1 Condition Osteoporosis Osteoporosis This This booklet leaflet provides provides information and answers to your questions information and answers about this condition. to your questions about this condition.
2 What is osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition that causes the bones to become fragile, so that they break more easily. In this booklet we ll explain what causes osteoporosis and how it s treated. We ll also look at what you can do to reduce your risk of developing osteoporosis and suggest where you can find out more. At the back of this booklet you ll find a brief glossary of medical words we ve underlined these when they re first used in the booklet.
3 Arthritis Research UK Osteoporosis What s inside? 3 Osteoporosis at a glance 4 Introduction 4 What is osteoporosis? 6 What are the symptoms of osteoporosis? 6 Who gets osteoporosis? Risk factors 8 How is osteoporosis diagnosed? Who should have a scan? 10 What treatments are there for osteoporosis? Treatment of fractures Prevention of fractures Calcium and vitamin D Bisphosphonates Strontium ranelate Teriparatide Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Raloxifene Calcitonin Denosumab 13 Self-help and daily living Exercise Diet and nutrition What else might help? 15 Research and new developments 16 Glossary 17 Where can I find out more? 20 We re here to help
4 2 Osteoporosis is a condition which makes the bones fragile. There are usually no symptoms, and it s often only discovered when you break a bone in a minor accident or fall.
5 At a glance Osteoporosis What is osteoporosis? Bone is a living tissue, but as we get older it s not able to renew itself as well so our bones start to weaken. This happens to everybody to some extent, but when the bones become quite fragile it s called osteoporosis. Who gets it? Osteoporosis is quite common in the UK. It mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, but can also affect men. People at greater risk of developing osteoporosis include: people who have needed steroid treatment for more than 3 months women who have been through the menopause, especially those who had an early menopause (before the age of 45) women who have had their ovaries removed people with a family history of osteoporosis people who don t get much exercise heavy smokers or heavy drinkers. If you develop osteoporosis, there are a number of treatments that can help. How can I help myself? The following will help to guard against osteoporosis: getting plenty of calcium and vitamin D as part of a well-balanced diet exercise especially activities that involve running or jogging not smoking not drinking too much alcohol. What treatments are there? There are a number of treatments available, including: calcium and vitamin D bisphosphonates (e.g. alendronate, risedronate) strontium ranelate teriparatide hormone replacement therapy (HRT) raloxifene calcitonin. 3
6 Introduction to osteoporosis Osteoporosis is quite common in the UK. It mainly affects women, especially after the menopause, although men can also develop it. People who need longterm treatment with steroids for another condition are also at risk of osteoporosis. As we get older our bones start to lose some of their density and strength. There are usually no visible signs that this is happening. However, the right combination of diet and exercise will help to build and maintain bone strength, and minimise your risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. And for those who do develop osteoporosis, there are a number of different treatments that can help to reduce the risk of fractures. What is osteoporosis? The word osteoporosis means porous (spongy) bone. Bone is made up of minerals, mainly calcium salts, bound together by strong collagen fibres. Our bones have a thick, hard outer shell (called the cortex, cortical bone, or sometimes compact bone) which is easily seen on x-rays. Inside this, there s softer, spongy bone (or trabecular bone) which has a honeycomb-like structure. Bone is a living, active tissue that s constantly renewing itself. Old bone tissue is broken down by cells called osteoclasts and is replaced by new bone material produced by cells called osteoblasts. The balance between the breakdown of old bone and the formation of new bone changes at different stages of our lives (see Figure 1). Figure 1 Stages of bone development and renewal Childhood New bone forms rapidly as bones grow in length Teens and early 20s Rapid bone formation allows bones to grow in density and strength Mid-20s, up to about 40 Balance between formation of new bone and breakdown of old bone 40s onwards Old bone broken down more quickly than new bone forms, so bones begin to lose density 4
7 Arthritis Research UK Osteoporosis 1. In childhood, new bone is formed very rapidly. This allows our bones to grow in length. Later, in our teens and early 20s, the bones stop growing in length but continue to grow in density and strength. Bone density reaches its peak by our mid to late-20s. 2. After this, new bone continues to be produced at about the same rate as older bone is broken down. This means that the adult skeleton is completely renewed over a period of 7 10 years. 3. Eventually, bone starts to be broken down more quickly than it s replaced, so our bones gradually begin to lose their density. This phase usually starts at about the age of 40 and continues for the rest of our lives. Everybody will have some degree of bone loss as they get older, but the term osteoporosis is used only when the bones become significantly more fragile. When bone is affected by osteoporosis the holes in the honeycomb structure of the spongy bone become larger which is why the bone is more prone to fracture (see Figure 2). Figure 2 The effect of osteoporosis on bone Normal bone Bone affected by osteoporosis 5
8 What are the symptoms of osteoporosis? Quite often the first sign of osteoporosis is when somebody breaks a bone in a relatively minor fall or accident. Fractures are most likely to happen to the hip, spine or wrist. Each year in the UK there are around 70,000 hip, 120,000 spine and 50,000 wrist fractures that are linked to osteoporosis. Spinal problems occur if the bones in the spine (vertebrae) become weak and lose height (described as a vertebral crush fracture). This typically occurs at the level of the chest (or thoracic spine). If several vertebrae lose height, the spine will start to curve and you may look shorter. This can sometimes cause back pain and some people may have difficulty breathing simply because there s less space under their ribs. People who have spinal problems also have a greater risk of hip and wrist fractures. Who gets osteoporosis? The risk of osteoporosis increases with age. Anyone can get osteoporosis but women are about four times more likely than men to develop it. There are two main reasons for this: The process of bone loss speeds up for several years after the menopause, when the ovaries stop producing the female sex hormone oestrogen. Figure 3 Graph showing typical total bone mass in men and women 1500 Bone mass (total mass of calcium in the skeleton, in grams) Men 1 3 Women 2 1 Peak bone mass 2 Menopausal bone loss 3 Bone loss with age Age (years) 6
9 Arthritis Research UK Osteoporosis Men generally reach a higher level of bone density before the process of bone loss begins (see Figure 3). Bone loss still occurs in men but it may never reach a point where the bone is significantly weakened. A number of other risk factors can affect our individual chances of developing osteoporosis and of breaking a bone in a relatively minor accident. Women who exercise so intensively that their periods stop do have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. However, anyone who doesn t exercise, or has an illness or disability that makes exercise difficult, will be more prone to losing calcium from the bones and thus more likely to be diagnosed with osteoporosis. Risk factors Corticosteroids Sometimes known just as steroids, these drugs can affect the production of bone partly by reducing the amount of calcium absorbed from the gut and increasing calcium loss through the kidneys. If you re likely to need steroids for more than 3 months, your doctor will probably recommend increasing your calcium and vitamin D intake and possibly other preventive treatment to guard against osteoporosis. See Arthritis Research UK drug leaflet Steroid tablets. Oestrogen deficiency Women who have had an early menopause (before the age of 45) or a hysterectomy where one or both ovaries have been removed are at greater risk. Removal of the ovaries only (ovariectomy or oophorectomy) is relatively rare but is also associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis. Lack of exercise Moderate exercise during childhood and throughout adult life encourages bone development.
10 Poor diet People whose diet doesn t include enough calcium or vitamin D or who are significantly underweight are at greater risk of osteoporosis. (See the section Diet and nutrition.) Heavy smoking Tobacco lowers the oestrogen level in women and may cause early menopause. In men, smoking lowers testosterone activity and this can also weaken the bones. Heavy drinking A high alcohol intake reduces the ability of the body s cells to make bone. It also increases the risk of breaking a bone as a result of a fall. Family history Osteoporosis does run in families. This is probably because there are inherited factors that affect the development of bone. If a close relative has suffered a fracture linked to osteoporosis then your own risk of a fracture is likely to be greater than normal. It s not yet known if there s a particular genetic defect that causes osteoporosis, although we do know that people with a very rare genetic disorder called osteogenesis imperfecta are more likely to develop osteoporosis. It s important that your diet includes enough calcium and vitamin D to prevent osteoporosis. How is osteoporosis diagnosed? There are no obvious physical signs of osteoporosis so the condition may go undetected for years. If your doctor suspects osteoporosis, they may suggest a DEXA scan (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) to measure the density of the bones and assess the risk of fractures. The scan is available at many hospitals and involves lying on a couch, fully clothed, for about 15 minutes while your bones are x-rayed (see Figure 4). The dose of x-rays is very small about the same as spending a day out in the sun. The possible results are: Normal The risk of a low-impact fracture is low. Osteopenia The bone is becoming weaker but the risk of a low-impact fracture is still quite small. You may not require specific treatment but you should think about how you can reduce the risk factors. Osteoporosis There s a greater risk of low-impact fractures and treatment is likely to be needed. Who should have a scan? There s no good evidence that screening the population as a whole for osteoporosis would be helpful. However, you should discuss with your doctor whether you should have a scan if any of the following apply to you: 8
11 Arthritis Research UK Osteoporosis you need corticosteroid treatments (e.g. prednisolone) for 3 months or more you ve already had a low-impact fracture your menopause occurred before the age of 45 either of your parents has had a hip fracture you have another disease which can affect the bones for example, coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn s disease or ulcerative colitis), rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) you have a body mass index (BMI) of less than 19. Calculating your body mass index: 1. Multiply your height in metres by itself. e.g. 1.7 (m) x 1.7 = Divide your weight in kilograms (kg) by the number you got in stage 1. e.g. 53 (kg) 2.89 = The result is your BMI. e.g. 18 For most people a healthy BMI is in the range Your doctor can ask for a bone density (DEXA) scan to be carried out to test the strength of the bones. Figure 4 Testing the density of bones 9
12 What treatments are there for osteoporosis? If osteoporosis is diagnosed following a low-impact fracture, the first priority will be to treat the fracture. The next step is to begin treatment to reduce the risk of further fractures. Treatment of fractures Unless you have a vertebral fracture (a fracture of the backbone), you ll usually need an orthopaedic assessment because it may need fixing. Pain relief may also be needed, especially if the fracture involves one of the backbones. This can include: analgesics (painkillers) such as paracetamol, codeine and occasionally morphine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, or naproxen calcitonin, which has been shown to reduce pain from fractures of the pelvis and vertebrae. Prevention of fractures Self-help measures such as diet and exercise can help to reduce the risk of fractures, but a number of specific treatments are also available for people with osteoporosis. The choice of treatment will depend on your individual circumstances and you should discuss this with your doctor. Calcium and vitamin D Many people don t have enough calcium in their diet and will benefit from calcium and vitamin D supplements. Vitamin D is needed for the body to absorb and process calcium.
13 Arthritis Research UK Osteoporosis Bisphosphonates This group of drugs works by slowing bone loss; in many people, an increase in bone density can be measured over 5 years of treatment. There are a number of drugs in this group, including alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate and etidronate. They reduce the risk of hip and spine fractures in patients with osteoporosis. These drugs can be taken by mouth but not with food. Specific instructions are provided for taking the tablets as they can cause irritation of the gullet (oesophagus). More recently, intravenous injections and infusions of bisphosphonates have been developed (ibandronate and zolendronate), which are useful if you can t take the tablets. Ibandronate can be given by a 3-monthly injection and zoledronate by annual infusion. Strontium ranelate This works by both speeding up the formation of new bone tissue and slowing the breakdown of old bone material. Trials have shown that strontium ranelate reduces the risk of spine and hip fractures in patients who have already had a fracture, as well as those with low bone density. Strontium ranelate is particularly helpful in reducing fracture risk in people over the age of 80 and is also useful for people who can t take bisphosphonates. There s a slightly increased risk of developing blood clots with this medicine. Teriparatide Teriparatide helps new bone formation and therefore reduces the risk of fractures. It s taken by daily injection into the thigh or stomach (patients are shown how to do this themselves) and is used for up to 24 months, during which time the bones are strengthened. At present it s used mainly for people who have had fractures despite using other treatments or who have had side-effects from other treatments. Side-effects of teriparatide include nausea, limb pain, headaches and dizziness. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) HRT is beneficial for the bones while it s being used, but it s not recommended as the first-choice treatment for osteoporosis because of an increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots and heart attacks. Raloxifene Raloxifene is given as a tablet and mimics the beneficial effects of oestrogen on bone strength, reducing the risk of spinal fractures. It may cause side-effects like menopausal flushing and may increase the risk of developing blood clots, for example deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It does, however, reduce the risk of breast cancer. Calcitonin Calcitonin is a substance that the body produces naturally and which helps keep the bones healthy. If you have osteoporosis, it can be used as a treatment and has been shown to increase bone strength. It s given as an injection or as a nasal spray. Injections of calcitonin are normally only given as a short-term treatment for painful 11
15 Arthritis Research UK Osteoporosis vertebral fractures, but the nasal spray may be used as a long-term treatment for osteoporosis. Possible side-effects include hot flushes, nausea, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling in the hands and, rarely, an allergic reaction. The nasal spray may also cause a blocked or runny nose, sneezing and headaches. Denosumab A drug called denosumab (brand name Prolia) has recently been approved by NICE (the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). Unlike bisphosphonates, it works by restricting a protein called RANK ligand. This is important for the production, function and survival of osteoclasts, the cells that break down bone. By stopping osteoclasts, it increases bone mass and strength. Denosumab is recommended for postmenopausal women who can t take bisphosphonates and is given as an injection under the skin twice a year. It can help prevent a first fracture and further fractures in women who have already had them. Common side-effects can include pain in the back, arms and legs, urinary tract infections and high cholesterol levels. In rare cases, sideeffects can include low blood calcium, infections and skin reactions. See Arthritis Research UK drug leaflet Drugs for osteoporosis. Weight-bearing exercises such as walking or running are good for bone strength. Self-help and daily living There s a great deal you can do at different stages in your life to help protect yourself against osteoporosis. Exercise Children should take part in sports or other types of exercise to help strengthen their bones. For the same reason, adults should keep physically active all the way into retirement. Weight-bearing exercises (any activity that involves walking or running) are better for bone strength than non-weight-bearing exercises such as swimming and cycling. However, all forms of exercise will help to maintain muscle strength and to improve co-ordination, reducing the risk of falling and thus the risk of fractures. See Arthritis Research UK booklets Keep Moving; Looking after your joints when you have arthritis. 13
16 Diet and nutrition Children and adults need a diet that contains the right amount of calcium. The best sources of this are milk, cheese, yogurt and certain types of fish which are eaten with the bones (see Figure 5). Other sources of calcium include leafy green vegetables (e.g. cabbage, kale, broccoli), watercress, beans and chick peas, and some nuts, seeds and dried fruits. Calcium is often added to white bread and to some soya milks. People on osteoporosis drug treatment may benefit from a daily calcium intake of 1,000 1,200 mg. A pint of milk a day, together with a reasonable amount of other foods that contain calcium, should be sufficient. Vitamin D is sometimes called the sunshine vitamin because it s produced by the body when the skin is exposed to sunlight. It s also obtained from some foods, especially oily fish, and is added to some soya milks and vegetable margarines. It s sometimes necessary Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, is produced when the skin is exposed to sunlight. to take a daily supplement containing micrograms (µg) (this is the same as 400 to 800 international units (IU)) of vitamin D, especially for people over 60. Figure 5 Approximate calcium content of some common foods Food 115 g (4 oz) whitebait (fried in flour) 60 g (2 oz) sardines (including bones) Calcium content 980 mg 260 mg 0.2 litre ( 1 3 pint) semi-skimmed milk 230 mg 0.2 litre ( 1 3 pint) whole milk 220 mg 3 large slices brown or white 215 mg bread 125 g (4 1 2 oz) low-fat yogurt 205 mg 30 g (1 oz) hard cheese 190 mg 0.2 litre ( 1 3 pint) calcium-enriched 180 mg soya milk 125 g (4 1 2 oz) calcium-enriched 150 mg soya yogurt 115 g (4 oz) cottage cheese 145 mg 3 large slices wholemeal bread 125 mg 115 g (4 oz) baked beans 60 mg 115 g (4 oz) boiled cabbage 40 mg Note: measures shown in ounces or pints are approximate conversions only. 14
17 Arthritis Research UK Osteoporosis What else might help? Smoking can affect the hormones in men and women and may therefore increase the risk of osteoporosis. We strongly recommend you stop smoking especially if you re at risk for other reasons. Drinking a lot of alcohol can also affect the production of new bone, so we recommend keeping to the maximum amounts suggested by the government: 2 3 units a day for women and 3 4 units for men. And the SCOOP study is testing a method of community-based screening to find out whether early identification of risk, followed up with preventative treatment, leads to a reduction in the number of fractures in women aged Research is also investigating new drugs which should further improve the treatment options available. See Arthritis Research UK booklet Diet and arthritis. Research and new developments Research has recently produced the FRAX assessment tool, developed by the World Health Organisation, which is now being used by doctors to measure a patient s risk of having an osteoporotic fracture.
18 Glossary Analgesics painkillers. As well as dulling pain they lower raised body temperature, and most of them reduce inflammation. Bisphosphonates drugs used to prevent the loss of bone mass and treat bone disorders such as osteoporosis and Paget s disease. They work by reducing high levels of calcium in the blood and by slowing down bone metabolism. Body mass index (BMI) a measurement used to estimate a healthy body weight based on how tall a person is. BMI is calculated by using the following equation: BMI = w (h x h), where w = weight in kilograms and h = height in metres. A BMI of between 20 and 25 is considered to be an ideal weight. Coeliac disease a condition where an extreme sensitivity to gluten (found in wheat, rye and other cereals) damages the lining of the small intestine, preventing the digestion and absorption of food. Coeliac disease is a permanent condition that can be treated by a strict gluten-free diet. Collagen the main substance in the white, fibrous connective tissue that s found in tendons, ligaments and cartilage. This very important protein is also found in skin and bone. Corticosteroids drugs that have a very powerful effect on inflammation. They re often called steroids for short and are similar to cortisone, which is produced naturally in the adrenal glands. They re quite different from the anabolic steroids sometimes used by athletes to build up their bodies. Prednisolone is the most commonly used corticosteroid. Diabetes a medical condition that affects the body s ability to use glucose (sugar) for energy. The body needs insulin, normally produced in the pancreas, in order to use glucose. In diabetes the body may produce no insulin or not enough insulin or may become resistant to insulin. When the body is unable to use glucose obtained from foods, the level of sugar in the blood increases. If untreated, raised blood sugar can cause a wide variety of symptoms. Hyperthyroidism overactivity of the thyroid gland which means that too much thyroid hormone is produced. The excess of thyroid hormones overstimulates metabolism, which speeds up various body systems, causing symptoms such as an increased heart rate, nervousness, weight loss, sweating, fatigue and sensitivity to heat. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) a group of inflammatory conditions that affect the small and/or large intestine. The symptoms can include abdominal pain, bleeding, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhoea. The two main types of IBD are Crohn s disease and ulcerative colitis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) a large family of drugs, prescribed for different kinds of arthritis, that reduce inflammation and control pain, swelling and stiffness. Common examples include ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac. 16
19 Arthritis Research UK Osteoporosis Oestrogen one of a group of hormones in the body that control female sexual development and the reproductive cycle. Orthopaedics a branch of surgery dealing with bone and joint problems, including treatments such as joint replacements and setting of broken bones. Osteogenesis imperfecta a genetic condition existing at birth (congenital) resulting in fragile bones that fracture easily. The whites of the eyes of affected individuals often appear blue. Rheumatoid arthritis an inflammatory disease affecting the joints, particularly the lining of the joint. It most commonly starts in the smaller joints in a symmetrical pattern that is, for example, in both hands or both wrists at once. Where can I find out more? If you ve found this information useful you might be interested in these other titles from our range: Self-help and daily living Diet and arthritis Keep moving Looking after your joints when you have arthritis Drug leaflets Drugs for osteoporosis Steroid tablets You can download all of our booklets and leaflets from our website or order them by contacting: Arthritis Research UK PO Box 177 Chesterfield Derbyshire S41 7TQ Phone: Related organisations The following organisations may be able to provide additional advice and information: Arthritis Care 18 Stephenson Way London NW1 2HD Phone: Helpline: Food Standards Agency Aviation House 125 Kingsway London WC2B 6NH Phone: Emergencies only: National Osteoporosis Society Camerton Bath BA2 0PJ Phone: Helpline: Helpline 17
20 18 Notes
21 Arthritis Research UK Osteoporosis Notes 19
22 Arthritis Research UK Copeman House, St Mary s Court, St Mary s Gate, Chesterfield, Derbyshire S41 7TD Tel calls charged at standard rate Registered Charity No Arthritis Research UK 2011 Published April /OP/11-1
24 Το εργαστήριο µας αποτελεί ένα διαγνωστικό εργαστήριο αναφοράς, για την πραγµατοποίηση µικροβιολογικών, βιοχηµικών, αιµατολογικών, ανοσολογικών και ορµονολογικών εξετάσεων. Στο εργαστήριο µας επίσης εκτελού νται και πιο εξειδικευµένες εξετάσεις όπως µοριακός έλεγχος µε PCR (πχ( για την µέτρηση ιικού φορτίου, έλεγχο θροµβοφιλίας κλπ), ανοσολογικός έλεγχος δυσανεξίας σε διατροφικούς παράγοντες και µέτρηση Τ Τ λεµφοκυτταρικής ανοσολογικής απάντησης. Τέλος, εκτελούνται ερευνητικά πρωτόκολλα που περιλαµβάνουν ανά λυση βιολογικών δειγµάτων, στατιστική επεξεργασία α ποτελεσµάτων και ανάπτυξη ʺin ʺ houseʺ διαγνωστικών µεθόδων, όπως ELISA µε ʺcustom ʺ peptidesʺ κλπ Επιστηµονικός υπεύθυνος του εργαστηρίου είναι ο Δρ Ιωάννης Ρούτσιας. Είναι Χηµικός και Ιατρός Βιοπαθολό γος Μικροβιολόγος µε διδακτορικό δίπλωµα στην Ανο σολογία. Το ερευνητικό του έργο είναι σηµαντικό (συνολικό Impact Factor διεθνών δηµοσιεύσεων = 242) και διεθνώς αναγνωρισµένο (H index( = 18), έτυχε δε δέκατρι ων ελληνικών και διεθνών βραβείων και διακρίσεων. Αριστούχος υπότρο φος Χηµικός, εισήχθη και φοίτησε εν συνεχεία στην Ιατρική Σχολή του Πανεπιστηµίου Ιωαννίνων ( ) 1997) όπου και εκπόνησε και την διδακτορική του διατρι βή µε υποτροφία (ΕΜΥ). Έλαβε την ειδικότητα Μικροβιολογίας στην Αθήνα (Νοσ Παίδων Π&Α Κυριακού) και υπήρξε Λέκτορας ʺΙατρικής Ανοσοχηµείαςʺ στο Χ.Π.Α. ( ), 2004), ενώ από το 2004 έως το 2011 είναι Λέκτορας Ανοσολογίας/Μικροβιολογίας στην Ιατρι κή σχολή του Πανεπιστηµίου Αθηνών. Είναι συντάκτης κριτής σε 12 διεθνή περιοδικά, έχει δηµοσιεύσει 50 άρθρα σε διεθνή περιοδικά (µεσος IF/αρθρο=4.8) µε > 900 βιβλιο γραφικές αναφορές (cita ons).( Έχει επιβλέψει 12 διατριβές, έχει διδάξει 10 διαφορετικά αντικείµενα (µαθήµατα) σε 6 τµήµατα (Ιατρική, Οδοντιατρική, Φαρµακευτική, τµήµα Διαιτολογίας, Χηµικό, ΠΣΕ Βιοχηµείας) και έχει 146 ανα κοινώσεις σε συνέδρια (Ελληνικά: 53, Διεθνή: 93). Τέλος έχει γράψει κεφάλαια σε 6 διεθνή και 7 ελληνικά βιβλία και είναι µέλος σε 6 επιστηµονικές εταιρίες και συλλό γους. ΠΑΡΑΛΑΒΗ ΑΠΟΤΕΛΕΣΜΑΤΩΝ Αποτελέσµατα εξετάσεων: Οι ιατροί έχουν την δυνατό τητα να βλέπουν τα αποτελέσµατα των δικών τους ασθενών, ανά πάσα στιγµή, από την ιστοσελίδα του ιατρείου.
25 Μικροβιολογικό Διαγνωστικό Ιατρείο Υπεύθυνος: Ιωάννης Γ. Ρούτσιας, Λέκτορας Ιατρικής Σχολής Εθνικού και Καποδιστριακού Πανεπιστηµίου Αθηνών Διεύθυνση: Δ. Σούτσου 48 & Αλεξάνδρας Αµπελόκηποι, Αθήνα έναντι του σταθµού Μετρό (στάση Αµπελόκηποι) Τηλ: Fax: E mail: Web: lab.gr
ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΥΓΕΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΝΟΣΗΛΕΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΠΩΣ Η ΚΑΤΑΝΑΛΩΣΗ ΦΡΟΥΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΗΡΕΑΖΕΙ ΤΗΝ ΠΡΟΛΗΨΗ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΜΑΣΤΟΥ Όνομα φοιτήτριας ΚΑΛΑΠΟΔΑ ΜΑΡΚΕΛΛΑ
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