Complete Grammar. Grammatical Categories

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1 Complete Grammar The structure of this description of the grammar of Temenia follows loosely the sequence of chapters in Thomas Payne s Describing Morphosyntax, and, in fact, borrows some of the sample phrases for examples. I assume that you have read the Phonetics and Orthography and Simple Grammar documents prior to this one, and so are familiar with the basics of Temenia grammar, phonetics and orthography. Grammatical Categories There are three major categories of words in Temenia: nouns, verbs, and modifiers (which contains both adjectives and adverbs). There is no marker on a word to indicate to which category a word belongs. In addition to the major categories, there are conjunctions, postpositions (similar to prepositions but they follow the noun clause, as in Japanese), pronouns, adjunctions (used to introduce adjunctive clauses to add information concerning time, place or manner such as: while, since, unless), and particles. These tables show the complete list of the three smaller categories, and are placed here as an aid in reading the examples. ωε ψε θο μι τυ θυ ξι λο ηυ ηα κε χα θα Conjunctions Pronouns Particles and but or I / me you (singular and plural) he / him she / her it / they / them we / us negation (not, un-) relativizer complementizer interrogative 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 1

2 Word Order Constituent Word Order The basic word order in Temenia is Agent-Verb-Patient. This means that for transitive sentences, the word order is Subject-Verb-Object, as in most sentences in European languages. However, for intransitive sentences, the word order of Temenia differs from the usual subject-verb structure of European languages. Temenia exhibits the characteristics of split intransitivity (that is, neither a nominative/accusative nor an ergative/absolutive grammar). Depending on the semantics of the intransitive subject, it may appear either before or after the verb. These three sentences illustrate this: πακο λοκυτοι κοιηε Paco broke the window. πακο λοκυτι Paco broke [something]. λοκυτοι κοιηε The window broke. The first sentence is transitive. Paco is the agent of the verb, in that he is the one who is performing the breaking. Window is the patient of the verb, in that it is the object that is undergoing the breaking. The second sentence is intransitive. Here, as in English, the agent appears before the verb. However, the patient is left unuttered; we know that Paco broke something, but can not tell, without context, what object he is accused of breaking. The third sentence also is intransitive. This time, window, which would be the subject in English, follows the verb. This is because the window is the patient of the verb break. In this sentence we do not know who or what caused the window to break (whether it be Paco or the wind), but we do know that it is the window that has undergone the process of breaking. Hence, window takes on the role of patient in this sentence and therefore follows the verb. In some cases, there are sentences that have neither an agent nor a patient. Consider this sentence: τεμαε It is raining. The action, rain, has neither an agent or patient (the subject, it, in English, is semantically empty). As such, a single verb can constitute a complete Temenia sentence. Nouns can appear in roles other than agent and patient. For example, a noun may be a recipient of the action (Paco gave the gift to Selena) or it may be the beneficiary of the action (Paco bought the medicine for Selena). The more common semantic roles are indicated by suffixes on the noun. The table below shows the list of role suffixes in Temenia: 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 2

3 Noun Suffixes -ζι Possessive of -λα Recipient to -τε Source from -φο Beneficiary for -ωι Comitative with -ρο Instrumentive by -ωα Locative at -κα Agent -πυ Patient In the basic word order, nouns in other than the agent or patient role follow the patient in the sentence: πακο ηυπι ψοηο ζελεηαλα Paco gave the gift to Selena πακο ζαυ μετιζιηα ζελεηαφο Paco bought the medicine for Selena πακο ηυπι μετιζιηα ζελεηαλα μαμαφο ξικακοωα Paco gave the medicine to Selena for her mother in Chicago When there are multiple non-agent, non-patient roles in the sentence, their order, after the patient, is not relevant. Words in other roles not in the Noun Suffixes table are indicated by postpositions. Nouns governed by a postposition take the locative suffix (-ωα) although it may be omitted if it is clear from context. θυ ξυε τυι κιμαθοωα μοετυο He put the book on the table θυ ξυε τυι κιμαθοωα ωει He put the book under the table θυ ξυε τυι κιμαθοωα ξεψοτε He put the book to the left of the table 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 3

4 This table gives many of the postpositions in Temenia: ηιρε ηυρο ζερυαψο ωει ωιυχοτε ξεψοτε κυε θοαξι μοετυο ρευμοτεμε ζυκε χυεξιψο Postpositions in front of (before temporally) behind (after temporally) above, over below, under to the right of to the left of in, within outside of on between through (during temporally) without The noun markings in Temenia may seem to imply that they are inflectional noun cases, as in Latin. This is one way to look at it. On the other hand, since the noun markings are simple agglutinative suffixes, it is equally possible to consider them postpositions that, when written, are suffixed to the noun. In some languages, many verbs are associated always with particular prepositions, for example, the for in Paco searches for Mary. This does not occur in Temenia; the preposition is subsumed into the meaning of the verb. This eliminates semantically-empty adpositions from Temenia, simplifies sentence structure, and eliminates the need to memorize which, if any, prepositions are associated with verbs. πακο θοθεο μαρι Paco searches for Mary πακο μεαραι μαρι Paco depends on Mary There is no suffix which represents the vocative (O Paco!) in Temenia. The non-suffixed root noun is used (πακο). Possessive Word Order All of the noun roles listed in the Noun Suffixes table above specify the relationship of the noun to the verb, except for the possessive, which specifies a relationship between two nouns. For example, give to Selena or walk with Juana specify the relationship between the noun Selena and the verb give or between the noun Juana and the verb walk. Contrariwise, in the phrase book of Juana (or Juana s book), the relationship specifies the relationship between the noun book and the noun Juana. 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 4

5 In Temenia, the possessive always precedes the noun. ωαηαζι τυι Juana s book ωαηαζι παπαζι τυι Juana s father s book θυ ηυπι τυι ωαηαζι παπαλα He gave the book to Juana s father Personal adjectives (my book, his book) use the possessive suffix on the pronoun. Compare: μαριζι τυι Mary s book ξιζι τυι Her book ηυζι τυι Our book Modifier Word Order Modifiers always follow the nouns or verbs which they modify. ωιπε χιερυ good man ψιτυηιωιλιε θετε walk slowly In Temenia there are no articles or determiners. That is, there are no words for a, an, or the. There are demonstrative adjectives, however, as shown in the following table: τι τα Demonstratives this / these that / those A demonstrative follows the noun which it modifies: λυωαυπε τα that dog Numerals (one, two, three) are considered modifiers and so also follow the nouns to which they refer. If a noun is modified by a demonstrative and a numeral and a descriptive modifier, then they follow the noun in this order: first the descriptive modifiers, then the numerals, then the demonstrative. λυωαυπε ρυξι ρεζι τα those three big dogs 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 5

6 λυωαυπε ρυξι λυακυι τα those big, mean dogs λυωαυπε ρυξι ρεζι θο φιρι three or four big dogs If a modifier modifies another modifier (as adverbs modify adjectives) then the modifying modifier follows the modified modifier: ρυξι θαχο very big θεφυχια κοικοψυ too much τοτει πευπαυ ζοιραριυ bright white wall Demonstrative pronouns do not exist in Temenia. Instead of saying, I want this, or, I want those, it is necessary to express that which is referred to. That is, I want this cookie, or, I want those shoes (or, at least, I want that thing ). Apposition In appositive constructions, the common noun normally precedes the proper noun (although this word order is not absolutely prescribed). μιζι κεορεο ωαηα ψυπιποιηε θεφυχια My wife, Juana, exercises a lot Flexible Word Order To provide focus in a sentence it is possible to utilize a word order other than the basic word order shown above. By scrutinizing the Noun Markings table, you can see that there are markings for the agent (-κα) and patient (-πυ) role as well. By using these markings, it is permissible to permute the words to change the focus of the sentence. In Temenia, the focus of the sentence falls on the first word in the sentence. ξερεμαιθα μυοπαθοα θαριαηα Jeremiah kissed Ariana [normal word order, no emphasis] θαριαηαπυ μυοπαθοα ξερεμαιθακα Jeremiah kissed Ariana -or- It is Ariana whom Jeremiah kissed [unusual word order, focus placed on Ariana] μυοπαθοα ξερεμαιθακα θαριαηαπυ Jeremiah kissed Ariana [unusual word order, focus placed on the verb kiss] 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 6

7 ζαξα ηυπι ζερι πακολα Sasha gave a pig to Paco πακολα ζαξακα ηυρι ζεριπυ To Paco, Sasha gave a pig ζεριπυ ζαξακα ηυρι πακολα It s a pig that Sasha gave to Paco These non-standard word orders are used sparingly in Temenia. Just as one does not often say, in English, To Paco, Sasha gave a pig, one should not deviate frequently from the normal agent-verb-patient word order in Temenia unless the intent is to change the focus of the sentence from the agent and to emphasize some other constituent of the sentence. Because of the flexible word order, there is no passive verbal construction in Temenia. The primary reason to use a passive construction is to place the emphasis on the patient by placing it first in the sentence, rather than the agent. This can be accomplished using the noun markings: πακο ωιμομαι πολα Paco kicks the ball πολαπυ ωιμομαι πακοκα or πολαπυ πακοκα ωιμομαι The ball is kicked by Paco Noun Operations There are few noun operations in Temenia. Nouns have no number (that is, no distinction between singular, plural, or dual). Nouns have no gender (masculine, feminine, or neuter). An exception to this is made for pronouns, which, as can be seen in the following table, do carry gender and number: μι τυ θυ ξι λο ηυ Pronouns I / me you (singular and plural) he / him she / her it / they / them we / us Nouns in Temenia are not marked for case (and neither are pronouns, as can be seen in the table above). However, nouns and pronouns can be marked with suffixes (as described in the section on Word Order), which carry the same type of grammatical 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 7

8 information as case markings carry. The reason that these suffixes are not considered case markings is because they are optional. If the intent is clear from the context of the sentence, then the suffix can be omitted. Consider: πακο ηυπι ψοηο ζελεηαλα Paco gave the gift to Selena And: πακο ηυπι ψοηο ζελεηα Paco gave the gift to Selena The recipient suffix (-λα) is omitted from the second sentence. This is permissible in Temenia if Selena s role as the recipient of the gift is clear from the conversational context. Verb Operations Many verb markings exist in Temenia. These are agglutinative suffixes, and, just as for the noun suffixes, they are optional if the meaning of the sentence is clear from the context. Verb Tense Verbs may be marked with tense. The table below shows the three tense suffixes. -φι -ωυ -ζα Verb Tense Suffixes Past Present Future θυ μαιφι / θυ μαιωυ / θυ μαιζα He ate / He eats / He will eat Verb Aspect Verbs may be marked with aspect. The table below shows the four verbal aspects in Temenia. -πε -ψυ -χι -μο Verb Aspect Suffixes Perfective Imperfective Inceptive Completive The perfective aspect (which is different than the perfect aspect common in European languages) represents an event considered in its entirety, regardless of tense. The imperfective aspect, contrariwise, represents an event which is ongoing. 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 8

9 Perfective: He ate dinner. Imperfective: He was eating dinner. The sentence, He was eating dinner, implies a duration of time during which the dinner was consumed and during which some other event could occur (While he was eating dinner, the telephone rang). The sentence, He ate dinner, implies an event that started and finished as a single unit. The preterit in Spanish is a good example of a perfective aspect in a European language. The inceptive refers to an action that has just started. The completive refers to an action that has just ended. These aspects are not grammaticalized in European languages, so they must be translated approximately using periphrastic constructions. Inceptive: She (just) began to eat dinner. Completive: She (just) finished eating dinner. There is no perfect aspect in Temenia; the closest is the completive. (Present Perfect: She has eaten dinner Present Completive: She finishes eating dinner.) Although these are not identical, they are close enough in intention that the completive in Temenia often can be used to translate the perfect of European languages. ξι μαιμο μιψεμεο ωε τελεφοηε ηαοθεχι She finishes eating dinner and the telephone begins to ring. [The implication is that just as she laid down her fork the telephone rang.] One way to conceptualize these verbal aspects of Temenia is to consider a timeline. The perfective aspect represents an event that has started and finished. The imperfective represents an event that is ongoing; the start and end are not regarded. The inceptive represents an event that has started, but whose completion has not occurred; whereas the completive represents an event whose completion has occurred, but whose commencement is not considered. Tense and aspect can be combined for one verb. θαριαηα μαιμοφι μιψεμεο Ariana had just finished eating dinner θαριαηα μαιχιζα μιψεμεο Ariana will begin to eat dinner λαπο θαριαηα μαιφιψυ μιψεμεο, τελεφοηε ηαοθεφιπε While Ariana was eating dinner, the telephone rang. Note that there is no order specified if multiple verb suffixes are attached to a single verb. 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 9

10 Evidentiality Temenia grammaticalizes evidentiality, that is, the means by which the truth of the utterance is known by the speaker. Evidentiality in European languages must be expressed (if it is expressed at all) using adverbial clauses such as: I heard that..., Everyone knows that..., It must be that..., etc. In many Native American languages, however, the evidence by which the speaker knows the truth of his utterance is grammaticalized. Temenia represents the evidentiality of events through the use of verbal suffixes, just as for verbal tense and aspect. There are four categories of evidence, as shown in the table below: -μυ -κυ -ξο -το Verb Evidentiality Suffixes Sensory Inferential Reportative Universal Sensory evidence represents knowledge gained by the speaker through his own senses. The events described by the speaker are known to him because he saw or heard or tasted, through his own senses, the occurrence of the event. Inferential evidence represents knowledge that the speaker has deduced through logic and reasoning, but has not experienced himself. Reportative evidence represents knowledge gained by the speaker because someone else told him about the event, which includes knowledge gained through reading. The universal evidentiality marking is used to represent facts or events that are universally true, or generally known and accepted as true by the community to which the speaker belongs. This marking would be used to express mathematical or religious truths that are accepted as universally true. (Of course, whether or not the utterance expressed by the speaker as universally true is, in fact, true, is not controlled by the use of Temenia. People can be in error no matter which language they speak or how confident they may be in the truth of an assertion.) πακο ωοαζομυ πιποτε Paco fell from the roof [...and I know this because I saw it with my own eyes] πακο ωοαζοκυ πιποτε Paco fell from the roof [...and I know this because he was working on the roof and now I see his broken body lying on the ground] 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 10

11 πακο ωοαζοξο πιποτε Paco fell from the roof [...and I know this because John told me] ζυεθε φιρι μεοτο παχα A square has four sides [...and I know this because it is a universal truth] Just as with the other verbal suffixes in Temenia, affixing evidentiality markers to verbs is optional, and not done if the type of evidence is known to the speaker or clear from the context. If Paco is relating a story told to him by John (and his listeners know this), there is no reason to use the reportative verbal suffix since it is clear contextually that Paco knows this information from John. In general, the evidentiality markings are used for emphasis, or to clarify the means by which the speaker has acquired knowledge about the events which he relates when that information would be important to the listeners. As an example of evidentiality used for emphasis: ωαηα: πακο ωοαζο πιποτε Juana: Paco fell from the roof ζελεηα: ηο, ηα μευχε Selena: No, not true ωαηα: ψα, πακο ωοαζομυ πιποτε Juana: Yes, Paco fell from the roof [and I saw it myself] Other Verb Operations Two other verbal suffixes exist which do not fall into the previous categories: -ρι -ζε Miscellaneous Verbal Suffixes Iterative Reflexive The iterative is used to indicate that the action of the verb occurred repetitively. θυ χυρει χυεκοε He cuts the meat θυ χυρειρι χυεκοε He chops up [cuts over and over] the meat ψιο μεο μι ωε μι φυθορι I have a cold and I am sneezing and sneezing The reflexive is used to indicate that the agent and the patient of the verb are the same, that is, the agent performs the action to himself/herself/itself. μι ρεηυο μαρι I wash Mary 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 11

12 μι ρεηυοζε I wash [myself] μι ψυιλιλοζιτορα μαρι Ι wake Mary μι ψυιλιλοζιτοραζε I wake up The reflexive is used also to indicate a reciprocal function (whether reflexive or reciprocal is determined by context): λο φοηιωυεζε They watch each other (or) They watch themselves Mode The only verbal modes in Temenia are indicative and imperative. Verbs in the imperative mode are represented by the root verb, without suffixes. ρυπε!! Go!! There are no other verbal modes, such as subjunctive, conditional, etc. Agreement Since nouns do not carry either number or gender, there is no need for verb agreement in Temenia. Style It is important to note that the verbal suffixes are used rarely in Temenia. Unlike European languages where verb inflections are mandatory, in Temenia the verbal suffixes are used only for emphasis or disambiguation. ( Context rules in Temenia; if it is clear from context then it should be omitted.) This is somewhat similar to Arabic literary style, where, in a paragraph, only the verb in the first sentence is marked for tense, while the verbs in the subsequent sentences use the present tense, since the temporality of the paragraph is contextually clear from the tense marking on the verb of the first sentence. Consider this narrative as an example: καηεα ωαηα μαιψυ μιψεμεο ωιε τελεφοηε ηαοθε. ξιζι μαμα λιτιο. ξι ωοωο χα πακο ωοαζοφι πιποτε. θυ ωιεωεχεπε ξεαωοι ψακε. θυζι πεξυ ζυαηοξο ξικακοωα πυχι. Yesterday Juana was eating dinner when the telephone rang. Her mother was speaking. She said that Paco had fallen off the roof. He had died in great pain. His funeral would take place in Chicago tomorrow. 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 12

13 Notice what is marked and what is not. Juana is not marked as agent since it is implied as the noun preceding the verb. Eat is marked as imperfective but not as past since the past tense can be inferred from the adverb yesterday. Dinner is not marked as patient since it immediately follows the verb and is clearly the object of eat. Telephone is not marked since it is clearly the agent of rang. Rang is not marked since the tense and aspect can be inferred from the tense and aspect of was eating. Similarly was speaking is not marked. Nor is said. However, had fallen is marked with the past tense suffix to indicate that the action of Paco s falling preceded the time of the telephone call. [An unmarked tense could possibly indicate that Paco fell off the roof while Juana s mother was speaking on the telephone. Also, had fallen is perfect aspect, but this can not be translated using the completive since this would indicate that Paco had just fallen off the roof prior to the telephone call.] Roof is marked as the place from which Paco had fallen, so it is clear that Paco had not fallen on the roof, perhaps, due to some injury while he worked there. Died is marked using the perfective aspect to distinguish from the imperfective aspect [which would have been used if Juana s mother had told her yesterday that Paco was dying and she should come home before it was too late]. Pain is a comitative, but it is not marked since this is clear from the context. Take place [happen] is not marked as future tense since this can be inferred from the word tomorrow. However, it is marked using the reportative to indicate that Juana s mother knows about the place and time of Paco s funeral only because she heard of it, that is, she is not certain about the place and time. The above paragraph is maximally marked. That is because the paragraph appears as an isolated fragment of a narrative. In real life, there would be much information already shared between Juana and her mother that would form a communal context between them allowing much to be communicated although not expressed explicitly. What if Juana already knew about Paco s accident? Clearly then some of the aspectual markings could be omitted since news of his death is communicated in the context of that previously shared information. In brief, any noun or verb markings that are clear from the shared context of the speaker and the listener(s) should be omitted. To over-mark makes Temenia sound heavy and labored. Copular Verbs There are three copular verbs in Temenia, which are translated into English by be or have. κοι is the equative and is used for predicate nominals and predicate adjectives. μαικα κοι ψοιμεθυα Micah is the chief [Micah and the chief are the same individual] μαικα κοι ωυψοερυ Micah is a teacher [Micah belongs to the set of teachers] 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 13

14 μαικα κοι μυψυα Micah is tall [Micah possesses the attribute tall ] χια is the existential and is used for there is and there are constructions. χια ψιψιο There is a lion [Either said when pointing out the animal in a zoo, or screamed as loudly as possible while sprinting in the opposite direction] χια ψυοζι ωαλυφαξυ ξεοθο There is a law against smoking μεο is used for the locative, possessive and benefactive constructions (and anything else that needs a copula that is not an equative nor an existential). The possessive usage is usually translated using the verb have in English with the subject and object reversed. τυι μεο κιμαθο μοετυο The book is on the table τυι μεο μαρι Mary has the book [The book is to Mary] τυι μεο ζελεηαφο The book is for Selena Of course, any of the copular verbs in Temenia can take the same tense, aspect and evidentiality markings as the other verbs. τυι τι μεοζα ζελεηαφο This book will be for Selena Also, μεo is used to express the possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs). Possessive pronouns do not exist in Temenia. The equivalent meaning is expressed as follows: τυι μεο μι The book is mine πυλυο τα μεο ξι Those shoes are hers (There is no distinction made in Temenia between, I have the book, and, The book is mine, They are both forms of possession. Additional phrasing must be added if it is necessary to distinguish between physical possession and abstract possession.) 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 14

15 Relative Clauses All relative clauses are introduced by the relative particle: κε. It can mean, variously, that, which, who, whose, whom, etc. Relative clauses always immediately follow the noun phrase which is modified by the clause. ωιπε ζαυπε μιζι θαυτομοπιλε The man bought my car. ωιπε, κε ζιψιφυ ξι, ζαυπε μιζι θαυτομοπιλε The man, who married her, bought my car. Any noun in a Temenia sentence can be relativized, regardless of which role it plays in the sentence (agent, patient, recipient, beneficiary, etc.). However, unless the noun being relativized is the agent of the relative clause, a pronoun representing the relativized noun is retained in the relative clause to indicate the role of the relativized noun in the relative clause: ωιπε, κε ξι ζιψιφυ θυ, ζαυπε μιζι θαυτομοπιλε The man, whom she married, bought my car. [Literally: The man, that she married him, bought my car] ωιπε, κε ξι ηυπι ψοηο θυλα, ζαυπε μιζι θαυτομοπιλε The man, to whom she gave a gift, bought my car. [Literally: The man, that she gave a gift to him, bought may car] ωιπε, κε ξι ωαθυψεςα θυζι ψοηο, ζαυπε μιζι θαυτομοπιλε The man, whose gift she returned, bought my car. [Literally: The man, that she returned his gift, bought my car] Other nouns besides the agent in the main clause can be relativized in the same manner: ωιπε ζαυπε μιζι θαυτομοπιλε κε μι λοαπουμο λοπυ The man bought my car which I had just cleaned ωιπε ηυπι μιζι θαυτομοπιλε θυζι μαμαλα κε χιο μιζι ζεχυε The man gave my car to his mother who built my house Of course, nominal phrases can be relativized, too: λυωαυπε πυεκετο ρυξι κε ζιεφαε μι The big black dog that bit me λυωαυπε πυεκετο ρυξι κε μι ζιεφαε λο The big black dog that I bit 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 15

16 Modal Verbs and Complement Clauses Modal verbs are those that are used to indicate necessity, permission, possibility, desirability, causality and other epistemic modifications of a sentence. Usually the modal verb is considered the verb of the main clause which takes as its argument the complement clause. For example, in the sentence, Mary wants Billy to go, the verb want is the modal verb, which governs the complement clause Billy to go. In most cases in Temenia, complement clauses are introduced by the complementive particle: χα. μαρι τοθυκε χα πιλι ρυπε Mary wants Billy to go. If the agent of the complement clause is the same as the agent of the modal verb, then the complementive particle is omitted: μαρι τοθυκε ρυπε Mary wants to go. Note the difference in the construction of the complement clause depending on whether the agents of the main clause and the complement clause are the same: μαρι τοθυκε μαι ραωειηε Mary wants to eat noodles μαρι τοθυκε χα πιλι μαι ραωειηε Mary wants Billy to eat the noodles [literally: Mary wants that Billy eats the noodles] More examples: Possibility: μαρι φαυχιυ μαι ραωειηε Mary can eat noodles Permission: ξερεμαιθα μυιηυα χα μαρι μαι ραωειηε Jeremiah allows Mary to eat noodles μυιηυα χα μαρι μαι ραωειηε Mary may eat noodles [Literally: It is allowed that Mary eat noodles] Obligation: ψαυκιθυ χα μαρι μαι ραωειηε Mary should eat noodles [Literally: It is obligatory that Mary eat noodles] Necessity: ροα χα μαρι μαι ραωειηε Mary must eat noodles [Literally: It is necessary that Mary eat noodles] 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 16

17 Causation: ξερεμαιθα λορο χα μαρι μαι ραωειηε Jeremiah makes Mary eat noodles [Literally: Jeremiah causes that Mary eat noodles] Optativity: ξερεμαιθα ηιεψι χα μαρι μαι ραωειηε Jeremiah hopes that Mary eats noodles. μαρι ηιεψι ηα μαι ραωειηε χατυ! Mary hopes not to eat noodles today! Note that first-person plural imperatives (Let us eat!), as in Spanish, are translated using the imperative form of allow (μυιηυα): μυιηυα χα ηυ μαι! Non-Modal Complement Clauses There are certain non-modal verbs that can take complement clauses as objects. The complement clauses for these verbs behave in the same way as the complement clauses of modal verbs. Compare these two sentences: πιλι ηιυψε ρεπεκα Billy saw Rebecca. πιλι ηιθψε χα ρεπεκα μαι κακε Billy saw that Rebecca ate the cake. [or: Billy saw Rebecca eat the cake.] Anytime a complement clause, instead of a noun or a nominal clause, is an object of a verb, the clause is introduced by the complementive particle, χα. πιλι ηευρι χα ρεπεκα μαι κακε Billy knows that Rebecca ate the cake πιλι ωοωο χα ρεπεκα μαι κακε Billy said that Rebecca ate the cake ξερεμαιθα ρεπεκαλα παικο χα πιλι παικο θυλα χα ξι μαι κακε Jeremiah told Rebecca that Billy told him that she ate the cake ρεπεκα ωαυωι χα ξι ψευ κακε λιε πιλιφο Rebecca thinks that she will bake another cake for Billy Non-Object Complement Clauses In some languages, such as English, a complement clause can function as the subject of a verb: That Rebecca ate the cake angered Billy. Sometimes the fact that the complement clause is a subject in relation to the main verb is hidden by a cleft, or other grammatical construction: It surprised Billy that Rebecca ate the cake, (which actually means: That Rebecca ate the cake surprised Billy ). These sentences can not be translated directly into Temenia. Temenia allows complement clauses only as the objects of a verb (whether modal or not). Sentences with a 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 17

18 complement clause that is not the object of the main verb have to be translated into Temenia in some other way, usually using an adjunctive clause, such as: Billy was angry because Rebecca ate the cake. Or restated, such as: Rebecca s consumption of the cake surprised Billy. Adjunctive Clauses An adjunctive (or adverbial) clause is not an argument of any word in a sentence (or clause), but rather modifies the entire sentence (or clause). For example, clauses specifying time or location or manner are adjunctive clauses. Conditional clauses fall into this category as well. There is no prescribed sequence for adjunctive clauses; they may either precede or follow the clause that they modify, depending on the emphasis that is intended by the speaker (whichever clause is first has more emphasis). Adjunctive clauses are introduced by an adjunction in Temenia (these are usually considered conjunctions or adverbs in European languages). The following table lists the common adjunctions in Temenia: ηαιψα ηιρε ηυρο κοπο λαθε λαπο μεοφε παεψαο τιροηυ φαχοπυτιο φαχυο χερο ψιξαζεςυ ψοεκι ωεθι ωει Adjunctions instead of before after because until while if in order to / so that in addition to unless like / as where since though / although except when Examples: ηυ ρυπε ωει πακο ζοωειχο We ll go when Paco arrives μι φυταε τυ χερο ροαλο χιαφι I ll meet you where the statue was 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 18

19 ξι ξολεμι φαχυο φιχιυ ξολεμι She talks like a child talks θυ ριεζοα μετιζιηα παεψαο θυ ωιυζε He takes medicine in order to cure himself θυ ζοωειχο θου κοπο θυ τοθυκε ραιηο χιερυ He arrives early because he wants a good seat λαπο ηυ μαι, ηυ ψαμεπε ηυωα κοιηεωα θοαξι While we were eating, we heard a noise outside of the window μεοφε τεμαε, ηομυ ηαθιπιτο If it rains, the game will be cancelled φαχοπυτιο τεμαε, ηυ μαι θοαξι Unless it rains, we ll eat outside ψαυκιθυ χα ηυ λαξοθι ραιηο ψοεκι κοι θου We should find seats although it is early μαμα κυκο ηαι ηαιψα παπα πεπυε λο Mother cooked the chicken instead of Father burning it τιροηυ παζαπορατα μεο τυ, ροα χα τυ θιποθο ηοθιο χυθιωαθιεχεφο In addition to having a passport, you have to pay an exit tax Conditional Clauses Conditional clauses are a type of adjunctive clause. In Temenia, conditional clauses are introduced by the adjunctions if (μεοφε) or unless (φαχοπυτιο). The normal order for conditional statements in Temenia is for the conditional clause to precede the main clause, which is the conclusion. However, this is not absolutely prescribed. If doing this would lead to a lack of clarity for the sentence, then the conclusion can be introduced, optionally, with then (ηεζια). μεοφε τεμαε, ηεζια ηομυ ηαθιπιτο If it rains, then the game will be cancelled φαχοπυτιο τεμαε, ηεζια ηυ μαι θοαξι Unless it rains, (then) we ll eat outside Derivational Operations As in many languages, Temenia contains mechanisms to convert between nouns, verbs and modifiers. For example, in English, from the verb employ, we have the words 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 19

20 employer and employee; or from the word add, we have the word addition. Similar operations on the vocabulary of Temenia are possible. By use of these operations, the lexicon of Temenia is increased. By no means does this mean that other words in the lexicon should be eliminated because of the possibility of a derived word with a similar meaning. In other words, there may be synonyms of derived words which are themselves non-derived. A large lexicon allows for nuances of meaning. Derivational Operations on Nouns There are two derivational operations on nouns. If the noun is signified by X, one operation creates a verb with the meaning of to cause X and the other creates a modifier with the meaning of quality of X. Noun Derivatives Suffix on Noun X Resultant Grammatical Category Meaning Approximate English Suffixes -φα verb to cause X -ify, - -χο modifier quality of X -y, -ish, -ive, -al Examples: ποιλυ / ποιλυφα rock / to petrify λυφυ / λυφυφα beginning / to begin λαο / λαοχο sun / sunny ηατυρο / ηατυροχο nature / natural Derivational Operations on Modifiers There are two derivational operations on modifiers. If the modifier is signified by X, one operation creates a verb with the meaning of to become X and the other creates a noun with the meaning of attribute of X. Modifier Derivatives Resultant Grammatical Meaning Category -ρα verb to become X -en, -ize -ηε noun attribute of X -ness, -ity Suffix on Modifier X Examples: ψυιλιλοζιτο / ψυιλιλοζιτορα awake / to wake κουφορε / κουφορερα red / to redden [or blush] Approximate English Suffixes 8/11/07 Version 3.3 page 20

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