1 CH11 α/β GRK 101 Handout 1. What is aorist? Let me start with a theoretical overview of what aorist is, then a useful PRACTICAL set of guidelines (a) (b) Theoretical definition. Greek ἀοριστὸς χρόνος (aoristos khronos) = undefined time/tense, i.e., simple past time (indicative fact telling ; sometimes inf., ptc) simple action w/o time reference (imperative, inf., ptc., etc.) The simple part of aorist is referred to as its aspect ( simple or undefined aspect). The past part is its time, which sometimes does, sometimes doesn t kick in. But that s more complicated it has to be.... PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS, take note! Translate aorist sometimes as simple past, sometimes as simple present, sometimes as time before, according to the following rules: SIMPLE PAST only! for aor. INDICATIVE. SIMPLE PRESENT for IMPERATIVE (always), INFINITIVE (usually). TIME BEFORE (i.e., prior to main verb) for PARTICIPLE (and sometimes inf.). Aorist Tense and Mood: Time-Aspect Table. λαμβάνω, Take simple past simple present time before aor. indicative ἔ-λαβ-ον τὸ ἄροτρον. I took the plow. aor. infinitive ἐθέλω λαβ-εῖν τὸ ἄροτρον. I want to take the plow. aor. imperative λαβ-ὲ τὸ ἄροτρον. Take the plow! aor. participle λαβ-ὼν τὸ ἄροτρον, χαίρω. Having taken the plow, I rejoice.
2 GRK 101 CH11 α/β Handout 2 (c) (d) (e) (f) (i) Notes on aorist stems. YOU HAVE TO MEMORIZE ALL AORIST STEMS, i.e., third principal parts, from vocab lists, etc. λείπω, leave (leave a thing behind). PRINCIPAL PARTS. 1. λείπω (present system). 2. λειψω (future system). 3. ἔλιπον (aorist active/middle system). 4. λέλοιπα (active perfect). 5. λέλειμμαι (middle/passive perfect). 6. ἐλείφθην (aorist passive). ἔλιπον means simply I left (a thing behind). The ἔ- part is the augment, only in indicative. λιπ- is the stem proper. -ον is the ending. The other aorist moods (i.e., not indicative) lack augment: inf. λιπεῖν, imperative λίπε etc., ptc λιπών etc. λαμβάνω, take. PRINCIPAL PARTS. 1. λαμβάνω (present system). 2. λήψομαι (future system for λαμβάνω, a middle deponent future). 3. ἔλαβον (aorist active/middle system). 4. εἰλήφα (active perfect). 5. εἴλημμαι (middle/passive perfect). 6. ἐλήφθην (aorist passive). ἔλιπον means simply I took. Notes on augment. (But these rules no substitute for memorizing 3 rd princ. part). Augment marks past time only augment INDICATIVE forms. (ii) If aorist stem begins with consonant, add ε. (iii) (iv) If aorist stem begins with vowel, lengthen vowel, unless vowel already long: ᾰ η ῐ ῑ ω ω ει ῃ (or ει) ε η ο ω αι ῃ ευ ηυ (or ευ) η η ῠ ῡ αυ ηυ οι ῳ Augment always follows prefix (of compound verbs) κατα-πίπτω I fall down κατ-έπεσον I fell down. ἀν-άγω I lead up ἀν-ήγαγον I led up.
3 GRK 101 CH11 α/β Handout 3 (g) 2 nd (thematic) aorist: steps in REGULAR FORMATION (pp. 176 ff.)... πάσχ-ω active suffer 1. Aorist stem from basic root, here: παθ- 2. Indicative (fact-telling) forms: a. Augment front end with ε or lengthened vowel: ἔ-παθ- b. Add thematic past active person-number endings: ἔ-παθ-ον I suffered ἔ-παθ-ες you suffered ἔ-παθ-ε(ν) he/she/it suffered ἐ-πάθ-ομεν we suffered ἐ-πάθ-ετε you (pl.) suffered ἔ-παθ-ον they suffered 3. imperat/inf/ptc forms: no augment! a. imperative (active) of πάσχω = πάθ-ε, πάθ-ετε, suffer! b. infinitive (active) of πάσχω = παθ-εῖν to suffer. c. participle (active) of πάσχω = masc fem neut παθών παθοῦσα παθόν παθόντος παθούσης παθόντος etc. λαμβάνομαι middle grab hold of Aorist stem from basic root, here: λαβ- Indicative (fact-telling) forms: a. Augment front end with ε (or lengthened vowel), for λαβ-, ἐ-λαβb. Add thematic past middle person-number endings: ἐ-λαβ-όμην I grabbed hold of ἐ-λάβ-ου you grabbed hold of ἐ-λάβ-ετο he/she/it grabbed hold of ἐ-λαβ-όμεθα we grabbed hold of ἐ-λάβ-εσθε you (pl.) grabbed hold of ἐ-λάβ-οντο they grabbed hold of aorist imperat/inf/ptc/etc. forms: no augment! a. imperative (middle) of λαμβάνομαι = λαβ-οῦ, λάβ-εσθε, grab hold of! b. infinitive (middle) of λαμβάνομαι = λαβ-έσθαι to grab hold of.
4 GRK 101 CH11 α/β Handout 4 c. participle (middle) of λαμβάνομαι = λαβόμενος, -η, -ον 2. 2 nd aorist (thematic aorist) endings versus present 2 nd aorist present active middle active middle indic. 1 st -ον -όμην -ω -ομαι 2 nd -ες -ου -εις -ει 3 rd -ε(ν) -ετο -ει -εται 1 st -ομεν -όμεθα -ομεν -όμεθα 2 nd -ετε -εσθε -ετε -εσθε 3 rd -ον -οντο -ουσι(ν) -ονται imper. sing. -ε -οῦ -ε -ου imper. plur -ετε -εσθε -ετε -εσθε inf. -εῖν -έσθαι -ειν -εσθαι ptc masc. -ών, -όντος etc. fem. -οῦσα, -ούσης neut. -όν, -όντος etc. -όμενος -ομένη -όμενος -ων -ουσα -ον -έμενος -εμένη -έμενον 3. 2 nd aorist active ἔλαβον versus middle ἐγενόμην take become λαμβάνω, λήψομαι, ἔλαβον γίγνομαι, γενήσομαι, ἐγενόμην active 2 nd aorist, TOOK etc. middle 2 nd aorist, BECAME etc. indic. 1 st ἔλαβ-ον ἐγεν-όμην 2 nd ἔλαβ-ες ἐγέν-ου 3 rd ἔλαβ-ε(ν) ἐγέν-ετο 1 st ἐλάβ-ομεν ἐγεν-όμεθα 2 nd ἐλάβ-ετε ἐγέν-εσθε 3 rd ἔλαβ-ον ἐγέν-οντο imper. sing. λαβ-έ γεν-οῦ imper. plur λάβ-ετε γέν-εσθε inf. λαβ-εῖν γεν-έσθαι Ptc λαβ-ών, λαβ-οῦσα, γεν-όμεν-ος, -η, -ον λαβ-όν (λαβ-ότντος etc.) 4. Further examples: time-mood rules. (a) Aorist indicative Always augmented (where augment possible); always past time, always simple action. ἔ-λαβον I took (λαμβάνω take) ἀπ-έ-θανον I died (ἀπο-θνῄσκω die) ηὗρον/εὗρον I found (εὑρίσκω find)
5 GRK 101 CH11 α/β Handout 5 (b) (c) (d) Aorist infinitive Usually translate as simple present. Never augmented. βούλομαι λαβεῖν τὸν σῖτον. I want to take the food. Aorist imperative Always simple present, never augmented! λαβὲ τὸν σῖτον. Take the food! Aorist participle Usually simple time before. Never augmented. ἡ παῖς, τὸν σῖτον λαβοῦσα, ἀπῆλθε. The girl, having taken the food, went away. 5. Chart: principal parts of verbs with 2 nd aorists present future 2 nd aorist (+ stem where not clear) meaning ἄγω ἄξω ἤγαγ-ον (ἀγαγ-) lead ἁμαρτάνω ἁμαρτήσομαι ἥμαρτ-ον (ἁμαρτ-) miss, err ἀπο-θνῄσκω ἀπο-θανοῦμαι ἀπ-έ-θαν-ον die ἀφ-ικνέομαι ἀφ-ίξομαι ἀφ-ῑκ-όμην (ἱκ-, short ι) arrive αἱρέω αἱρήσω εἷλ-ον (ἑλ-) take, capture βάλλω βαλῶ ἔ-βαλ-ον throw γίγνομαι γενήσομαι ἐ-γεν-όμην become ἕπομαι ἕψομαι ἑ-σπ-όμην (σπ-) follow ἔρχομαι εἶμι ἦλθ-ον (ἐλθ-) come, go ἐρωτάω ἐρῶ ἠρ-όμην (ἐρ-) ask ἐσθίω ἔδω ἔ-φαγ-ον eat εὑρίσκω εὑρήσομαι ηὗρ-ον / εὗρ-ον (εὑρ-) find ἔχω ἕξω / σχήσω ἔ-σχ-ον (σχ-) have κάμνω καμοῦμαι ἔ-καμ-ον am tired λαμβάνω λήψομαι ἔ-λαβ-ον take λανθάνω λήσω ἔ-λαθ-ον escape notice λέγω ἐρῶ εἶπ-ον (εἰπ-) say, speak λείπω λείψω ἔ-λιπ-ον leave μανθάνω μαθήσομαι ἔ-μαθ-ον learn ὁράω ὄψομαι εἶδ-ον (ἰδ-) see πάσχω πείσομαι ἔ-παθ-ον suffer πίνω πίομαι ἔ-πι-ον drink πίπτω πεσοῦμαι ἔ-πεσ-ον fall πυνθάνομαι πεύσομαι ἐ-πυθ-όμην inquire τέμνω τεμῶ ἔ-τεμ-ον cut τρέχω δραμοῦμαι ἔ-δραμ-ον run
6 GRK 101 CH11 α/β Handout 6 present future 2 nd aorist (+ stem where not clear) meaning τυγχάνω τεύξομαι ἔ-τυχ-ον hit the mark φέρω οἴσω ἤνεγκον (ἐνεγκ-) carry φεύγω φεύξομαι ἔ-φυγ-ον flee 6. Vocab (a) (b) Chapter 10-beta Brief Review: Impersonal Verbs δεῖ and ἔξεστι δεῖ + infinitive (+ acc.) = it is necessary (for so-and-so) to do such-and-such. δεῖ με σπεύδειν οἴκαδε. It is necessary for me to hurry home. (I must hurry home.) ἔξεστι + infinitive (+ dative) = it is possible/permitted (for so-and-so) to do such-andsuch. ἔξεστί μοι μένειν ἐν τῷ ἄστει. It is possible/permitted for me to remain in town. (I may/can remain in town.) Other vocab (ch11) ὁ Ἄργος δοκεῖ μοι κύων εἶναι. Argos seems to me be a dog. δοκεῖ + dat of reference (μοι to me ) + inf. (εἶναι). SPECIAL, IDIOMATIC USE: δοκεῖ μοι ἐπανελθεῖν (= aor. inf. to return ) οἴκαδε. It seems i.e., it seems good to me to return home. Special idiom, =... I have decided to return home. λαμβάν-ω (active) τὸ ἄροτρον (acc DO). I take the plow. λαμβάν-ομαι (middle) τῆς χειρὸς (gen) τοῦ πατρός. w/ middle = take hold of. I take hold of my father s hand. ἔπαθον πολλὰ ἀγαθά! (neut. acc. plur.; ἀγαθός, -ή, -όν = good. ) I have experienced good things. =... Good things have happened to me! 7. (2 nd ) Aorist Quiz Translate; ID aorists, augmented/non-augmented forms, what they convey vis-à-vis time/aspect ἔλθετε δεῦρο. Come here. Imperative, simple present time instruction. οὐ γὰρ δύναμαι ἰδεῖν ὑμᾶς. For I cannot see you. Infinitive, simple present-time action.
7 GRK 101 CH11 α/β Handout 7 εἴπετέ μοι τί εἵλετε τὰ χρήματα (money); Tell (imperative, simple instruction) me: Why have you / did you take the money? (past indicative simple statement) ἑλ-οῦσαι γὰρ τὰ χρήματα, ἐδράμετε πρὸς τὸ ἄστυ. For having taken (aor. ptc time before ) the money, you ran (past indicative simple statement) home. ἀλλὰ βούλομαι ἐνεγκ-εῖν τὰ χρήματα οἴκαδε. But I wish to bring (aor. inf. of φέρω, simple action) the money home.
Principal Parts of Common Verbs arranged by Type Stems in υ- and αυλύω λύσω ἔλυσα λέλυκα λέλυμαι ἐλύθην: to loosen, loose δακρύω δακρύσω ἐδάκρυσα δεδάκρυκα δεδάκρυμαι (I am in tears): to cry, weep παύω
Verbs Present ἄγω Future ἄξω Aorist ἤγαγον Definition I lead; I take; imperative, come on! αἱρέω αἴρω αἱρέσω ἀρῶ εἷλον ἦρα (irregular augment), I take I lift; with reflexive pronoun, I get up αἰτέω αἰτήσω
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