The Subjunctive Mood. Hypothetically Speaking. A lesson for the Paideia web-app Ian W. Scott, 2015

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1 The Subjunctive Mood Hypothetically Speaking A lesson for the Paideia web-app Ian W. Scott, 2015

2 Mood Issues The category of mood in Greek grammar confuses two different issues What kind of syntactical role does the verb play (Finite verbs) Infinitives Participles What is the relationship between the verb and reality Indicative: describing reality Imperative: creating reality Subjunctive: describing events whose reality is uncertain Optative

3 Forming Subjunctive Verbs There are subjunctive forms of two tenses Present and Aorist Fortunately, they re easy to recognize if you know the indicative Lengthened connecting vowel No augment (in aorist) Same personal endings as indicative finite verbs All tenses and voices use primary endings So even simpler than indicative mood

4 Parts of a Present Subjunctive Verb Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Ending Complete form - λυ - ω μεν λυωμεν Lengthened connecting vowel

5 Primary Personal Endings (Active) Singular Plural 1 st person - -μεν 2 nd person -ς -τε 3 rd person -ι -νσι(ν)

6 Present Active Subjunctive Singular Plural 1 st person λυω λυωμεν 2 nd person λυῃς λυητε 3 rd person λυῃ λυωσι(ν)

7 Primary Personal Endings (Middle/Passive) Singular Plural 1 st person -μαι -μεθα 2 nd person -σαι -σθε 3 rd person -ται -νται

8 Present Middle/Passive Subjunctive Singular Plural 1 st person λυωμαι λυωμεθα 2 nd person λυῃ λυησθε 3 rd person λυηται λυωνται

9 Parts of a First Aorist Subjunctive Verb Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Ending Complete form - λυ σ ω μεν λυσωμεν No augment Lengthened connecting vowel

10 First Aorist Active Subjunctive Singular Plural 1 st person λυσω λυσωμεν 2 nd person λυσῃς λυσητε 3 rd person λυσῃ λυσωσι(ν)

11 First Aorist Middle Subjunctive Singular Plural 1 st person λυσωμαι λυσωμεθα 2 nd person λυσῃ λυσησθε 3 rd person λυσηται λυσωνται

12 First Aorist Passive Subjunctive Singular Plural 1 st person λυθω λυθωμεν 2 nd person λυθῃς λυθητε 3 rd person λυθῃ λυθωσι(ν)

13 Parts of a 2 nd Aorist Subjunctive Verb Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Ending Complete form - λαβ - ω μεν λαβωμεν No augment Lengthened connecting vowel

14 2 nd Aorist Active Subjunctive Singular Plural 1 st person λαβω λαβωμεν 2 nd person λαβῃς λαβητε 3 rd person λαβῃ λαβωσι(ν)

15 2 nd Aorist Middle Subjunctive Singular Plural 1 st person γενωμαι γενωμεθα 2 nd person γενῃ γενησθε 3 rd person γενηται γενωνται

16 2 nd Aorist Passive Subjunctive Singular Plural 1 st person γραφω γραφωμεν 2 nd person γραφῃς γραφητε 3 rd person γραφῃ γραφωσι(ν)

17 Uses of the Subjunctive Mood Expressing Purpose: ἱνα + subjunctive ἱνα ( in order to, so that ) almost always followed by subjunctive verb Examples Καὶ παρετήρουν αὐτὸν ἵνα κατηγορήσωσιν αὐτοῦ. (Mark 3:2) Then they were watching him so that they could accuse him. εἶπον ἵνα πιστεύσωσιν ὅτι σύ με ἀπέστειλας. (John 11:42) I spoke so that they might believe that you have sent me. Περιπατεῖτε ἕως τὸ φῶς ἔχετε, ἵνα μὴ σκοτία ὑμᾶς καταλάβῃ (John 12:35) Walk while you have the light, so that the darkness will not overcome you.

18 Uses of the Subjunctive Mood Expressing Purpose: ἱνα + subjunctive Conditional sentences: if then We ll deal with these in a separate lesson

19 Uses of the Subjunctive Mood Expressing Purpose: ἱνα + subjunctive Conditional sentences: if then Hortatory subjunctive A first-person plural subjunctive is used to urge one s companions to take some action. Ἄγωμεν ἀλλαχοῦ εἰς τὰς ἐχομένας κωμοπόλεις, ἵνα καὶ ἐκεῖ κηρύξω (Mark 1:38) Let us go elsewhere, to the villages nearby, so that I can preach there as well.

20 Uses of the Subjunctive Mood Expressing Purpose: ἱνα + subjunctive Conditional sentences: if then Hortatory subjunctive Deliberative subjunctive A subjunctive verb is used in questions where the answer is unclear Μὴ οὖν μεριμνήσητε, λέγοντες, Τί φάγωμεν, ἢ τί πίωμεν, ἢ τί περιβαλώμεθα; (Matt 6:31) Do not worry and say What will we eat? or What will we drink or What will we wear?

21 The Subjunctive and Prohibition One can forbid an action using οὐ + future indicative μη + infinitive (present or aorist) One can also use μη + aorist subjunctive A strong, emphatic prohibition Can be further strengthened with the double negative οὐ μη Two negatives do not cancel each other out Reinforce one another to make the denial emphatic

22 The Subjunctive and Prohibition Examples Μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον ἢ τοὺς προφήτας (Matt 5:17) Do not think that I came to do away with the law or the prophets. Μὴ οὖν μεριμνήσητε, λέγοντες, Τί φάγωμεν, ἢ τί πίωμεν, ἢ τί περιβαλώμεθα; (Matt 6:31) Do not worry and say What will we eat? or What will we drink or What will we wear? Ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ παρελεύσονται, οἱ δὲ λόγοι μου οὐ μὴ παρέλθωσιν. (Matt 24:35) Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words must not pass away.

23 Keep Learning You can learn more about the Greek subjunctive mood here: Mounce, Basics of Biblical Greek (3 rd edition) Subjunctive mood, (pp ) Wallace, Basics of New Testament Syntax (1 st edition) The Subjunctive mood section in the Moods chapter (pp )!

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