Summer Greek. Greek Verbs -TENSE ASPECT. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Croy Lesson 9. KINDof action.

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1 A -TENSE ASPECT Summer Greek Croy Lesson 9 Ω KINDof action CONTINUING (ongoing, linear) COMPLETED (with result or ongoing effect) SIMPLE (affirmation of action w/out regard to duration or completion) TIME of action PAST CONCURRENT FUTURE TENSE ASPECT => Kind of action and time of action PRESENT: I am loosening, I loosen FUTURE: I will be loosening, I will loosen IMPERFECT: I was loosening AORIST: I loosened using the verb λύω PERFECT: I have loosened PLUPERFECT: I had loosened VOICE=> relation of subject to action ACTIVE: subject performs action I loosen PASSIVE: subject is acted upon I am being loosened (by ) MIDDLE: action of subject relates back to subject I loosen myself KIND of action: Continuing, Completed, Simple TIME of action: Past, Concurrent, Future MOOD=> manner in which action is regarded by subject INDICATIVE: simple assertion I loosen IMPERATIVE: command Loosen! SUBJUNCTIVE: hypothetical or potential Should I loosen OPTATIVE: expressed as a hope Would that I loosen INFINITIVE: to loosen PARTICIPLE: loosening PERSON => identifying subject 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd NUMBER, 1 st I We 2 nd you you (y all) 3 rd he / she / it they 1

2 PERSON 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd NUMBER, TENSE Present, Future, Imperfect, Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect MOOD Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative,Infinitive, Participle VOICE Active, Passive, Middle PNTMV VOICE=> relation of subject to action ACTIVE: subject performs action I loosen PASSIVE: subject is acted upon I am being loosened (by ) MIDDLE: action of subject relates back to subject I loosen myself : Conjugating PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE : Conjugating PRESENT MIDDLE INDICATIVE 1 st I am loosening, I loosen 2 nd you are loosening, you loosen 3 rd he/she/it is loosening he/she/it loosens we are loosening, we loosen you (pl) are loosening, you loosen they are loosening, they loosen 1 st I am loosening myself, I loosen myself 2 nd you are loosening yourself, you loosen yourself 3 rd he/she/it is loosening him/her/itself he/she/it loosens him/her/itself we are loosening ourselves, we loosen ourselves you (pl) are loosening yourselves, you loosen yourselves they are loosening themselves, they loosen themselves : Conjugating Formation of PRESENT PASSIVE INDICATIVE 1 st I am being loosened I am loosened 2 nd you are being loosened, you are loosened 3 rd he/she/it is being loosened he/she/it is loosened we are being loosened, we are loosened you (y all) are being loosened, you are loosened they are being loosened, they are loosened Αugment STEM Tense Theme Ending and/or Redup 2

3 PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE PRIMARY ACTIVE ENDINGS 1 st λύ - ω λύ - ο - µεν 2 nd λύ - εις λύ - ε - τε 3 rd λύ - ει λύ - ου - σι(ν) 1 st - ω* - µεν 2 nd - εις* - τε 3 rd - ει* - σι(ν) *shown with combined theme vowel PRIMARY ACTIVE ENDINGS 1 st - ω* - µεν 2 nd - εις* - τε 3 rd - ει* - σι(ν) PRIMARY MIDDLE/PASSIVE PRIMARY ACTIVE PRIMARY MID/PASS/DEP Sing Sing 1 - ω* - µεν - µαι - µεθα 2 - εις* - τε - σαι / ῃ - σθε 3 - ει* - σι(ν) - ται - νται ACTIVE MIDDLE/PASSIVE ACTIVE MEMORIZE THIS! MIDDLE/PASSIVE PRIMARY MIDDLE/PASSIVE/DEPONENT ENDINGS PRIMARY MIDDLE/PASSIVE/DEPONENT ENDINGS 1 st λύ - µαι λύ - µεθα 2 nd λύ - ῃ λύ - σθε 3 rd λύ - - ται λύ - - νται 1 st λύ-ο-µαι λυ-ό-µεθα 2 nd λύ-ῃ λύ-ε-σθε 3 rd λύ-ε-ται λύ-ο-νται 3

4 PRIMARY MIDDLE/PASSIVE/DEPONENT ENDINGS 1 st λύοµαι λυόµεθα 2 nd λύῃ λύεσθε 3 rd λύεται λύονται But διδασκαλε, if the middle and passive have the same form, how will I know which one it is? CONTEXT! And keep in mind that true middle voice is rare! But διδασκαλε, if the middle and passive have the same form, how will I know which one it is? Mark οἱ νεκροι ἐγειρονται. The dead are raising themselves or The dead are being raised 1 Cor εὑρισκόµεθα ψευδοµαρτύρες τοῦ θεοῦ We [are finding ourselves] [are being found] to be CONTEXT! And keep in mind that true middle voice is rare! PRESENT ACTIVE INFINITIVE to be loosening λύ - ειν λύειν PRESENT ΜID/PASS/DEP INFINITIVE to be loosening myself / to keep on being loosened λύ - ε - σθαι λύεσθαι MEMORIZE THIS! MIDDLE or PASSIVE? θελοµεν ἀκούεσθαι We are wanting to hear ourselves. We are wanting to be heard. οἱ νεκροι ἐγειρονται εὑρισκόµεθα θελοµεν ἀκούεσθαι by ὑπὸ with personal agent The passive can always be understood to be done by someone 4

5 Dative of Means διδασκοµεθα τῶ λογῳ τοῦ θεοῦ We are being taught by the word of God. Regular (Omega) Verbs Verbs that have active forms Dictionary form will indicate that they are omega verbs λύω, λέγω, βλέπω Αn impersonal agent usually expressed with Dative rather than ὑπο Deponent Verbs Verbs that do not have omega forms Middle/Passive form has an active meaning (-ομαι >> despondent DEPONENTS) Dictionary form will indicate if they are deponent µαι ἔρχοµαι= I come, I go Middle/Passive/Deponent Verbs Most Present Middle/Passive Indicative looking verbs are Deponent Most Deponent verbs do not have the possibility of a true middle/passive meaning If the verb is regular, and it is a Present Middle/Passive Indicative, assume Passive >>> If you can translate it as a Passive, it probably is. If not, assume it is Deponent and translate it like an Active. Middle/Passive/Deponent Verbs Is it an Omega verb? or??? What to do when you encounter a verb with a middle/passive ending Assume Deponent: Make sense as an Active? Try translating as a Passive: Make sense? Try Middle: Make sense? Check a Lexicon! Good! Compound Verbs ἔρχοµαι= I come, I go ἔρχοµαι δια δια ἔρχοµαι >> διέρχοµαι εἰσερχοµαι ἐξερχοµαι 5

6 Deponent Verbs Irregular 1 st δύναµαι δύναµεθα 2 nd δύνασαι δύνασθε 3 rd δύναται δύνανται Lesson 9 Vocabulary ἀποκρίνοµαι ἄρχω ἄρχοµαι γίνοµαι διέρχοµαι δύναµαι εἰσερχοµαι ἐξέρχοµαι ἔρχοµαι πορεύοµαι ἁµαρτωλός, ὁ οὐδέ σύν(dat) ὑπό(gen; Acc) Croy 9 -Exercises Do even sentences of Practice and Review Do #2 of NT Do #4 of English to Greek QUIZ on 9 Reproduce Primary Middle/Passive Indicative Endings Reproduce Present M/P Infinitive form Analyze and Translate a sentence which includes vocabulary from Lesson 9 QUIZ on 9 for INF, no person or number λυω PERSON 1, 2, 3 NUMBER S P TENSE Pres Fut Impf Aor Perf Plpf MOOD Indic, Inf, Ptcp, Impv, Subjn VOICE Act Mid Dep Pass γινοµαι βαλλεται γινεσθαι 6

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