Croy Lessons PARTICIPLES PARTICIPLES PARTICIPLES PARTICIPLES PARTICIPLES. >> CIRCUMSTANTIAL (ADVERBIAL) Under the circumstance of (UTC )

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1 Croy Lessons Greek Verb Formation Αug Redp STEM Tense Theme Ending PRES ACT -- STEM -- o/ε PRES M/P/D -- STEM -- o/ε IMPF ACT ἐ STEM -- o/ε ΙΜPF M/P ἐ STEM -- o/ε FUT ACT -- STEM σ o/ε FUT M/D -- STEM σ o/ε 1AOR ACT ἐ STEM 1AOR M/D ἐ STEM 1ΑΟR R PASS ἐ STEM PrimAct PrimMP SecAct SecMP PrimAct PrimMP σα/α -- SecAct σα/α -- SecMP θη -- SecAct 2ΑΟR R ACT ἐ *STEM -- o/ε 2AOR M/D ἐ *STEM -- o/ε SecAct SecMP 2ΑΟR R PASS ἐ *STEM η -- SecAct PERF ACT -- X STEM κα / α -- PrimAct PERF MPD -- X STEM PrimMP PLPF ACT (ἐ) X STEM κει / ει -- SecAct PLPF M/P (ἐ) X STEM SecMP First Declension Second Declension NOM GEN SINGULAR PLURAL -α / -η [-ης]* -αι -ας / -ης [-ου]* -ων DAT -ᾳ / -ῃ -αις ACC -αν / -ην -ας VOC -α / -η -αι *Masculine Nouns of First Declension NOM GEN SINGULAR -ος / -ον -ου PLURAL -οι / -α -ων DAT -ῳ -οις ACC VOC -ον / -ον -ε / -ον -ους / -α -οι / -α THIRD Declension SINGULAR PLURAL NOM -**- [**] -ες / -εις [-α ] GEN -ος / -ως / -ους -ων DAT -ι -σι ACC -α / -ιν [**] -ας / -εις [-α ] ** = These endings vary in the Third Declension [ ] = Neuter ms of Third Declension 1

2 A Croy Lessons A participle is a verbal adjective In English, participles are verbs ending in ING Overview Formation Translation Present Participles Ω I was studying Greek. >> PERIPHRASTIC (or Supplementary) It is helping periphrase or supplementing a verb of being (usually εἰµι or γίνοµαι νοµαι) It does sound just like the Imperfect Indicative Studying Greek, I sometimes want to scream. >> CIRCUMSTANTIAL (ADVERBIAL) Under the circumstance of (UTC ) While studying Which one? Because I m I m studying Since I m I m studying CONTEXT! Even though I m I m studying The seminarian studying Greek is a happy seminarian. >> ADJECTIVE The seminarian who is studying Greek Studying Greek is a lot of fun. >> SUBSTANTIVE (noun) I.e., like an adjective standing on its own 2

3 Greek. >> PERIPHRASTIC (SUPPL.) I was studying Greek. Studying Greek, I sometimes want to scream. VERBAL >> CIRCUMSTANTIAL (ADV.) The seminarian studying Greek is a happy seminarian. ADJECTIVES >> ADJECTIVE Studying Greek is a lot of fun. >> SUBSTANTIVE Having studied Greek, I will be a better pastor. > an Aorist or Perfect Participle! A participle is a verbal adjective Like a verb: Expresses action Has tense (indicating kind of action and relative time) and voice Like an adjective Has gender, number, case Relates to (agrees with) a pro/noun or implied subject [or functions as a substantive] FORMATION OF STEM: same as INDIC verbs STEM: same as INDIC verbs never augmented reduplication with PF changed stem 2AOR, 2PF, and some FUT TENSE CODES: same as INDIC verbs Present: -- Future: σ Aorist Active: σα (or changed stem) Aorist Passive: θε (or changed stem) Perfect: κ NO Imperfect or Pluperfect Ptcps! THEME VOWELS: similar to those INDIC verbs 3

4 PRES and PF mid/pass/dep dep; 2nd PRESENT Translating Participles A Rough Translation Active/Dep believing FUTURE being about to believe / going to believe AORIST / having PERFECT Middle believing onself being about to / going to believe onself having oneself Passive being being about to / going to be having been NOTE: der, Number, Case does NOT matter in rough translation ANALYSIS der Number Case PRES and PF mid/pass/dep; 2nd Tense Voice PRES and PF mid/pass/dep; 2nd µεν FUT mid / dep and pass; masc & nt AOR mid and dep fem οος ο ος G N C T V Masc/Neut Sg Pres Act Fem Sg PRES and PF mid/pass/dep; 2nd Pres Pass Masc Pl PRES and PF mid/pass/dep; Nom 2nd Perf Act 4

5 Masc/Neut PRES and PF mid/pass/dep; 2nd Perf Pass Pl σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ ο ς ο ος ο ι ο α ου σα ου σης ου σῃ ου σαν ο ες ου σαι ο ων ου σων ο σι σι(ν) ου σαις ο ας ου σας ο ο ος ο ι ο ο α ο ων ο σι σι(ν) ο α ων ο ος ο ι ο α ο ες ο ων ου ο ας ου ουσα ου ουσης ου ουσῃ ου ουσαν ου ουσαι ου ουσων ου ουσαις ου ουσας ον ο ος ο ι ον ο α ο ων ου ο α PRES and PF mid/pass/dep; 2nd 5

6 µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν µεν ος µεν ου µεν ῳ µεν ον µεν οι µεν ων µεν οις µεν ους µεν η µεν ης µεν ῃ µεν ην µεν αι µεν ων µεν αις µεν ας µεν ον µεν ου µεν ῳ µεν ον µεν α µεν ων µεν οις µεν α οµεν µενος οµεν µενου οµεν µενῳ οµεν µενον οµεν µενοι οµεν µενων οµεν µενοις οµεν µενους οµεν µενη οµεν µενης οµεν µενῃ οµεν µενην οµεν µεναι οµεν µενων οµεν µεναις οµεν µενας οµεν µενον οµεν µενου οµεν µενῳ οµεν µενον οµεν µενα οµεν µενων οµεν µενοις οµεν µενα ων ο ος ο ι ο α ο ες ο ων ου ο ας ου ουσα ου ουσης ου ουσῃ ου ουσαν ου ουσαι ου ουσων ου ουσαις ου ουσας ον ο ος ο ι ον ο α ο ων ου ο α ων οος οι οα οες οων οας ουσα ουσης ουσῃ ουσαν ουσαι ουσων ουσαις ουσας ον οος οι ον οα οων οα 6

7 Present Participle of εἰµί ὤν ὄος ὄι ὄα ὄες ὄων οὖσι(ν) ὄας οὖσα οὔσης οὔσῃ οὖσαν οὖσαι οὐσῶν οὔσαις οὔσας ὄν ὄος ὄι ὄν ὄα ὄων οὖσι(ν) ὄα Lesson 18 - Vocabulary ἁµαρτάνω βούλοµαι διώκω ἐργάζοµαι εὐαγγελίζοµαι κάθηµαι λογίζοµαι µή ὑπάρχω ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν Participles Croy 18 - Exercises the following verbs in PTCP mood 1 οας 2 οµενης 3 ουσας 4 πιστευων 5 προσευχοµενη 6 ἐσθιον 7 βαπτιζοµεναις 8 λεγων 9 λεγοες 10 λογιζοµενος GNDR M F N NMBR S, P NGDA TENSE Pres, Fut, Impf, Aor, Perf, Plpf VOICE Act, Mid, Dep, Pass Rough Transl. Participle Analysis Sheet Croy 18 Participle Practice Worksheet Work on Croy 18 Vocabulary Quiz on Friday Participle Analysis: 4 Participles: : GNC-TV; rough translation Can use participle sheet! Can use your declension patterns sheet! 7

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