15 Dermatoma distribution of different volumes of local anesthetic for singleshot caudal block.
16 Caudal block. Note that an equilateral triangle is formed with the fingertips from the posterior superior iliac spine(psis) to PSIS to needle insertion at the sacral hiatus (SH). SC, Sacral cornua; TC, tip of coccyx.
21 Figure Sites of misplacement of local anesthetic for caudal block anesthesia. Note that injection may be made into bone marrow (A), into subperiosteum (B), into posterior sacral ligaments (C), into a false decoy hiatus (D), into the anterior sacral wall and possibly out into the pelvis (E), or into a lateral foramen, producing a limited block (F). Coté C. J., Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children 4 th ed., 2009
23 Figure Anatomic differences between adults and children that affect the performance of spinal and epidural anesthesia; an infant s sacrum (left) is flatter and narrower than an adult s (right). Note that the tip of the spinal cord in a neonate ends at L3 and does not achieve the normal adult position (L1-2) until approximately 1 year of age. The relative location of the spinal cord with growth to adulthood is illustrated on the right as different shades of yellow with the darkest being the final adult configuration.
24 gamoyenebuli literatura Davis P.J, Cladis F.P, Motoyama E.K Smith s Anesthesia for Infants and Children 8 th ed., Ronald D., MS Miller s Anesthesia 8 th ed., Coté C. J., Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children 4 th ed., 2013 Gregory A. Gregory,.B.Andropoulos Gregory's Pediatric Anesthesia 5 th ed J. Ehrenwerth, J.B. Eisenkraft, J. M. Berry Anesthesia Equipment: Principles and Applications Morray JP, Geldusccheck JM, Ramamoorthy C et al: Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children: initial findings of the pediatric perioperative cardia arrest (POCA) Registry. Anesthesiology 2000 Morray JP, Bhananker SM: Recent Findings From the Pediatric Perioperative CardiacArrest (POCA) Registry. ASA Newsletter 69(6): 10-12, Uptodate version 21.2