Croy Lessons Second Declension. First Declension PARTICIPLES. THIRD Declension SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL. NOM -α / -η [-ης]* -αι

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1 Croy Lessons Greek Verb Formation Αug Redp STEM Tense Theme Ending PRES ACT -- STEM -- o/ε PrimAct PRES M/P/D -- STEM -- o/ε PrimMP IMPF ACT ἐ STEM -- o/ε SecAct ΙΜPF M/P ἐ STEM -- o/ε SecMP FUT ACT -- STEM σ o/ε PrimAct FUT M/D -- STEM σ o/ε PrimMP 1AOR ACT ἐ STEM σα/α -- SecAct 1AOR M/D ἐ STEM σα/α -- SecMP 1ΑΟR PASS ἐ STEM θη -- SecAct 2ΑΟR ACT ἐ *STEM -- o/ε SecAct 2AOR M/D ἐ *STEM -- o/ε SecMP 2ΑΟR PASS ἐ *STEM η -- SecAct PERF ACT -- X STEM κα / α -- PrimAct PERF MPD -- X STEM PrimMP PLPF ACT (ἐ) X STEM κει / ει -- SecAct PLPF M/P (ἐ) X STEM SecMP First Declension Second Declension SINGULAR PLURAL NOM -α / -η [-ης]* -αι GEN -ας / -ης [-ου]* -ων DAT -ᾳ / -ῃ -αις ACC -αν / -ην -ας VOC -α / -η -αι *Masculine Nouns of First Declension SINGULAR PLURAL NOM -ος / -ον -οι / -α GEN -ου -ων DAT -ῳ -οις ACC -ον / -ον -ους / -α VOC -ε / -ον -οι / -α THIRD Declension SINGULAR PLURAL NOM -**- [**] -ες / -εις [-α ] GEN -ος / -ως / -ους -ων DAT -ι -σι(ν) ACC -α / -ιν [**] -ας / -εις [-α ] ** = These endings vary in the Third Declension [ ] = Neuter forms of Third Declension 1

2 A Croy Lessons A participle is a verbal adjective In English, participles are verbs ending in ING Overview Formation Translation Present Participles Ω I was studying Greek. >> PERIPHRASTIC (or Supplementary) It is supplementing a verb of being (usually εἰµιor γίνοµαι) using a periphrastic (i.e., using more words than really needed) expression It does sound just like the Imperfect Indicative Studying Greek, I sometimes want to scream. >> CIRCUMSTANTIAL (ADVERBIAL) Under the circumstance of (UTC ) While studying Because I m studying Since I m studying Even though I m studying Which one? CONTEXT! The seminarian studyinggreek is a happy seminarian. >> ADJECTIVE The seminarian who is studying Greek StudyingGreek is a lot of fun. >> SUBSTANTIVE (noun) I.e., like an adjective standing on its own 2

3 I was studying Greek. >> PERIPHRASTIC (SUPPL.) Studying Greek, I sometimes want to scream. VERBAL >> CIRCUMSTANTIAL (ADV.) The seminarian studying Greek is a happy seminarian. ADJECTIVES >> ADJECTIVE Studying Greek is a lot of fun. >> SUBSTANTIVE Having studied Greek, I will be a better person. > an Aorist or Perfect Participle! A participle is a verbal adjective Like a verb: Expresses action Has tense (indicating kind of action and relative time) and voice Like an adjective Has gender, number, case Relates to (agrees with) a pro/noun or implied subject [or functions as a substantive] FORMATION OF STEM: same as for INDIC verbs never augmented reduplication with PF changed stem for 2AOR, 2PF, and some FUT TENSE CODES: same as for INDIC verbs Present: -- Future: σ Aorist Active: σα (or changed stem) Aorist Passive: θε (or changed stem) Perfect: κ NO Imperfect or Pluperfect participles! THEME VOWELS: similar to those for INDIC verbs 3

4 using πιστευ- Translating Participles A Rough Translation Active/Dep Middle Passive µεν FUT mid / depand FUT pass Masc & Neut PRESENT believing believing one s self FUTURE AORIST / PERFECT being about to believe / going to believe having believed being about to / going to believe one s self having believed one s self being believed being about to / going to be believed having been believed NOTE: Gender, Number, Case does NOT matter in rough translation ANALYSIS Gender Number Case Tense Voice λυοντος λυ ο ντ ος λυοντος λυ ο ντ ος Masc/Neut Sg Gen Pres Act λυοµενῃ λυ ο µεν ῃ Fem Sg Dat Pres Pass λελυκοτες λε λυ κ ο τ ες Masc Pl Nom Perf Act 4

5 λελυµενοις λε λυ µεν οις Masc/Neut Pl Dat Perf Pass Nom/Voc λυ ντ λυ σ λυ ντ Gen λυ ντ λυ σ λυ ντ Dat λυ ντ λυ σ λυ ντ Acc λυ ντ λυ σ λυ ντ Nom/Voc λυ ντ λυ σ λυ ντ Gen λυ ντ λυ σ λυ ντ Dat λυ ντ λυ σ λυ ντ Acc λυ ντ λυ σ λυ ντ Nom/Voc λυ ο ντς λυ ου σα λυ ο ντ Gen λυ ο ντος λυ ου σης λυ ο ντος Dat λυ ο ντι λυ ου σῃ λυ ο ντι Acc λυ ο ντα λυ ου σαν λυ ο ντ Nom/Voc λυ ο ντες λυ ου σαι λυ ο ντα Gen λυ ο ντων λυ ου σων λυ ο ντων Dat λυ ο ντσι(ν) λυ ου σαις λυ ο ντσι(ν) Acc λυ ο ντας λυ ου σας λυ ο ντα Nom/Voc λυων λυουσα λυον Gen λυοντος λυουσης λυοντος Dat λυοντι λυουσῃ λυοντι Acc λυοντα λυουσαν λυον Nom/Voc λυοντες λυουσαι λυοντα Gen λυοντων λυουσων λυοντων Dat λυουσι(ν) λυουσαις λυουσι(ν) Acc λυοντας λυουσας λυοντα 5

6 Present MID/PASS/DEP Participles Present MID/PASS/DEP Participles Nom/Voc λυ µεν λυ µεν λυ µεν Gen λυ µεν λυ µεν λυ µεν Dat λυ µεν λυ µεν λυ µεν Acc λυ µεν λυ µεν λυ µεν Nom/Voc λυ µεν λυ µεν λυ µεν Gen λυ µεν λυ µεν λυ µεν Dat λυ µεν λυ µεν λυ µεν Acc λυ µεν λυ µεν λυ µεν Present MID/PASS/DEP Participles Nom/Voc λυ µεν ος λυ µεν η λυ µεν ον Gen λυ µεν ου λυ µεν ης λυ µεν ου Dat λυ µεν ῳ λυ µεν ῃ λυ µεν ῳ Acc λυ µεν ον λυ µεν ην λυ µεν ον Nom/Voc λυ µεν οι λυ µεν αι λυ µεν α Gen λυ µεν ων λυ µεν ων λυ µεν ων Dat λυ µεν οις λυ µεν αις λυ µεν οις Acc λυ µεν ους λυ µεν ας λυ µεν α Present MID/PASS/DEP Participles Nom/Voc λυοµενος λυοµενη λυοµενον Gen λυοµενου λυοµενης λυοµενου Dat λυοµενῳ λυοµενῃ λυοµενῳ Acc λυοµενον λυοµενην λυοµενον Nom/Voc λυοµενοι λυοµεναι λυοµενα Gen λυοµενων λυοµενων λυοµενων Dat λυοµενοις λυοµεναις λυοµενοις Acc λυοµενους λυοµενας λυοµενα Nom/Voc λυων λυουσα λυον Gen λυοντος λυουσης λυοντος Dat λυοντι λυουσῃ λυοντι Acc λυοντα λυουσαν λυον Nom/Voc λυοντες λυουσαι λυοντα Gen λυοντων λυουσων λυοντων Dat λυουσι(ν) λυουσαις λυουσι(ν) Acc λυοντας λυουσας λυοντα Nom/Voc ων ουσα ον Gen οντος ουσης οντος Dat οντι ουσῃ οντι Acc οντα ουσαν ον Nom/Voc οντες ουσαι οντα Gen οντων ουσων οντων Dat ουσι(ν) ουσαις ουσι(ν) Acc οντας ουσας οντα 6

7 Present Participle of εἰµί Nom/Voc ὤν οὖσα ὄν Gen ὄντος οὔσης ὄντος Dat ὄντι οὔσῃ ὄντι Acc ὄντα οὖσαν ὄν Nom/Voc ὄντες οὖσαι ὄντα Gen ὄντων οὐσῶν ὄντων Dat οὖσι(ν) οὔσαις οὖσι(ν) Acc ὄντας οὔσας ὄντα ἁµαρτάνω βούλοµαι διώκω ἐργάζοµαι εὐαγγελίζοµαι κάθηµαι λογίζοµαι µή ὑπάρχω ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν Lesson 18 - Vocabulary Participles Croy 18 - Exercises for the following verbs in PTCP mood 1 λυοντας 2 λυοµενης 3 λυουσας 4 πιστευων 5 προσευχοµενη 6 ἐσθιον 7 βαπτιζοµεναις 8 λεγων 9 λεγοντες 10 λογιζοµενος GNDR M F N NMBR S, P CASE NGDA TENSE Pres, Fut, Impf, Aor, Perf, Plpf VOICE Act, Mid, Dep, Pass Rough Transl. Participle Analysis Sheet for Croy 18 Participle Practice Worksheet Work on Croy 18 Vocabulary 7

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