1 Project no UPDATE Understanding and Providing a Developmental Approach to Technology Education Instrument: Specific Support Action Thematic Priority: Structuring the ERA / FP Science-and-society-16 Greek report on WP5. Motivating factors and barriers Partners involved: P14 AUTh P16 IDEC S.A. Submission date: Start date of project: Duration: 36 months; Project coordinator name: Päivi Fadjukoff, Head of Planning & Development Project coordinator organisation name: University of Jyväskylä, Finland
2 Table of Contents I. GENERAL REVIEW...3 A. GENERAL SET OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA...3 Total population + the structure by sex, age cohorts...3 The active population...3 Number and the percent of women in the active population...3 Number of women employed in active women population...4 Number of unemployed women in the active population and in the active women population...4 B. SET OF SPECIFIC DATA AND INDICATORS...5 Absolute number of women graduates in Greece...5 Percentage of women graduates in the active women population and in the total active population...5 The distribution of women according to graduation certificates...5 C. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM...7 D. DATA AND INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRADITIONAL CULTURE...9 II. FINDINGS OF THE FIELD RESEARCH...10 A. OBJECTIVES OF THE EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION/ RESEARCH...10 B. RESEARCH DESIGN...10 Dimensions...10 Data collecting methods...10 Sampling...11 Quantitative and qualitative analysis...11 III. CONCLUSIONS...12 A. KEY FINDINGS...12 INTERVIEWS AND CASE STUDIES...14 B. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FUTURE...16 ANNEX 1: GREEK QUESTIONNAIRE...17 ANNEX 2: CASE STUDIES...30 A. IDEC CASE STUDY...31 B. AUTH CASE STUDY...37 ANNEX 3: INTERVIEWS...39 A. IDEC INTERVIEWS...40 ANNEX 4: ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRES RESULTS42
3 I. GENERAL REVIEW A. GENERAL SET OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA Total population + the structure by sex, age cohorts According to the last official national census of 2001, Greece has a total of inhabitants, from which (49,6%) are men and (50,4%) are women. Given that 7 years have already passed from the census a more accurate picture of the current population may be acquired through the UNPD estimates for the year 2010, which foresees a total of inhabitants from which (49,48%) will be men and will be women (50,51%). In general, the population in Greece is fairly divided between the two sexes but there is a clear tendency for an increase of the women s percentage in the total population. Age group Male Female The active population The active population in Greece, according to the general census of 2001 was 7,445,965 persons. Number and the percent of women in the active population According to the same census the number of women in the active population was 3,707,234 or 49,79% of the total active population.
4 Number of women employed in active women population The employment rate of women in Greece increases steadily every year (from 38% in 1996 to 47.4% in 2006), although it is still lower than the average of the European Union (57.2% in 2006) or the Euro area countries (56.6% in 2006). The female employment rate is calculated by dividing the number of women aged 15 to 64 in employment by the total female population of the same age group. The indicator is based on the EU Labour Force Survey. The growth of employment rate for women in Greece is positive for the whole period Furthermore it is higher than the average growth for the European Union countries. We can see than the lowest rate of growth was noticed in 2001 (0.1%) and the highest in 2004 (4.4%). Number of unemployed women in the active population and in the active women population Employment rates in Greece are 47.5% for women and 74.6% for men compared with the average 57.1% for women and 71.5% for men in the EU respectively. Unemployment of women in Greece is 13.3%, the second higher in the EU (average 8.5%).
5 B. SET OF SPECIFIC DATA AND INDICATORS Absolute number of women graduates in Greece Following the general census of 2001, there were women University graduates in Greece. We may add women graduates of non-university higher education institutions and women graduates of post secondary education. The respective figures for men are (452002, and ). Percentage of women graduates in the active women population and in the total active population The percentage of women graduates in the active women population and the total active population. % in active women population % in total active population University graduates Non-university, higher education Post secondary We clearly see that there is a preference of women that pursue their studies after upper secondary education to go to University rather than non-university education. Post secondary (non higher) education is the only segment where women are more numerous than men both as absolute number ( against ) and as percentage 2,73% against 2.14%. The distribution of women according to graduation certificates According to the same census of the National Statistics Service of Greece according to their graduation certificates is the following: Certificate Number of women Distribution Doctorate Masters degree University Non-university higher education Non-higher post secondary Upper secondary Technical secondary Technical schools Secondary education Primary education total
6 Absolute number of women engineers (ICT/ physists etc) by institutional sector Percentage of women engineers etc by institutional sector are shown in the following table (following a research of MRB SA held in the whole of the Greek territory from till ): sector total men women Studies Building sector Consulting Technical support Production Research and development Management Information technology Administration Quality management and control Marketing Education and training
7 C. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Education in Greece has three successive stages: primary, secondary and tertiary. The latter is divided into university (AEI) and non-university (TEI) education. In Greece, postsecondary initial vocational training, mainly provided at Institutes of Vocational Training (IEK) (see 3.4.2) and leading to certification, is not formally considered part of the education system as the certification received by graduating students allows access to the labour market, rather than to further studies. Consequently, it has only been included in Figure 2 for information. All levels of public education provided by state-owned schools and educational establishments are free of charge. Pre-school education is provided at crèches run by local authorities, at nursery schools (nipiagogeia) run by the Ministry of Education, and at private crèches and nursery schools. Nursery schools are classed as primary education for administrative purposes. Pre-school education is not compulsory. Compulsory education lasts nine years, from the ages of seven to fifteen, with six years at Dimotiko (primary education) and three years at Gymnasio (lower secondary education). Recently, day-long nursery and primary schools have been introduced, though so far only 0.5% of primary schools operate on a day-long basis. 33% of nursery schools and 45% of primary schools operate optional day-long sections, attended by pupils upon their parents request. Furthermore, both lower and upper secondary education include experimental (pilot) schools, in cooperation with universities, music schools (with an emphasis on music), ecclesiastical schools (with an emphasis on religious education) and sports sections (with an emphasis on sports), though their number is limited. Foreign-language learning is of particular interest in Greece. Almost all pupils aged from 9-15 learn foreign languages, not only through foreign language teaching at school, but also in private language institutes. (More affluent pupils are tutored at home.) After the age of 15, pupils tend to focus exclusively on preparing for tertiary level education. Once they have completed compulsory education, pupils can enter the labour market or continue their studies in upper secondary education. They can also attend a one-year post-compulsory secondary training course in areas of expertise provided by the post-secondary IEKs. Upper secondary education consists of the Eniaio (Unified) Lykeio, providing education of a general nature, and Technical Vocational Schools (Technika Epaggelmatika Ekpaideutiria, TEE), providing vocational education and training (see chapter 3). In 2001, the distribution of the school population between these two types of schools was 65% and 35% respectively (Table 6). During the first year of Lykeio all pupils study the same curriculum. From the second year on, in addition to common subjects, pupils choose one of three educational pathways: sciences (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology), arts (language, history, philosophy) or technology (mathematics, physics, technology). In all three years a certain number of teaching hours are devoted to electives. Lykeio graduates are awarded a certificate known as the Lykeio Leaving Certificate (Apolyterio Eniaiou Lykeiou). There is also alternative vocational Training, provided at 52 Apprenticeship Technical Vocational Schools run by the OAED (Ministry of Labour). These schools, which operate in parallel to, and on a par with, Ministry of Education ΤΕΕ schools, also have two independent cycles, the first being a three-year cycle and the second a one-year cycle.
8 Tertiary education is provided in two parallel sectors: a) the university sector comprising Universities (AEI), Polytechnics (Technical University), the Fine Arts School, the Military Academies and Police Academy, and b) the technological sector which includes the Technological Education Institutes (TEI) and the Higher School of Pedagogical and Technical Education (ASPAITE)(3). Courses at tertiary level institutes last from 8-12 semesters. Studies in engineering disciplines last 10 full semesters and they are accompanied by a diploma thesis (eq. to the MSc thesis). Compared to universities, TEIs have a narrower vocational focus, more application-oriented curricula and a greater concentration on training and practice. In Greece there is great demand for tertiary education, with 7 out of 10 Lykeio schoolleavers (admission to AEI and TEI) and 2 out of 10 TEE school-leavers (admission to TEI only) ultimately gaining places there. The overall number of students admitted to AEI and TEI each year rose from in 1993 to in This doubling in student numbers within one decade has brought Greece into one of the top positions in Europe in terms of the rate of participation in higher education by population groups aged This indicator reached 58% for 2002, compared to 27% in Lykeio graduates are admitted to tertiary education on the basis of results obtained in national examinations (panellinies) held in the last two years of school. Admission to some schools is also determined by examinations on special additional subjects. Most candidates for tertiary education focus on only a few university departments. As a result, many young people are not admitted to the department of their choice and end up studying subjects they have little interest in. Quite a number young people choose to study abroad, mainly in European Union countries. 1 Figure 1: Pathways in education and training 1 Some data rise this number to students currently studying abroad (http://www.ntua.gr/posdep/mme/mar_2005/ _tanea.htm)
9 D. DATA AND INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRADITIONAL CULTURE Traditional Greek rural society till the beginning of the 20 th century had more or less defined roles for the two sexes, with the woman working equally or even more than the man in the fields and having all the burden of the work in the houses. In quite a number of cases, such as wars (and there were many wars till the 30 s) or if the men went for long periods to work abroad, in the cities or in the sea, women had full responsibility for agricultural works, keeping the household and children up-bringing. In the cities, instead, there was a tendency that at least married women do not have to work outside the house. Things have changed a lot after the 2 nd world war. Most popular women professions were teachers, lawyers, housekeepers, retail sellers, nurses, clothing, doctors, secretaries, restaurant- coffee shops- hotel employers or employees. A research CEDEFOP has done in 1986 has shown that women employers were 12% of the whole number of employers in Greece. Things have changed drastically since 1982, when following a political change, there was a big change in the family law, giving men and women the same rights and permitting women to keep their family name after marriage (even inheriting it to their children). At he same time there was founded for the first time the General Secretariat for Equality of the two sexes. One of the first initiatives of this new government institution was to examine and revise all school textbooks (texts, pictures etc) in order that there are not underlying stereotypes or prejudices concerning the roles of the two sexes. Since then we have seen that a number of professions, that were till then considered as purely men professions have been accessed to a certain extend (some of them, like judges, have really been invaded by women). Examples are architects, civil and chemical engineering, computer experts, army officers even some professions with hard requirements such as taxi drivers or women-captains of boats. There are fewer women dropouts from schools and more women university graduating than men are. Even so, there are some University departments that are still nearly exclusively gender-oriented. For example, literature is a women- fortress, instead naval architects is a man- stronghold. Recent years have seen the beginning of a marked upward trend in student populations at vocational schools and a corresponding reduction in student populations at schools providing general education. This development is directly related to the spate of reforms in upper secondary education and is expected to continue. Girls outnumber boys in general education while boys outnumber girls in vocational education. There is limited application of alternating vocational education, largely because companies offer few apprenticeships. This the OAED attributes to the social partners lack of information about the aims of apprenticeship TEEs, and has therefore introduced measures to remedy the situation.
10 II. FINDINGS OF THE FIELD RESEARCH A. OBJECTIVES OF THE EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION/ RESEARCH Objectives of the exploratory research is to get in contact with a significant number of women and men who have chosen to be engineers, ICT, physicists etc, in order to explore a number of enhancing and impeding parameters or dimensions. B. RESEARCH DESIGN Dimensions The dimensions that we have investigated are the following: Tradition in family Early gender segregation/ Mentorship and role models/primary school Personal achievements Self efficacy Self image The support of the significant others to chose a non-traditional/traditional career /parents support Cognitive styles: intelligence connected to the objects /intelligence connected to persons Curricula / primary education/teacher s attitude The manuals Middle and Secondary education Educational career in engineering/other fields Career expectations Decision/motivation to study engineering Self-efficacy and the decision to study engineering Curricula/courses content Gender stereotypes and obstacles in engineering/science/ict employment Data collecting methods In order to conduct the research, we have used a variety of methods, such as: Filling of questionnaires (Annex 1) Case studies (Annex 2) Interviews (Annex 3) Analysis of documents and statistics Questionnaires have first been translated and adapted. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and IDEC have shared the work of filling the questionnaire through direct contact with the target group. Case studies have been compiled following thorough interviewing with members of the target group.
11 Interviews were semi-structured in order to allow interviewees to express themselves freely and capture eventual interesting aspects. Sampling The sample size was of 120 persons. Out of them 36 were women (30%) and 84 men (70%). The ages of the sample ranged from 16 to 28 years old. The distribution is not normal. The pick is at 18 years of age (36.7%), following 19 years old (10%) and 20, 23 and 25 years old (8.3%). As far as the educational field is concerned the picture of the sample was the following: Major in engineering Valid Engineering drawing Mechanics Electricity Electronics Surveying Building&constructions Chemistry Total Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent 1,8,8, ,3 63,3 64,2 2 1,7 1,7 65,8 1,8,8 66,7 1,8,8 67, ,7 31,7 99,2 1,8,8 100, ,0 100,0 Quantitative and qualitative analysis The analysis of the questionnaires was done with the aid of SPSS, and following a commonly used methodology consisting of: The calculation of the basic statistical characteristics of the studied data set The performance of an in depth analysis with the aid of computational intelligence methods. For the latter, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was chosen, as the most appropriate for the investigation of the interconnections and interrelationships between parameters.
12 III. CONCLUSIONS A. KEY FINDINGS In the following we are presenting the findings of the field research adding some reflections deriving from the interviews and the case studies. As far as the family background is concerned, following the research we observe that male whose grandparents were farmers, craftsmen and scientists are more represented in comparison to women. Similarly, according to the distribution of sexes in the sample in connection with fathers education, more males had fathers who had higher education and had finished lyceum, contrary to females. As far as the early gender segregation is concerned, we see that: Girls consider that they were more strongly motivated from parents and family environment in the past, on the basis of personal interest, contrary to boys. Boys receive more education in the use of machines contrary to girls Boys, contrary to girls, consider that parents have made choices of costume and games because of sex. Taking into consideration the answers on the influence of mentorship and role models at primary school we see that: Girls consider that they were more strongly influenced by the school teacher s personal interest on mathematics, contrary to boys. Girls say that they had more often an adult who acted as a counsellor in the municipality school, contrary to boys. There is evidence of differences between the answers of the two sexes in the dimensions of personal achievements, self efficacy, self image, In the primary school girls seem to perform better than the boys in courses related to linguistic, life cultural studies. The support of the significant others to chose a non-traditional /traditional career /parents support is very important in the decision making of both boys and girls, as nearly everybody considers parents support-pressure and school and parents influence in the choice of the career. Examining the cognitive styles and intelligence connected to the objects /intelligence connected to persons we observe that: Boys, contrary to girls, think that their performance is better in relation to object handling, and generally in math, physics, and technological disciplines. Girls contrary to boys, believe more strongly that engineering/science is connected both with objects and people. They also believe that within the knowledge society technical/ engineering knowledge/ skills are needed in most of the educational and professional fields. They sustain that they perform equally well with boys in Math, Physics, and technological disciplines. Considering the importance of curricula in primary education and teacher s attitude, results indicate that according to the studied sample, the Greek educational system is characterised by two dimensions in relation to the curriculum and the teachers attitude:
13 The one is focusing more on the general principles of the pedagogic science, trying to equally develop the skills of students towards multiple disciplines. The other is influenced by the general assumption that mathematics and science in general is the field where students should demonstrate mental skill, and that their overall performance and potential should be judged on the basis of these skills. The school manuals according to answers received seem to have incorporated differences in sex, and are therefore expected to influence the behaviour of children As far as Middle and Secondary education is concerned, girls showed that they believe more (in comparison to boys) that they received support and guidance in order to realise the usefulness of Technology for everyday life and for a professional career; they also felt that they received more recognition from their teachers in this field. The subject of educational career in engineering has been examined from a number of points of view: As far as the major interviewees are concerned there was no difference regarding sexes. Regarding the previous thoughts about being an engineer there was no difference between the answers of men and women. The same stands regarding the questions whether there is enough information available and if they personally had enough information concerning jobs and careers. There were two statements where there was a gender differentiation on the agree/disagree answers when thinking about engineering as a career : More men than women disagree with the statement In particular women have problem bringing up children which means that men tend to underestimate the load of upbringing of children that is being carried more from woman in comparison to men in Greece More women than men disagree with the statement You believe engineering does not go well with femininity, which means that women tend to believe that their femininity is not threatened by the fact they are engineers. As far as the level of influence on the decision of studying engineering the findings indicate statistically semantic sex differences concerning the following factors: mother or female guardian female role model Female teacher Male teacher These factors seem to have a stronger influence to women in comparison to men. On the contrary, there was no difference to the answers of the sexes referring to the persons actively discouraging them from pursuing engineering. In the case of investigating the influence of peers, women mention more cases of occurrence of such influences. Career expectations are an extremely interesting issue, as we perceive differences in the answers of the two sexes. Specifically, there are the following differences: More women than men seem to search for safety and good working conditions.
14 On the contrary, the percentage of men looking for a research or academic career seems to be lower than that of women. On the other hand, teaching career or work in small enterprises and in the public sector seems to be more appealing to women than to men. There is a statistically significant sex difference between the two sexes at being influenced by a male engineer when considering the decision and motivation to study engineering. Men were influenced in studying more than women As far as self-efficacy and the decision to study engineering is concerned, we have observed the following: There were no statistically significant sex differences when evaluating the level of agreement with a number of self-motivational statements. Compared to women in engineering studies of the past, it seems that women now spend more time and effort on their class work and they work better with other people. Compared to men in past engineering courses it seems that women worked better with other people. Considering curricula/courses content: More women disagreed that courses are not relevant to them More men assessed their engineering department as supportive of women students More women than men believe it is easier for women to go into some fields of engineering than other fields. Coming back to gender stereotypes and obstacles in engineering /science/ ICT employment, the study has explored a variety of factors: There were no statistically significant sex differences in the questions referring to engineering as a career. The same (no statistically significant sex differences) stands also for the questions that refer to the situation and stereotypes women face after graduation. As far as reasons impeding the decision about choosing engineering, there was difference in the consideration of men and women regarding the factor Engineering and real life (superficiality of studies, macho mentality, short width of engineer studies). Men consider this factor more hindering than women. Interviews and case studies Examining the interviews and case studies, we may distinguish opinions and feelings about school and family background, the decision to become an engineer, the studies and the working conditions. School and family background seem to play a supportive role at the first place: The school environment in primary school was not gender discriminative Her teachers in the primary school diagnosed her competence in maths quite early. Her family and relatives were proud of her competence in maths.
15 In maths and science she was among the top students in the whole school The family supported her psychologically and financially and believed in her ability to continue her studies There were two uncles, one civil engineer and one mathematician who had some influence on her choice. Referring to the decision to become an engineer, we collect statements like the following: It was not a conscious decision. I was a good student at school I always liked this job, to wear uniform, helmet and be in ships. I was good at maths and related subjects As far as the studies are concerned we have noted the following: In the university I did not have any kind of problem. I dare to say that our male colleagues were acting protective, just because we were so few. I do not think that women encounter problems or obstacles. In contrary, I think that we can cope better with engineering studies because we are more organised and methodical. Personal interest and competences. As I had an interest in maths I would choose something with maths. Prestige of engineering among the wide family environment. Easiness in employability and high salaries Working conditions seem to present a lot more challenges and problems for women, especially if they are mothers of babies: I have changed so far two jobs in the private sector and I haven t encountered any problem. That was till the moment that I gave birth to my son, after that everything changed. I still undertake the most difficult tasks of the office, but now, nobody talks about promotion. The hardest problems were from the other women of the company, who could not accept a woman colleague, in a technical post. My job involved travels abroad in difficult conditions. They thought that I could not cope with it. But all this was my motivation, I liked my job very much, everything was so interesting and exciting. There comes a time that you have to face the dilemma: Career or family? After having family, I compromised with an office work with less interest for me and a lot of bureaucratic work. After some period off the labour market, a woman has to work very hard to keep up with technological changes. The employers tend to prefer men over women for a position in the production. Most of the times the men get paid better than women, for the same position. The main reason is because of maternity benefits that women have. Most of the chemical productions are harmful and some industries work in shifts and this is an objective obstacle for women. It is very rare to find a woman working in the production department, but more frequent in the design or quality control department. In production and in worksites the problem is also with male workers that question the authority and skills of a woman supervisor.
16 B. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FUTURE All persons interviewed have stressed the importance of early childhood, parents and relatives, teachers and school performance for decision making on becoming an engineer. Girls seem to be more influenced than boys by role models, be they their mother, their teacher or a more aged engineer. If we come closer to these issues we may expect that: Less stereotypes (doll toys for girls, construction toys for boys) will influence the new generations, as the time gap from the woman emancipation increases Parents have to be supportive, but this means that they need first to find and dedicate time for children and children education. If parents do not have this time, grand parents contribution may be valuable in this respect. School manuals should avoid sex stereotypes for professions The role of the professional guidance at school is essential Teachers behaviour towards recognising and rewarding good school performance is imperative for the future adult life of the pupil. More mothers and women engineers are expected to act as models in the future, as there exist more now than ten or twenty or thirty years ago. Taking into consideration the previous observations we would recommend: Consciousness raising through school or tv and broadcasting emissions about sex segregation stereotypes Parents have to learn to be close to their children and to support their decisions School manuals have to be examined in order to be sure that there are no sex stereotypes for professions Special attention has to be paid for the professional guidance at school Teachers have to follow training seminars in order to adopt behaviour towards recognising and rewarding good school performance. It will be good if more women engineers are involved in education and training or if pupils have the opportunity to discuss with women engineers. As far as career expectation is concerned, main observations are the following: Women seem to believe more strongly (in comparison to men), that engineering and science is connected both with objects and with people. They also tend to emphasize more on educational aspects that are closer to practical and maybe realistic needs of everyday life. The previous factors make them more flexible at work. On the other hand, women seem to search more for a safer and good working conditions job, such as research or teaching. A big obstacle is still the stereotypes some men-employers have for women engineers. The balance between a demanding and self rewarding job with family and children upbringing seems to be an open issue still in the Greek society, having a major impact in young women s professional selections.