienna University of Technology. 16. Internationale Geodätische Woche Obergurgl, Februar ftp.geoinfo.tuwien.ac.at/frank/5135_obergurgl2011.pdf. Ministry of Justice, Center of Legal Competence Metadata of registers and their contents with examples - AUSTRIA. Muggenhuber, G., Navratil, G., Twaroch, C. and Mansberger, R Development and Potential for Improvements of the Austrian Land Administration System. FIG Working Week TS07A SIM and Cadastre. 12.pdf. Navratil, G An object-oriented model of a cadaster. Department of Geoinformation, Vienna, Vienna University of Technology. ftp.geoinfo.tuwien.ac.at/navratil/nav_dipl.pdf. Navratil, G Cadastre and Cadastral Research. Institute for Geoinformation and Cartography, Research Group Geoinformation, Vienna, Vienna University of Technology. ftp.geoinfo.tuwien.ac.at/navratil/cadastralresearchtuwien2012.pdf. Nindl, D. and Roncat, A Katasterwesen I, zusammengestelltes Skriptum zur Vorlesung. E660 Vermessung and Geoinformation, Wien Reichsthaler, K Vermessungsurkunde, Ausfertigung für Vermessungsamt. Statistics Austria Facts & figures Annual edition. Twaroch, C Country Report 2003, Austria. Twaroch, C. and Muggenhuber, J Evolution of Land Registration and Cadastre, Case Study: Austria. Joint European Conference on Geographical Information. April 97, Vienna. United Nations Land Administration Guidelines, with Special Reference to

177 REFERENCES Countries in Transition. Economic Commission for Europe. Geneva, ISBN administration.guidelines.e.pdf. Unger, E-M., Navratil, G. and Klotz, S Semantic model transformation within the context of INSPIRE. FIG Working Week Rome Websites

178 APPENDIX A VIII APPENDIX A: INTERVIEWS 1) Julius Ernst (Bundesamt für Vermessungswesen, BEV) Picture 1: Visit at the federal ministry of metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation Question 1: Can you give us a comprehensive description of the Austrian Land Administration System? Which Ministries are the main responsible? -Of course. BEV is responsible for the cadastre and all the cadastral offices get budget from the Ministry of Finance. They mainly get money from the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Labour. This is the reason why it is considered that state has the responsibility of financing the set of the cadastral offices. There is always the need to give money for the personnel, for the employees salaries, for investment, etc. Of course, except from this kind of general information, I can give you an extent description of what part of money goes to the state administration and for example to the licensed surveyors. Question 2: We would also like to be informed about the Administrative structure of Grundbuch and Cadastre. Could you outline the structure of both systems? -It is useful for you to know that cadastre is represented through a set of cadastre and Grundbuch offices, which cover not only the case of Vienna s land administration but also the cases of all the Austrian provinces. Whole Austria totally includes one hundred forty one 1

179 APPENDIX A Grundbuch (141) and forty one cadastral offices (41). Generally it is difficult to be defined, how many people are working in each office, but I can say that the number of employees, who are working at the moment for all the cadastre offices, is estimated to three hundred (300). A bit more specifically, I believe that the number of employees ranges from eight to twenty five per cadastral office. The number is usually interwoven with the size of the office, so if one office is too small for example, then it will have around eight employees. Otherwise the bigger offices, like the paradigms of Vienna, Grads or Innsbruck, reveal about twenty three employees. The fact, which considered as really important, is that cadastral offices work with the production of maps by using the technology of GIS. The puzzle of the offices complements the existence of metrology offices as well as informal cadastral offices. The informal cadastre offices always work with the aim of supporting the function of the official cadastral offices, which have fewer personnel than the personnel they need.i could give you an example in order to understand better. In case of a new project, for example digitization, the small offices, which have around eight employees, cannot be able to finish the project without the support from other offices. Furthermore the licensed surveyors, who work in conjunction with the offices, are calculated to three hundred and they normally don t increase every year. It appears one kind of stability around this. Concerning to Grundbuch offices, I could only say that the lawyers, who are working for the Grundbuch courts, are one or two per office. Figure 1: Elements of cadastre and Grundbuch offices Question 3: What financial elements would you consider as important concerning to Grundbuch? - Grundbuch usually pays in order to cover all courts costs and generally everything, which is connected to the legal administration. Courts lie under the Ministry of Justice. Question 4: I would also like to ask information about the procedures, which accompany transactions/mortgages. Can you provide us a kind of flow chart? 2

180 APPENDIX A -I will choose to refer the case of subdivision and merging in order to give you information about the steps that someone has to follow. When someone wants to subdivide a parcel or merge two parcels, he must consider of the provincial law. According to the law, sometimes it is needed to have the agreement by the municipality but sometimes it is not necessary. In cases, when the local municipality must provide an agreement/application with the aim of parcel s merging, the owner should first take the agreement in order to merge his parcel. The continuity is interwoven with the cadastre, which conveys the agreement to Grundbuch. Therefore the owner, who has taken the permission from the local community, returns to the cadastral office. The submission of the agreement accounts as really necessary. That s confirmed from the fact the even a licensed surveyor, who has undertaken the merging procedure s integration, has to go to the municipality to bring the agreement. Generally the merging procedure follows specific rules and requires a number of prerequisites. Consequently, it is not strange sometimes that some rules do not allow, by the first step, the parcel s merging. Furthermore, I could definitely say that the central core of the prerequisites is related to the parcel s owners, the municipality, where the parcels belong to and the cadastral background, which accompany them. Briefly the owner must merge his parcel when 1) The consisting parcels belong to the same owner (one owner) 2) The consisting parcels concern to the same mortgage 3) The consisting parcels belong to the same municipality 4) The consisting parcels have the same cadastral background. (For example it is not possible to merge 2 parcels, if one belongs to the spatial boarder cadastre and the other to the real tax cadastre). By the above, it is easily understood that the next step is connected with the compliance with the four prerequisites and especially the last one. In case that the parcel, which belongs for example to the real tax cadastre, must be firstly transferred to the same cadastre. Afterwards, it will be possible to be registered. Anyway, generally we can understand that it makes sense for the owner to apply first to the cadastral office. It forms also a priority to merge parcels, which belong to the forest area and characterized by different usage types. These occasions merging is dictated by the forest laws. However, the case of dividing a parcel, which belongs to a forest area, can accompany some problems. Last but not least, I would like to highlight the involvement of the license surveyor, who takes part in the whole process from the beginning. His main task centered to the monitoring of the whole procedure and to helping by his proposals. A license surveyor usually makes the changes documentation, which are collected afterwards by BEV and implemented to the cadastral maps. Question 5: How can be described financial structure of the Ministry? For example which is considered as the main policy for giving salaries? -I can say that every income, which is normally derived from fees and from the cadastral maps, returns to the Ministry of Finance. That happens because Ministry of Finance collects all the money and it sends them afterwards back to the state government. They form officially a part of state government. However, special agreements have been established 3

181 APPENDIX A with the aim of investments conducting and database s as well as system s renewal. The official website s portal of BEV (www.bev.gv.at) forms a special income s source and it can be used for investments. There is a responsibility for skipping our budget (budget for investments). Concerning to salaries policy, there is first of all a minimum contract that refers what kind of salaries it is need to be paid. If the employees are judged as really effective, their salaries will be increased. Figure 2: Financial Hierarchy Question 6: Relating to BEV s salaries, does it dominate a kind of standardization? In Greece for example, if one employee appears special skills, he normally takes a bonus. -I can answer that in Austria these kind of model doesn t be followed. Salaries are always standardized and in case that an employee has a special function in the organization s structure, he will get a special income. A good employee usually gets a bonus, which ranged to two hundred Euros per year. This occasion indicates the existence of a literally special project that must be finished by the employee, who takes the bonus. Question 7: Digital Cadastral Map (DGM) forms an essential tool for the representation and maintenance of topographic data with national coverage. Could you explain comprehensively in which scales Austrian DKM exists and in which percentage does the national coverage exist? -Of course. Digital cadastral map, as you possibly know, forms the foundation for all processes, which are interwoven with the cadastral data. The method for the digitization of maps based much more on the digitization of the existing analogues maps rather on creating new maps. In 1883, when the first maps were integrated, the updating started. The permanent maps updating was established by law during the decade The map, which has been created for the whole Austria, exists mainly in the following scales: 1/5000 (rural areas) 1/2000 (urban areas) 4

182 APPENDIX A 1/5000 (urban areas). The scale 1/5000 forms the usual scale, with which the maps of municipalities are created. Question 8: What elements could you provide about the access, which citizens have? -I could only say that BEV requires some special fees concerning to the access in the official website. Each citizen, even if he works as a license surveyor or as employee at a different Ministry, cannot take anything freely. The concept includes a public register. If someone wants to visit the website for any kind of data, he can visit it freely. However, if he wants to have a copy of them, he must pay a fee. Question 9: Apart from the procedures and the theoretical background, it is also essential for us to be informed about the final products and services, which Ministry offers. Can you provide us information for the cost recoverability as well? -Of course. Firstly BEV uses a budget for IT technology equipment s as well as renting needs. As you possibly know, the digital cadastre operates with the windows, so if a need for a new computer is presented; the Ministry usually has a budget, which ranges to 21 Million Euros. Totally the budget range to 75 Million and 21 Million destined for investments needs. The different payment s needs are usually connected to BEV rents (buildings, which roof BEV) and stuff s salaries. Rent is always interwoven with immobile companies and it is noticed, that now the 21 million Euros will be skipped. It is also predicted, that until next year 4.5 million Euros will be taken away, so the decrease will range to 20%. At the moment, Ministry presents the budget of 70, 5 million Euro. That fact, in my opinion, requires the reduction of the travelling costs. It is not always possible and necessary to travel with this rhythm. This kind of exaggeration emerges for the fact that BEV s stuff travel with the aim of GPS surveying (Boundary points, control points, etc). At this time, there is a project so the costs maybe will be reduced. Additionally, there is a priority now in the communications production between Grundbuch and Cadastre. This process must be digitized. Last but not least, the current needs include the Cadastre s digitization not in an AutoCAD but in a GIS (geographical information system) version, where GIS data will be maintained. Question 10: Do you think that the reduction of those 4, 5 millions (surveying costs) have their roots in economic crisis? -Yes, because it is characteristically referred that we had a large deficit and the expenses are very high. Therefore, the budget was needed to be reduced, not only in case of BEV but for whole Austria. The Ministry proposed the specific reduction (4.5 Millions) by supposing that in half year economy would solve the biggest problems. Maybe then, the possibility to take the amount of one million Euros with the aim of special investment would have been created. Nowadays in case that BEV requires for example the amount of one million Euros in order to finish the renewal of ADB, the answer would be negative. This answer due to the fact that such a kind of project it is not possible to be paid from the normal budget. During the next years we hope that the system will have a bit changed so that there will be a possibility to save money. 5

183 APPENDIX A Question 11: In the backdrop of global economic crisis, I would like to ask you in which level crisis has influenced Austria. Have you noticed important reduction of salaries? -In Austria it has been established a legal description concerning to the range of salaries. Consequently, the possibility to deviate from this spectrum is considered as really low. Firstly, it was preordained to change the relating law but unfortunately it did not happen in the end. Every year is characterized by discussions with the aim of negotiating with the union, which would conclude to an additional 1, 2 or 3%. For example this year forecasted that the reduction will range to 0%, but finally it was calculated as 1, 50%. However, I believe that generally Austria doesn t belong to the states, which were radically determined by economic crisis. Question 12: I would also like to make some questions concerning to Land use and planning. Could you explain how Landry Adjustment is involved in case of making building plots in rural areas? -Yes. Firstly, if someone wants to construct a building, he must ensure that the parcel belongs to an area, where building is permitted. The spatial planning law indicates it. In case that these areas are used for agriculture for example, it s forbidden to build there. Consequently even though a license surveyor accomplishes all the necessary actions for the subdivision, it is considered as impossible to create a building in the specific area. Generally, I could say that spatial planning can describe the procedure of a parcel s subdividing even in cases, where there is not the possibility of subdividing a parcel, as the owner wants. That s normally happens in urban areas, where the parcels must follow specific prerequisites, as having special size (not too small and not unusable) and access on public land. It s also not possible for an owner to subdivide a parcel, which belongs to the zoning plan and has a front side s length, which overtakes the boundaries length. Question 13:In Greece in case of building in rural areas, the owner must pay a small fee for the rural area (park for example) and also must give a land piece to the state with the aim of making a park or a road. In Austria do we meet contributions of land and money? -I could answer that contributions basically depend on the type of the specific area. I would show you a paradigm at my laptop in order to have a more integrated idea for this. For example, it would be not strange that Landry Adjustment requires an area with flats and buildings, where a hill exists. We also notice the existence of a public street. In case that someone wants to create a building there, Landry Adjustment provides information about the line, which must not be exited. Afterwards it is allowed to build a house at the specific area but in some cases the owner has to donate the residual area for free. That fact also depends on the area, where the zoning plan was made. If the area belongs to a central city, in Vienna for example or somewhere else, where the parcel s price ranges to 1000 Euros, it will be not donated for free. However, the owner usually follows the depth limits, which are established. The depth limits determinate how many meters someone must donate freely. Therefore, an owner usually donates the half length of the total street s length. We meet also other reasons, why somebody has to pay additional costs. Usually that happens with the aim of transferring land from agricultural to building use and providing electricity, lighting, paving streets and water. A pivotal issue that always must be considered for the amount of 6

184 APPENDIX A money which must be paid is the size of the parcel. It is considered as equally important to understand that rules differ from municipality to municipality. For example I live in a rural area and my municipality is really interested in keeping a lot of people in this area. Therefore, the parcels prices are characterized as really low, sometimes they range to 5 Euro per sqmeter. In cases that someone builds a house, he can continue to live there without paying something additional. That can be easily being explained because the municipality collects money from taxes. Taxes depend always on the number of inhabitants, who live in the municipality. If someone wants to take a piece of land, he has only to pay once. In case that there is a house at the top of a parcel and the owner wants to remove it and create a new house, he must donate more land. There is also a possibility for the owner to take a piece of land back because a street for example was planned smaller. These cases indicate the inclusion of public land. Maybe it will happen that the owner must pay for this land as well. It depends on what is donated for free, then he gets it back for free and if he got money for it then he has to pay. Question 14: How would you characterize the cooperation with the municipalities relating to spatial planning? -In Austria, each province is considered as a federal state, so each municipality must agree with the Regional Zoning plan of the provinces government. There are totally nine different spatial laws, which apply for all the provinces. These Austrian spatial laws differ from district to district. However, we meet also differences not only in laws but also in regulations, which term to each province. That forms practically the reason why each municipality has to make an agreement with the federal province, where it belongs to. Provinces always determinate the laws and the general rules. Question 15: Could you explain what means taxes on assets (Grundsteuer, Vermögenssteuer)? -Now the inheritance tax is skipped but in case someone sales a parcel, then he has to pay the price of purchase. He has to pay a fee but he has to pay some taxes if he donates it for example. Social insurance is based on the tax that arises from the tax on assets. It is basically the land value as it is determined by the land tax. Land tax is based on the value of the land. Land value is the value that is expected in case that someone tries to sale a land parcel. Tax on assets is exactly how much value someone owns. Furthermore there is a different land tax which is not connected with the value of the land but what the amount that someone gets is considered as revenue. Someone pays for having land a small amount of tax and that is based on how much he can produce as income with that piece of land in an average use. Also there is much of political discussion about that. This kind of taxes is based on the recycling soil evaluation (low taxes). If someone sales the land he will get more than this value which is produced. We should base taxes on the amount of value that someone would get if he can sale the specific land (landmarketvalue). Sometimes tax is estimated as the 10% of the land. In United States the value of the land changes if the spatial planning or the zoning planning alters. If a parcel was located before in an agricultural area and now is in an industrial or a recreational area, the value of the land will significantly change. Therefore the only person who takes advantages from the specific case is the land owner. He doesn t have the 7

185 APPENDIX A obligation to pay for that increased value. In United States in case that a land owner benefits from the land parcel in that way, he has to give back a part of that additional income when he will sale it. Even it is internationally being discussed, that doesn t happen in Austria. For example, farmers especially always pay less tax for their properties than they have to. Land taxation system starts in 19 th century, when the biggest part of the government income was produced by farmers. That completely changed because it was never adapted to the changes of the society. During the next years the system would a bit changed so it can be possible to save and spend money. At the moment though is not possible. Question 16: As regards to the field of Cadastre, would you provide us information concerning to the process of Registration? It is always considered as one of the most important procedures. -The owner gives the order to a licensed surveyor to subdivide a parcel. He says that I want to subdivide my parcel and he gives information for the sizes of both sides. Then the licensed surveyor gets an act so he makes a negotiation with the owners. It is really important to produce this surveying document which is the basic information to register the negotiation with the owners. If there is an agreement, they sign it because signature is an essential in this procedure. They surveyed the parcel and they produce this surveying document. The surveying document, which is produced by the licensed surveyor, has to be subsequently checked by the cadastral offices. So the owner must make an application to the cadastral office. They make a formal checking so everything is technically correct. That fact happens because the cadastral offices have some descriptions, mainly coming from lawyers, which represent what must be included in this surveying document and all these procedures in order to be technically correct. Especially in case of using the actual Cadastral map. The surveying procedure lasts a few weeks or months. If the cadastral office has changed something there will be a problem. They have to check if everything is ok and then the owner gets the certification which is necessary for the local court (Bezirksgericht). Local courts will not register the surveying document without this certification. The first step encompasses the surveying documents and the signature of the owners. The next step is that the owner goes to a notary or a lawyer. Though is not necessary that someone has to go a lawyer. He can go directly to the local court. Normally they use the support of the notary so the notary makes the contract. Therefore in the first step the parcel with the number 1 for example is now divided to 1.1 and to 1.2. The owner wants to sale one part of it for example. Then he needs a contract to sale this parcel because it is essentially needed for the Ownership Kataster (Grundbuch). Also he needs the surveying document and some other documents for example an agreement from the local community to subdivide this parcel in case that the parcel belongs to a special planning area. Those kinds of agreements are needed especially in urban areas and in some provinces. For example in Burgenland the parcels are very narrow and they want to prevent the division of small parcels. The size of the parcel has to be at least from 10m and 2000 sqmeter (area) so that it can be divided. In addition, some cases require the permission from the forest tree agency. Normally the notary brings all the documents and the application to the local court and if everything is judged as correct, the local court directly changes the information at the data in the part of the Ownership Kataster. It is already known that there is one common database between cadastre and Land Registry. At this stage they change the owner, the mortgage and they write correctly the new 8

186 APPENDIX A information. This kind of information cannot be seen in the Kataster (owner and mortgage). This decision by the courts, which is directly included to the data of Grundbuch, is transferred now to an analogue form in the cadastral offices. They make a big project to make this process digital. They have to print the analogue form and sent it to the municipality, to the owner and to the cadastral office. Now the cadastral office takes the surveying document that has the certification and they have in their archive and they can change it in the Kataster. This period ranges from minimum 2-3 weeks to maximum 1-2 months. This is the period between the local courts. This happens because sometimes the local court indicates when the decision is needed to be made, but it isn t really needed to send the paper directly. They can wait 2 weeks to send it just ones. During this period the cadastral offices change the information in electronic forms. Subdivision of the specific parcel must be included to the process of the certification. In the Cadastral map, one layer is the legal layer (legal certification) and the other is the preview layer. When cadastral offices get the surveying document, they update the preview layer. Also at this stage when they have the decision of the court in an electronic way the subdivision is brought from the preview layer to the legal layer. Those data compose the electronic process. The required period lasts from one hour to one day. The next day is visible to the actual DKM. The digitization is a prepaid program, which should have started at 2010 but due to some problems it is supposed to be finished at It must be clarified that the licensed surveyor is necessary to send this surveying document in an analogue form. But BEV gets a link from the archive of a local surveyor because they are forced to store all the surveying documents. The law since 2 years says that a document is considered as a certificate document only if it is stored in the archive of the licensed surveyors. Licensed surveyors have a big centralized archive for whole Austria and each surveyor includes his document in this archive. They sign in an electronic form and the whole way is electronic. Kataster takes a special document in pdf form (pdf version for long terms archives). The surveying certification is available for 18 months. The owner has to bring within this period this surveying document to the Ownership Kataster. If he brings it later, it would be because the owner wonders if he wants to sale or to subdivide it. Normally the time depends on the actions of the owner. This period was estimated at 2 years but now they want to reduce the duration to 6 months. However this was politically impossible. The licensed surveyor goes to the municipality and requests for taking the permission. In reality he makes a preview of the surveying document, goes to the municipality and asks if the subdivision is correct. If everything is acceptable, he gets the official permission. Normally in the municipalities this kind of permission can takes days or week. In small villages if someone wants it, he can have it in one day. In Vienna the procedure now is really fast. Someone can get the permission hopefully within 6 months. One or two years ago the period was used to last 2 years. Question 17: Does Austria have 3D Cadastre? -Austria has all the prerequisites in order 3D Cadastre is not needed. That happens because it would be possible for example if we had the opportunity to show it in the cadastral maps, to show the legal parts in the Ownership Kataster as well. It is usually not used in Vienna because it would be really complicated. They haven t even applied for this. Also technical infrastructure is not very easy. Especially if you think that something always changes and you 9

187 APPENDIX A use absolute coordinates then if the ground moved down what will you do in 100 years if something is different? Question 18: Can you get the products only from the website or you can request for them from somewhere else? -You can get everything from Internet but it is possible to get data for free if you go to the cadastral office. If you go the cadastral office and you say << I want to have a look at the map, please show me >> then it is surely for free. But if you want to take a copy (you are able to have a black-white copy) then it will cost you only 50 cents (copy costs). Therefore it is cheaper for someone to go to the Cadastral office. A few years before, everything was in analogue form. You also can have a copy from the old documents but if you want a real extract, it costs 2-3 Euros as it would cost from the website. Therefore it is completely the same because the people in the cadastral office use the same tools. There aren t any more paper copies of cadastral maps because they don t need them. Question 19: Which is the Connection between Kataster and Spatial Planning? -For the new areas which are encompassed to the urban planning it is not necessary to do new surveys. Spatial planning only uses the cadastre as the basic information. Moreover cadastre is available for all Austria. There are no parts of Austria where they don t have cadastre. Question 20: Could you provide us some examples? - Of course, I can show you the following (He showed us some examples from his computer). 1) Soil evaluation map Cadastre is the basic and the license from the soil evaluation is depicted there. The spatial planner makes his zoning plan with the help of cadastre. He has to use it. If you define for example front lines of buildings or boundaries of streets, you should use the existing boundary lines. The problem is that if you press the owner to buy land from the street, e.g. someone who will buy your property in direction of the street, it may happen that there are public sources and then you have to remove it. That cannot be a private- owned land and that s why the cadastral lines must be used. 2) Merging. Merging needs the following: Name of Licensed surveyor, Surveying document, Official stumps, Electronic signature, and Cadastral map. 10

188 APPENDIX A The owner says that he wants to merge this land parcel and merge this part and this part to this parcel. This is a very simple example and this is only the first step. The second step is that he will subdivide this parcel. Descriptive characteristics: Owner, Number and Size. The number of the one parcel will be deleted and the area goes to the other parcel. Then the example shows the updating of the database entries. The next step will create a new parcel. This parcel is a certain example because this is a big parcel so he produces a new parcel. Then you get the clear technical surveying documents: Number of the control points(given by the database of the BEV), Boundary points etc, Land cover (if the area is agriculture or full of gardens for example), Coordinates of the fixed points, Standpoint points (the points that they put the surveying instrument, where they make the surveys) System, Scale, Results of the adjustment and Quality checking (That proves that everything was made in a correct quality). In the last page an analogue document is needed. So this page shows an original copy from the digital document. That will change in 3 months and then it will be needed only a digital copy. It must be also mentioned that. The surveyor has to be sure that all the points are the right points. Before he uses them, he must check it. 3) Typical subdivision -It is a new boundary line between the 2 parts. There are two parcels after the subdivision. This is for example an area; this is 5 meter from the public road so that the house has access to the public land from its back part. The owners have a private agreement (signature) about the position of the boundaries. This is documented and made publicly available so it can be given to everybody. Everybody who purchases the land later, he can say that there was an agreement and that these were the boundaries. So there isn t a discussion about the position anymore. And someone cannot even go the court. The coordinates of the boundaries cannot change. Also it is needed to have a signature and a surveying document. First you found an agreement and once that is done its valid for all the time. If you want to make changes you have a new agreement. 11

189 APPENDIX A 4) Access in BEV -The normal site of BEV is This is the same for anyone. You have to go to the mandate- apply (Anmelden) and you have to write your address and your area. Then you have to go firstly to the Shops and services, later to the shops. There you must ask for what exactly you want and in which area. For example Mr. Ernst knew the name of the Municipality he lived. Otherwise if someone knows the number of the municipality it is exactly the same. The only difference between us is that the price for me is zero because I have registered as an employee and I have not to pay something. This will cost something for you. Then it asks you if you want to pay and you reply yes. Then you write your city and know where it has to go. Afterwards you ask for what you want and in this case I would like an extract from the cadastral map. This is the preview of the whole area. At this moment I give the number of the parcel so it would be more specific. The next preview it asks you if this is the parcel that you mean. I reply yes and in the next step it asks about what you want. I ask for the extract from Kataster (Cadastralmapverzeichnisse). Now you can see the product in the digital cadastral map (DKM). The descriptive part comprises the following elements: Boundary lines, Boundary numbers, Boundary points (with a number or without a number) Parcel number, Land cover information and Owner. And in this point I can say if I want to have it together with an Orthofoto. But if I ask for a scale of 1:1000 it says that this combination is not possible. When I change this to a scale of 1:2000, hopefully it is possible. When this finishes, you say ok and now you can ask for information about how much money you have to pay. You get information about what you ordered. For this area I selected if I was not an employee, I would have to pay 2-3 Euros. You can get the original vector information by paying 10 cent per parcel. In the case you want information which is 3 months older it s 10 times less, its 0, 1 cent. Then I say this I want. It asks you if you really want this and I answer yes. Now you ask for sending you the order. Now you have to wait for an . This process will be direct and hopefully you get this ok that allows you to take the information from the BEV shop. In this mail they thank you for the shopping and they inform you that in a few minutes you will get an with the product. I say if I want the product in pdf format or in digital version. It usually lasts 3-5 minutes to get the products but it depends also on how big is the specific area. If the area is big, it lasts longer. Then I will get the original data. Although we must wait now or I can show you what products you can take. It lasted eventually 2 minutes. That procedure was too fast to get the product. The has the link so you can download the pdf with the product. This data which are describing the product are the following: Date, 12

190 APPENDIX A Area, Number of the parcel, Address, Owner and the Number of the parcel in the Ownership Kataster. In this case I got what I ordered now (cadastre in combination with the digital cadastral map). This is my house and afterwards is the descriptive information. -Parcel number: 38 - Area: sqmeter Figure 3: Digital cadastral map They refer that of these is the building itself and are attached with the concrete. The rest of the area encompasses the garden. Afterwards I can see the name of the owners: Julius and Cornelia Ernst. Later there is some information about how I can use this data. What you cannot get from our portal (BEV), is the information about (encumbrances). This is not possible. But I can show you public information for example the old real estate database. There are seven different links where you can have access in the same database. Everything looks the same but it isn t. This is only the descriptive information and not the cadastral map. I can show you the number of Ownership Kataster. Now you can see all the information in another way. It says that the number of the parcel is 38. This comes from the cadastre. Then you can see the owners. Ownership Kataster has 3 parts: 13

191 APPENDIX A A PART parcel B PART owner C PART mortgages The size of the parcel included to Grundbuch part. There are also another data, coming from the bank. This is the credit I got from the federal province to build the house. This is public information. If you go to the municipality or to the cadastre office and request for the number of a parcel or the address, they can inform you about the mortgages. This is not forbidden. The owners of the neighboring parcels may have the right to put lines there or cross the gardens because in huge parcels is a tradition to use parts of the land for specific purposes. That can also be shown in the Grundbuch. The land use database has no connection with the real estate database. The information is the following: Dokumentation of the order Cadastral Map, Catalogs PDF Date of order : Number of order: Address of BEV: Schiffamtsgasse, Vienna, Austria User: Selection Parcel 1 Object, Overall View Figure 4: Extract from Cadastral Map Also they are provided the following information. Cadastral Map, Catalogs PDF Surveying Office: Oberwart Cadastral Zoning: Eltendorf (31106) Map Sheets number: /2, /1 Coordinates Framework : MGI Gauss Krüger M34 14

192 APPENDIX A 2) Ernst Glaser: Real estate agency (Raiffeisenimmobilien) Question 1: Do the people pay back the loans normally? -Yes. It happens very seldom that somebody cannot afford to pay. A very common reason people usually move in a bigger house is that they make children or because of divorces or because life changes and they have to find another place to live. Question 2: How has economic crisis influenced the real estate market? -Since 2008 the crisis started and investors had faced a decline relating to the money of real estate. However, crisis had strangely influenced the market in a positive way. In 2008, started the establishment of the two- rooms apartments and many real estate agencies invested their money in order to get gains from the investment (ROI). These kinds of investments methods already exist since a long time ago. Since 2008 our bank, Raiffeisen Bank (Vorsorgewohnunggesellschaft, RVG) used to construct build for pension. Customers get interests back from their money (Vorsorgewohnung). It is very common that banks (including Raiffeisen) sell their flats usually before they build them. For example they start three months before the construction deadline (before they have finished the constructions), in order to find tenants. Time usually depends on how big is the project. If the project encompasses simultaneously flats, the agency can find tenants in a period of 4 or 5 months. Real estate market in Vienna is similar to other cities in Austria, but presents some differences. Austria is a small country. Consequently from east to west and from north to south there aren t big differences. Tenancy act (Mietrechtsgesetz) constitutes the main federal law, which stipulates basic regulations and has strongly influenced the estate market. Question 3: Are there any new demands for certain types of real estate? -Yes there are. Since 2008 the demands on the flats that are destined for pension is really strong. There is always a big discussion, where the agencies must invest their money. Are they going for example to invest in gold or silver? People must invest the money because otherwise there are dead. The logic, according to which the right system works, is that the money has to be transferred and not staying stable (liquid capital). As I have recognized last year, there is also another demand, the demand of buying only land. Independently from the crisis, I have sold the whole land I had undertaken to sale. Always the investment of the land depends on the demands, which dominate in each period. Usually the amount of money that real estate values accept as increase of the prices ranges to 2-3 %( predictions). Last year the increase of the prices in the thirteen district (Hietzing) reached 20%. This reveals that a considerable number of people didn t want to buy a freehold apartment and find the solution of tenancy. Maybe the problems with the tenants were so big that the return of investments (ROI) went away. That happens because when tenants don t pay normally, the owners don t get the return of investment. This is the reason why many people say that they don t want problems at all and they just speculate in the increase of the prices. This kind of investment promotes the no-movement of the money; it is exactly the same for example with the 15

193 APPENDIX A investments in gold. There is no rent and return of investment. These are the most important certain types of investment. Also at this point I must make a distinction of the different types of investments. They exist two different categories of investments. The first category is the personal investments. People save books, long- time fixed papers, fixed interests. Today people don t get anymore interests. When someone buys a paper for this long time fixed value papers (usually in an oral way), they usually send him back securities. Also people take public loans from government. When government needs money, gives out the papers. The interests aren t so high and that s the reason why in case that the papers are free, they give investment for real estate and they don t buy the papers. Question 4: Which districts in Vienna are the most expensive and which districts are the cheapest? -The first district is the most expensive area and it has a great precedence in comparison with the other districts. Also some buildings in the centre are highly protected because of their cultural profile. There is separate law and department for the buildings under the preservation order. In reference to the tenants, the attitude of the state is clarified through the law of landlord and tenant (Mietrechtsgesetz-Denkmalschutz). The state wants to protect the tenants and these houses, which are built in the 19 th century. There are many different laws and contracts for tenants. In particular, there are twenty one different types of laws for them. The main idea, which the government had, is the protection of old tenants and houses. That s the reason why every year in April the owners cannot rent a flat for more than 4.70 euro per sqmeter. It s a value called Richtwert or guideline and someone must consider of it. If the owners have 4 packets, they can take plus 5% or -3% because there is no lift. Nowadays investors do not buy this kind of houses. Now there are only houses for investments. For example, in a normal building there are flats for investments. The rent rises so rapidly that there are already differences with the law. It would be a very big problem in the future. There are two possible situations. Either the law will change; either each owner will be in the court. For example the second most expensive district now, concerning the value of land, is the eight (Josefstadt). The value which is referred in the law of landlord and tenant is 4.70 Euro. In this case people have to pay three times more. That happens because the value of the land is so high. Characteristically the department of the real estate rights in Vienna (Magistrat 69) makes a research for the prices in Vienna. From these prices, there is a part of rent for land costs. The price line is 4.70 euro but if someone lives in a good location he can ask 10% more or 15%. These prices are increasing only by an index. That means that depends on the power of the market. That s the reason why this index did not rise up so much because the land hasn t increased so much its prices. Question 4: Which are the main types of investors? -I can say that all real estate agencies discuss really often that even though the agencies fit in the market with those prices, the law always refers to other things. Many people don t speak about it. Normally the specific law has to change. There are two different kinds of investment. The first kind is private investors, who want the accommodation by themselves. Secondly investors, who buy only if they get back the return on investments (ROI). The common purchases are office buildings, industrial real estates, buildings for business 16

194 APPENDIX A purposes, etc. Companies like the big supermarkets as Zielpunkt, Hoffer, Lidl usually operate in this path. Zielpunkt for example belongs to the ZIP WARENHANDEL AG and needed for the infrastructures almost a whole village to be available. This village is usually located outside of Vienna and it includes around 300 people. If there were 300 people in this region, then private investors would buy the land and rent it for big markets like Zielpunkt within 10 years. After 10 years the investment plus the interests would be back and the land will be also back without any credit. A lot of those kinds of big investments happen here in Austria. There are also plenty of old houses that are intended for tenants. For example in the third district (Erdberg), there are many investors, who build many offices, flats, walking streets in cooperation with a big company Soravia Real Estate Company. They have already bought another investor called Export financing procedure (Exportfinanzierungsverfahren, EFV), which comes from Linz. Soravia Company has built many new buildings 2) Wolfgang Wasserburger: Institute of Urbanism, Transport, Environment and Information Society (CEIT Alanova) Picture 2: Team of CEIT Alanova 1. Description of the Spatial Planning System in Austria We did some description within an EU project in E-contact plus program. We can send it to you by mail and it s open to the public. The main problem is that the law is separated to the Federal States, each of the 9 federal states has its own law and in some parts quite different. Firstly I have to point that I am not active in Spatial planning at the moment, I do research and maybe some of my knowledge is a little bit updated at the moment. 2. How is the Austrian government responding to sustainable development through spatial planning? Q: How the government is responding to sustainable development through Spatial Planning? In Greece, because of the economic crisis, they stopped every Planning. And what about the Green buildings? A: There are a lot of differences from the whole political system. Until the point like fabricates. In Austria, every little village have fabricates. And at least in low Austria, I know it better because I made some Spatial plans there 30 years before, the fabricates for example they are public. So they have really their own law how they work, but this is beside spatial planning system. 17

195 APPENDIX A Q: Which is the conventional approach? A: You can read it in the paper I will provide you. We have zoning plans. They are done by the local communities. Vienna is always a little bit beside the system because it s community and federal state in the same time, so we maybe have to look Vienna specially. We have the zoning plan, the scale 1/1000. Every community should have one zoning plan. I am not sure if there is someone left. In the 70 s and 80 s, some communities tried to dismiss those zoning plans, so they can be free in their decisions. By now, I don t know. There are some contacts you can go and ask. Below that, we have the building plan. This is partially the same in Germany. The difference is who has to use it. In Austria, everyone has to use it, in Germany only the administration.(at the scale 1/1000). The communities should but it s not necessary to have it for everywhere. So this is the difference. And these are the local levels. The federal state level is really different between the federal states. Some of them have some Regional planning system of different scales, some don t have some spatial planning on special topics, but it s also not the same in all federal states, and there is no federal competence for planning. So this is a very special point in Austria. There is only a combination administration which has two directors, one after the federal state and other of the states. So and because we don t have this form of a federal planning, there are some problems across the border planning between the federal states. In East of Austria for example, we have a community of 3 federal states and this is called planning community east (we can provide you a contact there). They try to coordinate the border planning but every time they have a good idea they have to ask the 3 chiefs in the federal states, so it is very hard to work there. (I can provide you a contact with a spatial planner or the 2 directors there). Q: What about the present concepts? A: In my point of view, there are no present concepts. They all work with the concepts from the 60 s. To be honest, spatial planning started in 1958 or 1956 with the highest court in Austria. The constitution planning is not specified. (in you can find online information for Spatial planning for Eastern German and Austria (Spatial Planning Conference). It s about 400 participants. ) As I said before, in my point of view there are no present concepts, only very old staff. Q: What about Green buildings? Did you try to change some city plans? A: Yes, there are some thoughts at least in Vienna, but since 1976 spatial planning and Architects are divided at the TUW, so you can meet totally different people that they Architects or Spatial Planners. Sometimes they don t speak one to the other and this could be a problem. Q: And what do you think is the new Role of Spatial Planning? A: I think there is no really a new role. Spatial planning is very old fashioned in Austria. Hopefully you will find someone who gives you different opinion. Q: Which is the effectiveness and the performance of Spatial planning? A: Maybe you can find some in the conference papers. In some parts, spatial planning is very effective. The village ends here and the fields start here. There are borders between building areas and green fields. Q: What about the environmental impact? 18

196 APPENDIX A A: Beside all the spatial planning there is also very strong Federal law for Environmental Impact Assessments ( so I will provide you the German Terms for your thesis you will need.) this federal law is very effective. Q: Is there Harmonization among Europe? A: I don t think that there is much harmonization among Europe. We are working now in a new project e-contact plus program. We try to harmonize the spatial data. Within this project, 24 partners, 15 European countries. It s not even possible to harmonize between the planners and the technicians about what spatial planning is. We need it for across Europe, so it s really difficult to think about the harmonization so I think there is no technical development. Beside that, there are some ground borders across Europe. (hopefully I can provide you a contact, but the problem is that my boss is on holidays). I think beside this research you need many different opinions. Q: Has the economic crisis any impact in Spatial Planning? A: Economic crisis is not yet in the brains. They didn t recognize it until now. So, I think that no one thinks about it yet. Q: How flexible is the planning policy? A: Not too much. I think that should be an article in conference with the idea providing rule based systems against the traditional plans which can be more flexible in the future, but this is just an idea from some researchers. Q: Have they studied about that idea or it is just an idea? A: No. it is more a thesis, but nobody tried it nowhere. Q: Why? If it makes the system more flexible, why don t you use it? A: The Austrian administration is very, very conservative and old fashioned and the structure is conservative. The administration works in Austria is pretty the same with the one that Maria Theresia started. The administration reformed 250 years before, in 1760 s. And the administration in some parts still work from the same time. They have the same levels. No changes. Q : But do you think that some changes in the system would be necessary? A : Could you tell them that? They don t believe me. I think this is one of the main problems. Not only for planning, but for everything. All of those are just my opinion but I am sure you can find some papers. 3. The role of central/national government, regional government, local government, the private sector, citizens participation in decision-making Q: administrative structure of the country, number of municipalities, any recent changes in that? A: we have these 9 federal states, and Wien is both federal state and city, and so in Vienna a member of the local government decision court is also a member of the state parliament always, and in Vienna we have these 23 districts and they are not at the level of local community. Mention this comparison to Berlin. In Berlin they have the level of a local community, the districts. In Vienna not. 19

197 APPENDIX A Q: You said that in Vienna a member of the local government decision court is also a member of the state parliament. A: In Vienna, if you are a member of the state parliament of Vienna you are also member of the local decision court. They make sessions in the same room and they only change their hats. And also the president of the local decision court is the same as the president of the state parliament. We have many functions there. In all the other 8 states, the structure is: they have districts, only administrative respects and we have the communities. Local communities with 2359 municipalities. Sometimes they change or they are divided. We have in total only 14 cities with spatial law, this is a tradition from 400 years ago, and they are also a district by law, some very big ones like the most of the federal capitals. There is also one that are on its own district and it has 3 or 5 thousand inhabitants only. It s quite different in size. I think the smallest municipality at the moment is less than 100 inhabitants. And it depends on the states. For example in the early 70 s, the amount of the municipalities was from 2000 to 1000 approximately. Since the 80 s, there were too many changes in the structure. For every 10 years, a municipality is divided and combined, but there are only few changes. Q: The divisions are made for development? A: Only for political reasons. Q: The Austrian Constitution (date?) and how it defines the responsibilities among various levels of government, national/regional planning/social welfare between regions A: The date of The Austrian Constitution is 1922 and there are recent changes. The special situation is that every law can get the level of Constitution that is decided with 2/3 of the parliament. So let me have a very, very obvious problem. We have a law which has the level of the constitution. How many taxes in a shoe and this is at the level of the Constitution. Very awful. And also it is very difficult to read because sometimes we have a law that only the paragraph 7 for example is in the level of the Constitution. So it is very difficult to find the right way to go through it. In any way, if you want to look a little bit deeper in one of the state laws for Spatial Planning is in low Austria. They have the best system to reform the law, because they really change paragraphs. They make another law, but they only include the changes of the law and we have several changed laws. That is very difficult to be read. Before the administration of low Austria was in Vienna because it was a part of low Austria, but in the middle of low Austria. It was in the government of low Austria but it changed 20 years ago. The court decision for where Spatial planning should go was in 1954.I don t know if it was 56 or 58 but I think 54. While spatial planning was not in the constitution, they decided that spatial planning is nearly the same as building houses, because the building law is from the federal states. Now the spatial planning is also from the federal states. This is the essence of the decision. The responsibilities are very strong on the Federal side. I think beside Austria does, only Germany bares so hot and the federal administration has nothing to do beside spatial topics like forests, water, some things that are planned only by the federal administration. These topics are not the zoning and not the building plans. Q: How do the citizens participate in the decision making? A: Actually, in some laws for building houses, environmental impact assessments there are some possibilities for citizens to participate and, for example, building a new house and change the structure of the building, they do decision for the small room and every neighbor is invited. In different laws, these neighbors are defined differently. Sometimes it s only the neighbor in the cadastre, in some laws like the Commercial law for factories things like, the 20

198 APPENDIX A neighbor is everyone who is affected. Every law defines who is neighbor and has to be invited. Q: In some districts do the citizens play a bigger role in the decision making than in others? A: The smallest the thing is, the bigger the role is. In the spatial planning there are possibilities. Q: Could you give me an example of that? A: In the zoning plan when you first publish it, there is a period of some weeks, I think is 6 weeks (but could be longer), when everyone can go to the municipality and the administration and give their opinion about it. And the planners have at least to answer the questions. Later on, it is very difficult for something to be changed by the citizens. And this is no true for the regional planning, there is no citizen participation, but for example in environmental impact, there is a citizen participation. 4. Is development permitted in areas outside the city plans? Under what circumstances? For what purposes? Punishments for illegal development The zone planning is defined by the whole municipality. It defines the green fields, the forests and normally you don t get the permission to build outside the city-zones. But there are some exceptions. Firstly, some buildings standing outside, and they have to be mentioned in the plans, so normally in Austria every building outside the zones is mentioned in the plans. They have a building that stands outside from 1975 and is allowed to stay there and in some means that is possible to change something in the building. And second to mention is for rural purposes it is also possible to build something outside, but you have to be a farmer. Those are made for putting their needs and also to live there, but not only for living there. So there must be a farming house and you can have animals etc but it is not allowed only to live there. Q: Is there a punishment if they don t follow the rules? A: Theoretically, a decision can be made by the mayor of the municipality, who is the head of the administration of building, and this is the main problem of some things, because you have municipalities with 2000 inhabitants, so the mayor is more politician than administrator. And the second level of the decision is made by the local court. And there are no more levels of decision in building. So if you like to build something in rural area, you go to the mayor, give him some money and you get your building outside the zones and if there is a problem, the local community court has to decide, and it always decide like the mayor, because the mayor is in the same authority which selects the mayor. So, this is problematic. Theoretically, the mayor is allowed to throw buildings down that are not in the zoning. Q: So you say that the punishment differs? A: No, there is a legal possibility, but is much fared of use. So from the practical point of view, for this local spatial planning, I have never worked in the university, but I have worked in some communities, and did some spatial planning 20 years before. So you get more theoretical view and not the practical view. 5. development and implementation of new city plans There is a big development area in the northern east of Vienna, and it s a little bit untypical from the planning process, because in former times, this area was an airport. When they did 21

199 APPENDIX A the second land piece of Schwechat, this one was in the way. It s a very huge development side in now and in the land is very easy to do different ways of planning. There is a planning organization called Aspern. Q: it s the same as the station in the u-bahn?(underground) A: one of the first things they did was to make three or four more u-bahn stations and the final station will be right to this development area. So Asperstrasse, now is the end of the line but in some years, in 5 or 6 years, it will be in the middle of the development side. They did a master plan, that is not necessary by the Austrian law, and we know this company, you will get a contact. You can go there, ask them etc. What we don t have in Austria, is an example of a real new city. New rural areas in city plans? Q: How can a rural area be a part of the city? Do the villagers ask for the integration of the area? A: the zoning plan is provided by the local communities, so they do the zoning. And the zoning plan reaches to the borders of the municipality. There is no part of Austria which is not in the zoning plan. So these zoning plans are, the zones of building houses, the green fields, forests rural parts. It reaches really the borders. The process of creating the zoning is very complex. The municipalities do it themselves or it is done by spatial planners, the commercial spatial planners. They have their own chamber that is called the chamber of engineers and architects but also there are the engineers for building bridges and the engineers building other things. They are all in one chamber in Austria. Some municipalities have those green planners, and when you start a new zoning plan, you have to do very much research about the municipality. The agent, the houses, the traffic, really everything. In law Austria it is specified what you have to do. It is a long list. And you have to do plans with all the sings, all the houses, the quality of the houses, how many people live there and this is a part of the plan. If you make a mistake there, they say in some parts, the court removes d zoning plan or some decision in the zoning plan because of mistakes in the early phase. There was in Vienna, one of the great things, a sight getting stones out of the hill, some mistakes in this research and was submitted by the mayor to make the side bigger and all the plan was removed. It is not that easy because this is the first part. Afterwards, you can have also to give a prognosis how many people will live in the next 5-10 years in the municipality. And from this point, we have some formulas how you decide how much zoning you have to put in your plans. So the only decision of the planner is who to give it. To the west of the municipality or to the east. But all of those happen only if the planners worked as they should and the mayors decided as they had to. After that, there is a decision of the local decision court, the municipality decision court. Afterwards, the decision has to pass the state administration, and they approve it. And sometimes, they don t give it the prove, because zoning is oversized. Also, when you start your first ideas how to do the zoning, there is someone from the administration of the state who guides you and gives you some opinion. For the processes there must be something written in the EU-project. Q: Who bears the cost of the study? A: you mean the works necessary to be done? -yes -the municipalities. The municipality pays for the zoning plans. And there is no monitory and no tax if your building gets sold in or out. So, if you have a parcel, and it gets from green field 22

200 APPENDIX A to building area from one day to the other, you don t have to pay, and if it goes the other way round, you don t get anything. And there is no must to build houses if you are in a building area. Q: Which are the necessary plans? A: In the zoning plan, you have to include that there is a list full to provide your list. You have to include all higher spatial planning things. This can be land, streets, state or federal states, motorways, railways, red-yellow zone, very famous in Austria. Those are absolute-to-buildnothing-zone because of the upcoming snow, or the upcoming rainier. House are built away sometimes. But also sometimes the problems come from the mountains. There has to be provided several high level spatial info. Zones where trees are going to be planted in the future, so sometimes it is forbidden to build anything in zones where maybe a street is going to be built, and maybe is removed maybe is not. Q: Is a cadastral survey needed? A: No cadastral survey needed. We have a very old traditional cadastre in Austria. It is 200 years tradition and also even the worst places have a very good cadastre, compare to other countries. So the cadastre is provided by the state agency. And also Austria maybe is the first or second country which had digital cadastre. The zoning plan is based on the Cadastre. We have a very good Cadastre. Only very few areas with a cadastre are not very fine. And the first service of the cadastre in Austria was 20 years before. And before that, they did one survey and it has at least 10 meters acceptance. For this time, that was a very good cadastre. And when they built up the digital cadastre, they took the old cadastre and also they took aerial photos. And in every point in the cadastre it is known if it is from the old cadastre or from a new survey. It is mentioned. There are two points of building plots. The plan is in scale 1/2000 and you have already mentioned where the streets will be. On the other hand, most times this is done by the parcel owners and the plan is changed. So this is a little bit ugly process in a technical view. Theoretically you should put the new streets in the plans already. But, most of the times, this is already done. If there are bigger parcels, maybe this is already suggested by the owners of the parcel. Impractical. I don t think that there are annual statistics. 6. The impact of planning in the land-values in Austria (examples) Q: What about the impact of planning in the land values in Austria? A: Ok! We will discuss about it later. 7. Building codes, building regulation plans, building permits A:While a new plan is built, the old one is still in use. As long as there is no new decision on the new plan, everything is done in the old one. So, this is when municipalities where merged in and you have in 31 st of December building permissions. Many. Because many municipalities, that they don t exist anymore, gave building permissions to their inhabitants. Really, as long as there are no new plans, the old plan is guilty. So even if the municipality structure changes. And there are possibilities to disallow for some zone building for 2 or 3 years, maybe different states not too often used. The only thing I know was use for motorways and railways. By the way, Austria has a very hard law if you build railways. It is possible your parcel to be taken by court, and you will get some funding, the decision is also made by the court. And beside that we now build some new railways in low Austria, really new, and this is done also for the underground. This law makes possible that the owner of a 23

201 APPENDIX A parcel has the right to get some funding if the underground goes through his parcel. The parcel in Austria definition is down till the middle of the Earth, and when the underground goes under your house, you should get some funding from the underground administration. It s a company belong to the city government. The decision is made by the court based on this law. Q: Who is supervising the studies? A: Hopefully, all the procedures are supervised by engineers. Q: Are building permits registered in the cadastre/land registry? A: Building permits are not registered in the cadastre. There is no legal combination between the cadastre and the spatial planning. They are side by side. You have in the cadastre the houses mentioned, based on the things you can see, the nature. I mean not the based on the building plans. Q: Are there annual statistics for new buildings? A: I will try to find an answer but I don t think so. Q: Could you give me an example of a building permit with all documents and costs and timeframes? A: We ll give you a contact with an architect maybe working outside of Vienna, because this is different association. 7. Policy instruments for development at the various levels of government Natural resources are plant by the level of the states and this is sometimes crazy, because we have a national park which is stated in 3 different states and it has in each 3 parts 3 different laws, with different restrictions. The park is called the Nationalpark Hohe Tauern and the three states in which it is stated are Carinthia, Tirol and Salzburg (the biggest part). There is another National Park, in low Austria and I am sure without knowing it that there are also differences with the laws. Federal law is one of the biggest problems in Austria. Sometimes. Sometimes is very nice! Protected areas are not needed to be owned by the states. In the national parks we have many farmers inside who have to live the way that the restriction before the problems made by the law says. The percentage of the protected land maybe can be found in the statistics. There are really different forms of natural protection. And while this is also a state law, this is different for each of the 9 different states, so we have 9 different state laws. And also different levels of protection and the protection zones are not in the cadastre. Forest development plans are made by the federal administration. So this is one of the only things that federals do in planning. And they have 4 functions, different function which are: a protection function, a commercial function, and function for small holidays and an one function that I don t remember right now. Forest protection is very strong we have to mention. Austria has very huge parts of forests. The 2/3 of the state is forest, about 66%. And the forest development plans are also include how many trees you are allowed to take out. So it is very deep in details. I can provide you a contact. Q: What about the revitalization of the villages? A: The states put much money in these rural areas. Especially from low Austria. We will find a contact for you. 24

202 APPENDIX B APPENDIX B: COMPARATIVE STUDY ACCORDING TO WORLD BANK (2012 S REPORT) With the aim to approach properly the target of the specific study we have used comparative results among different countries. That fact contributed not only to dictate the most significant elements but also to identify the current needs and trends. The specific report covers 10 areas of business regulation through ranking among 127 diverse economies. Doing Business in a more transparent world (2012) forms an official report of World Bank which describes how some regulatory reforms influence a number of diverse countries. Therefore, it is really promising that during the year , 125 economies have implemented 245 reforms that streamline enterprise s regulation. Also a brief retrospect of the past six years shows that the protection of property- and investor s rights are considered to be prime issues for a transparent business. Generally the regulatory reforms sketch the backdrop of the most substantial processes that a state must comply with. Report of 2012 clarifies the sectors that are crutial for a domestic business to start up and operate. The conflict of interest is given in reforms that are related to 10 areas of a business s life cycle. The categorization is composed by two central groups. The first group concerns to the topic Streamlining of regulatory processes and includes the sectors of: Starting a business, dealing with construction Permits, Getting electricity, Registering Property, Paying Taxes and Trading across the borders. The second group, which is interwoven with Reforms that strengthen legal institutions, is consisted of the sectors of: Protecting Investors and property rights, Enforcing Contracts, Getting credit and Resolving Insolvency. Austria concentrates on the areas of Streamlining of regulatory processes and is ranked as the 32th country between high income economies. On the other hand, low and lower middle income economies focus on the areas of strengthening legal institutions. It should be referred that the improvement of the processes efficiency based on the properties registration, on the dealing with construction permits as well as on the strengthening property rights. Therefore such kinds of matters are perceived as really important. The following figure highlights the most fundamental parameters that are inextricably connected to each other and are essentially required for the achievement of simple regulations. As the diagram 5 demonstrates, the role of legal institutions as courts and registries and the strong right protection of the properties contribute to a large extent to simple regulations. In addition, as necessary prerequisites are presented to be the simple procedures with a parallel short level of bureaucracy. Furthermore businesses regulations must accompanied by a friendly environment, reasonable costs and transparent rules. Last but not least the utilising of new technologies that are used for electronic systems (eregistration) and the maintaining methods strike a market s balance. 25

203 APPENDIX B Simple procedures Transparent rules Accesibility Reasonable costs Businessfriendly environment Regulations must be accompanied with Strong legal institutions Short level of bureaucracy Strong property's rights protection Electronic systems for registration Maintaining Figure 5: Fundamental Components that simplify regulations Additionally the trends prime themes that emerged from the previous year analysis highlight a set of issues as the overhaul of harmonized laws the strengthening of secured transaction laws the introduction of a new company act the implementation of changes in insolvency regimes the electronic filing in the courts the tax changes the tightening of disclosure requirements for transactions and the launching of a new public credit registry In addition the paradigm of Norway s Property registry and the template of changes that it followed, dictates special topics about land reforms. The most important comprise the Merging of the land department and the survey information, the Digitization of Title Certificates, the online titling and the requirement by law of the Online Registration. Last but not least, it s proven that revamping regulatory and administrative environment in multiple areas in order to encourage the private sector, often lead to effective results. The last figure of the first chapter proposes some good practices in relation with constructions permits and registering property. 26

204 APPENDIX B Having an organized set of building rules Using risk-based building approvals Offering cadastre information online Using an electronic database for encumbrances Setting effective limits for registration Offering rapid procedures Setting fixed transfer fees Figure 6: Useful Practices for property register Doing Business report 2012 through shading its lights on themes as documentation requirements for trade, fee schedules for business start up, construction permitting and registering property, conclude to give emphasis on terms as reasonable costs, accessibility and transparency. Consequently these terms must be engine for the 99% of the processes and regulations. APPENDIX C: AUXILIARY MATERIAL 27

205 APPENDIX C Picture 3: Federal Ministry of Metrology, Surveying and Geoinformation in Vienna (BEV) Picture 4: Office of Mr Julius Ernst (BEV) 28

206 APPENDIX C Picture 5: BEV MERGING EXAMPLE Figure 7: First page of surveying document 29

207 APPENDIX C Figure 8: Division Certificate Figure 9: Extract from the digital cadastral map (DKM) 30

208 APPENDIX C Figure 10: Catalog of boundary points Figure 11: Consent declaration [Source of example: Julius Ernst, certificate from Karl Reichsthaler (authorized surveyor)] 31

209 APPENDIX C Figure 12: Katastralgemeinden (Geodata, Figure 13: Central website of BEV (www.bev.gv.at) 32

210 APPENDIX C Figure 14: Reference stations of APOS (Source: BEV) Figure 15: Extract from the main ledger (Source: Grundbuch-Online, 2012) 33

211 APPENDIX C Figure 16: Extract from the historic extract/register of invalidated inscriptions (Source: Grundbuch-Online, 2012) Figure 17: Example of priority notice (Source: FIRMA HOMEPAGE Lawyer consultancy Greiter %Greiter GmbH Computer Technology Dipl-Ing. Went mbh HF Data Processing mbh hfdata.at IMD- Information, Media and Data Processing mbh JUSLINE GmbH Lex-United, Online Information System GmbH lexunited.com 34

212 APPENDIX C Austrian Society for Information and cooperation of Notaries GmbH A1 Telekom Austria Next layer Telecommunications Services and consulting GmbH dataweb erv portal.nextlayer.at Figure 18: Companies with free access in the database of Justice (www.justiz.gv.at) Register outputs Information Product Search key Reliability Further assistance Ownership EZ, B-Sheet: Excerpt of actual data of Grundbuch Cadastral unit identifier (KG), register unit identifier (EZ), parcel identifier (GST-NR) Security against third party district court Title Mortgages and other encumbrances EZ, B-Sheet: Excerpt of actual data of Grundbuch EZ, C-Sheet: Excerpt of actual data of Grundbuch KG, EZ, GST-NR KG, EZ, GST-NR Security against third party Security against third party district court district court Purchase prices not available not available not available not available Leasehold not available not available not available not available Usufruct EZ, C-Sheet: Excerpt of actual data of Grundbuch KG, EZ, GST-NR Security against third party district court Easements EZ, A2- and C- Sheet: Excerpt of actual data of Grundbuch Land survey EZ, A- and B-Sheet: Excerpt of actual data of Grundbuch (only some data available) Building information Discharged data, that (was shown in product EZ, KG, EZ, GST-NR KG, EZ, GST-NR Security against third party Security against third party district court district court not available not available not available not available HEZ: Excerpt of discharged data of Grundbuch EZ, Date of discharge, docket number, type of data group Security against third party district court 35

213 APPENDIX C before being discharged) Address of register unit Information about regions Boundaries and features of respective area EZ,A1-Sheet: Excerpt of actual data of Grundbuch KG: Excerpt of administrative data Digital cadastral map (DKM): Excerpt of cadastre map KG, EZ, GST-NR KG, EZ, cadastral unit name, municipality,, court, surveying office, county, etc. EZ, KG Security against third party Informative status Security against third party only in case of boundary cadastre district court Surveying Office Surveying Office Information missing in the register outputs as overriding interests or other encumbrances: Certain privileged mortgages do not require registration, but prevail all other encumbrances in a register unit, e.g. encumbrances for tax reasons, public housing and certain easements in Tyrol and Vorarlberg. Geographical and mapping coverage Information Geographic extent ) Map record (or boundary map) Identification on map Notes, further assistance Ownership Territory of Austria no no district court Title Territory of Austria no no district court Mortgages and Territory of Austria no no district court other encumbrances Purchase prices not available not available not available not available Leasehold not available not available not available not available Usufruct Territory of Austria no no district court Easements Territory of Austria no no district court Land survey Terrritory of no no Surveying Office Austria Building not available not available not available not available information Discharged Territory of Austria no no district court data(was shown in product EZ, before being discharged) Address of Territory of Austria no no Surveying Office register unit Information Territory of Austria no no Surveying Office about regions Boundaries and features of respective area DKM: 98% of Territory of Austria Completed in textual - area with boundaries - parcel identifier (GST,NR) Surveying Office Figure 19: Register outputs in EULIS-Service and Geographical and mapping coverage (Source: Metadata of registers and their contents with examples-austria) 36

214 APPENDIX C Document Subdivision of plots Merge of plots Transfer of plots Deletion of a right Restriction of ownership Sale agreement of owner Gift agreement of owner Eminent domain Inheritance Right to erect buildings Right of way Right of drainage Water right Restriction of building height Right of building tunnels Right of use Usufruct Mortgage Right of buying back Right of first buying Prohibition of sale and debit Data checking (if data exist) author, signatures, date of creation, old and new situation author, signatures, date of creation, old and new situation agreement of owner, old and new parcel -id, plot- id agreement of beneficiary, document id Person- id, status (restricted - not restricted) id of new owner, percentage, price, parcel- id id of new owner, percentage, parcel- id id of former and new owner, court forcing the eminent domain, parcel- id id of former owner, id of parcel(s) and heir(s) agreement of owner, parcel identifier, beneficiary, time limitation agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary (person or parcel) agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary (person or parcel) agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary (person or parcel) agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary (parcel) agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary, time limitation agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary agreement of owner, parcel- id, beneficiary Figure 20: Checking of documents (Source: Navratil, 1998) 37

215 Identical to application of freehold but prerequisites may differ APPENDIX C Updating in land transaction process (Diagram showing the essential phases and possible time delays in updating register data) Action Client and Authority activities Register activities Prerequisites Written contract. Authentification of signatures of buyer and seller (notary, district court). Certification about payment of the property acquisition tax (tax office, notary, solicitor). Approval by Land Transfer Commission (in some cases). Additionally in case of splitting of a parcel Licensed surveyor produces a Splitting Plan. Surveying Office approves the splitting and registers new parcels. Application (Freehold) Application filed with the competent district court for registration; all necessary documents attached. District Court stores time stamp of application; registers according to the content of the application Application (Mortgage etc.) Registration X X X Legal effects Client possesses correct documents to file an application for registration with the District court; no time limit. Within two years from the date of the splitting plan the owner may file an application for registration with the District court. Buyer becomes owner backdated to the time stamp; Real rights get valid backdated to the time stamp. Figure 21: Updating in land transaction process (Source: Metadata of registers and their contents with examples-austria) 38

216 APPENDIX C Spatial representation in Cadastre Map Cadastre Map data is available for the whole of Austria from 1817 to date. Historical (analogue) data is available in paper form or on micro fiche in the Federal Office of Metrology and Survey (BEV). New data is partly already contained in the Digital Cadastre Map (Digitale Katastralmappe - DKM), which is available also via the Internet. Digitisation started in 1987; to date more than 98 % of the maps of Austria have been digitised. Digitisation will be completed by the end of Digitisation is bringing the whole cadastral record parcel index, database of coordinates and Digital Cadastre Map together to a technical and in its substance closely connected digital data file of scales and sheet lines with reference to requirement-oriented delivery via data processing. The contents of the Cadastre is divided into essential information levels, like for instance parcel borders, parcel identifiers, use, buildings, control settings and boundary points. Similar information is taken together in four main layers. Figure 22: Spatial representation in DKM (Source: Metadata of registers and their contents with examples-austria) 39

217 APPENDIX C Figure 23: Inhabited dwellings in Austria (Source: Statistics Austria 2011) Figure 24: Rental housing market (Source: EHL Immobilien) 40

218 APPENDIX C Figure 25: Real estate prices in Vienna (Source: EHL Immobilien) Social rental stock as % of total housing stock Social rental stock as % of rental stock Number of social rental dwellings per 1000 inhabitants Social housing as %of new completions ,5 Bath/shower (as %of dwelling stock) Central heating( as %of dwelling stock) 99,2 92 Type of social housing providers Local authorities Independent public body/publicly owned company Cooperatives Private non-profits and private for profit institutions (Financing of social housing ) Grants Public loans Promotion schemes of the federal provinces Promotion schemes of the federal provinces Sale of social rental dwellings Right to buy Sale to sitting tenants allowed (Criteria for the access to social housing in the EU ): Eligibility Priority Pre-emption right by public authorities Income ceilings Additional social criteria (for Limited- profit providers) By federal provinces and municipalities Figure 26: Social housing in Austria (Source: Cecodhas Housing Europe, 2012 Housing Europe Report ) 41

219 APPENDIX C Figure 27: Austria s indexes (Source: EU27 country report) Figure 28: Office projects in Vienna (Source: EHL Immobilien) 42

220 APPENDIX C Figure 29: Green buildings (Source: EHL Immobilien) Figure 30: Energy efficiency certificate (Source: Overview report on different energy performance certificate approaches and their assessment in the context of property valuation) 43

221 APPENDIX C Figure 31: Energy certificate details (Source: Overview report on different energy performance certificate approaches and their assessment in the context of property valuation) Figure 32: Loan example (www.raiffeisen.at) 44

«ΠΡΩΤΟΒΟΥΛΙΕΣ ΕΠΑΝΑΧΡΗΣΗΣ ΓΕΩΔΕΔΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΚΤΗΜΑΤΟΛΟΓΙΟ ΚΑΙ ΧΑΡΤΟΓΡΑΦΗΣΗ Α.Ε.»

«ΠΡΩΤΟΒΟΥΛΙΕΣ ΕΠΑΝΑΧΡΗΣΗΣ ΓΕΩΔΕΔΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΚΤΗΜΑΤΟΛΟΓΙΟ ΚΑΙ ΧΑΡΤΟΓΡΑΦΗΣΗ Α.Ε.» ΠΡΩΤΟΒΟΥΛΙΕΣ ΕΠΑΝΑΧΡΗΣΗΣ ΓΕΩΔΕΔΟΜΕΝΩΝ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΚΤΗΜΑΤΟΛΟΓΙΟ ΚΑΙ ΧΑΡΤΟΓΡΑΦΗΣΗ Α.Ε. Καλουδιώτης Δημήτριος Πρόεδρος και Διευθύνων Σύμβουλος ΕΚΧΑ Α.Ε. Λευτέρης Λυκουρόπουλος Δ/ντης Ψηφιακών

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