Aorist Participles. Verbal Adjectives. A lesson for the Paideia web-app Ian W. Scott, 2015

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1 Aorist Participles Verbal Adjectives A lesson for the Paideia web-app Ian W. Scott, 2015

2 Getting Started with Participles Participles are the fourth verbal mood we have learned Indicative (ordinary verbs) Imperative (giving commands) Infinitive (verbal nouns) Participles Participle = a verbal adjective Allows a whole clause to tell us more about some word in the main clause Why aorist participles first? Aorist is the default (unmarked) tense for participles

3 Getting Started with Participles Participles in English (-ing) The running girl is fast. A flying bird looks free. While we were shopping we bought bread. Because you are fighting you can t have ice cream.

4 Parts of a 1 st Aorist Active Participle Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Voice indicator Case ending Complete form - λυ σ α ντ ος λυσαντος

5 1 st Aorist Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυσας λυσασα λυσαν gen. λυσαντος λυσασης λυσαντος dat. λυσαντι λυσασῃ λυσαντι acc. λυσαντα λυσασην λυσαν voc. λυσας λυσασα λυσαν

6 1 st Aorist Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυσας λυσασα λυσαν gen. λυσαντος λυσασης λυσαντος dat. λυσαντι λυσασῃ λυσαντι acc. λυσαντα λυσασην λυσαν voc. λυσας λυσασα λυσαν

7 1 st Aorist Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυσας λυσασα λυσαν gen. λυσαντος λυσασης λυσαντος dat. λυσαντι λυσασῃ λυσαντι acc. λυσαντα λυσασην λυσαν voc. λυσας λυσασα λυσαν

8 1 st Aorist Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυσας λυσασα λυσαν gen. λυσαντος λυσασης λυσαντος dat. λυσαντι λυσασῃ λυσαντι acc. λυσαντα λυσασην λυσαν voc. λυσας λυσασα λυσαν

9 1 st Aorist Participle: Plural Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυσαντες λυσασαι λυσαντα gen. λυσαντων λυσασων λυσαντων dat. λυσασι(ν) λυσασαις λυσασι(ν) acc. λυσαντας λυσασας λυσαντα voc. λυσαντες λυσασαι λυσαντα

10 1 st Aorist Participle: Plural Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυσαντες λυσασαι λυσαντα gen. λυσαντων λυσασων λυσαντων dat. λυσασι(ν) λυσασαις λυσασι(ν) acc. λυσαντας λυσασας λυσαντα voc. λυσαντες λυσασαι λυσαντα

11 Parts of a 1 st Aorist Active Participle Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Voice indicator Case ending Complete form - λυ σ α ντ ος λυσαντος - λυ σ α σ ων λυσασων

12 Parts of a 2 nd Aorist Active Participle Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Voice indicator Case ending Complete form - ἐλθ - ο ντ ος ἐλθοντος - ἐλθ - ο υσ ων ἐλθουσων

13 2 nd Aorist Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. ἐλθων ἐλθουσα ἐλθον gen. ἐλθοντος ἐλθουσης ἐλθοντος dat. ἐλθοντι ἐλθουσῃ ἐλθοντι acc. ἐλθοντα ἐλθουσην ἐλθον voc. ἐλθων ἐλθουσα ἐλθον

14 2 nd Aorist Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. ἐλθων ἐλθουσα ἐλθον gen. ἐλθοντος ἐλθουσης ἐλθοντος dat. ἐλθοντι ἐλθουσῃ ἐλθοντι acc. ἐλθοντα ἐλθουσην ἐλθον voc. ἐλθων ἐλθουσα ἐλθον

15 2 nd Aorist Participle: Plural Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. ἐλθοντες ἐλθουσαι ἐλθοντα gen. ἐλθοντων ἐλθουσων ἐλθοντων dat. ἐλθουσι(ν) ἐλθουσαις ἐλθουσι(ν) acc. ἐλθοντας ἐλθουσας ἐλθοντα voc. ἐλθοντες ἐλθουσαι ἐλθοντα

16 2 nd Aorist Participle: Plural Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. ἐλθοντες ἐλθουσαι ἐλθοντα gen. ἐλθοντων ἐλθουσων ἐλθοντων dat. ἐλθουσι(ν) ἐλθουσαις ἐλθουσι(ν) acc. ἐλθοντας ἐλθουσας ἐλθοντα voc. ἐλθοντες ἐλθουσαι ἐλθοντα

17 Parts of 1 st and 2 nd Aorist Active Participles Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Voice indicator Case ending Complete form - λυ σ α ντ ος λυσαντος - λυ σ α σ ων λυσασων - ἐλθ - ο ντ ος ἐλθοντος - ἐλθ - ο υσ ων ἐλθουσων

18 Substantive Participles Just like a substantive adjective "the one who" or "the man/woman who" Examples ὁ ἐλθων, the one who comes ἡ καλησασα, the woman who calls Indicators of a substantive Definite article Case other than nominative

19 Substantive Participles Ὁ [ἐλθων τῃ βασιλειᾳ] ἀγαθος ἐστιν. The [one who comes into the kingdom] is good.

20 Adverbial Participles Adjectives often used as adverbs The action of the participle modifies the action of the main verb Subject of both actions usually the same Translate as regular verb (with helper adverbs) Indicators of adverbial participle Nominative or (less commonly) genitive case No preceding article (anarthrous) Agrees with main verb's subject in gender and number But several specific ways the participle can modify the verb

21 Temporal (Adverbial) Participles Sometimes participle answers when Main action happens after the participial action Often translate with "after" [Ἐλθων τῃ πολει], πορευσομαι εἰς τῃ ἀγορᾳ. [After I come to the town], I will go into the market.

22 Temporal (Adverbial) Participles Sometimes participle answers when Main action happens after the participial action Often translate with "after" [Μισθωσας ἐργατην], Σιμων τινα ξυλον ἠγορασεν. [After he had hired a worker], Simon bought some wood.

23 Causal (Adverbial) Participles Sometimes participle answers why (what cause?) Participial action is the cause of the main action Often translated with "because" or "since" [Οἰκοδομησαντος οἰκον μου], νυν πλουτος ἐστιν. [Because he built my house], he is now rich.

24 Purpose or Result (Adverbial) Participles Sometimes participle answers why (what purpose?) or with what result? Participial action is the purpose or result of the main action Often translated with "so that" or "in order that" [Λαβων δυο δηναρια], ἀρτον μου πωλω. So that I will receive two denarii, I am selling my bread.

25 Conditional (Adverbial) Participles Sometimes participle answers on what condition? Participial action is the condition that must be fulfilled for the main action to happen. Often translated with "if" [Ζησας ὁ πατηρ ἐμου], πρεσβυτερος ἐστιν. [If my father is alive], he is an old man.

26 Concessive (Adverbial) Participles Sometimes participle answers in spite of what? Participial action seems to conflict with the main action. Often translated with "although" or "even though" [Ἐλθων ἀπο Ἑλλαδος], οὐ προσκυνω τῃ Ἀρτεμιδι. [Although I come from Greece], I do not worship Artemis.

27 Means or Manner (Adverbial) Participles Participle can answer how? Participial action describes the way in which the main action happens. Participial action is the means by which the main action is performed. Often translated with "by" or simply using the "-ing" form of the verb. [Ἐργασας ἐν νυκτι], ἐτελεσεν τον οἰκον. [By working at night], he finished the house.

28 Summary of Adverbial Participles Kind of modification temporal causal purpose/result conditional concessive means/manner Helper words in English after because so that or in order that if although by or -ing

29 Parts of Aorist Middle Participles Augment Stem Tense marker Conn. vowel Voice indicator Case ending Complete form - λυ σ α μεν ου λυσαμενου - ἐλθ - ο μεν ων ἐλθομενων

30 1 st Aorist Middle Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυσαμενος λυσαμενη λυσαμενον gen. λυσαμενου λυσαμενης λυσαμενου dat. λυσαμενῳ λυσαμενῃ λυσαμενῳ acc. λυσαμενον λυσαμενην λυσαμενον voc. λυσαμενε λυσαμενη λυσαμενον

31 1 st Aorist Middle Participle: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. λυσαμενος λυσαμενη λυσαμενον gen. λυσαμενου λυσαμενης λυσαμενου dat. λυσαμενῳ λυσαμενῃ λυσαμενῳ acc. λυσαμενον λυσαμενην λυσαμενον voc. λυσαμενε λυσαμενη λυσαμενον

32 2 nd Aorist Middle Part.: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. ἐλθομενος ἐλθομενη ἐλθομενον gen. ἐλθομενου ἐλθομενης ἐλθομενου dat. ἐλθομενῳ ἐλθομενῃ ἐλθομενῳ acc. ἐλθομενον ἐλθομενην ἐλθομενον voc. ἐλθομενε ἐλθομενη ἐλθομενον

33 2 nd Aorist Middle Part.: Singular Example Masculine Feminine Neuter nom. ἐλθομενος ἐλθομενη ἐλθομενον gen. ἐλθομενου ἐλθομενης ἐλθομενου dat. ἐλθομενῳ ἐλθομενῃ ἐλθομενῳ acc. ἐλθομενον ἐλθομενην ἐλθομενον voc. ἐλθομενε ἐλθομενη ἐλθομενον

34 Which Adjective Endings? Masculine Feminine Neuter Active participles Middle participles 2 1 2

35 Keep Learning You can learn more about aorist participles here: Mounce, Basics of Biblical Greek (3 rd edition) Participle basics, (pp ) Aorist adverbial participles, (pp ), (p. 266) Participles with μι verbs, 35.4 (p. 327) Kinds of adverbial participles, chapter 27 exegesis (pp ), (p. 281) Adjectival participles, (pp ), (p. 274)!

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