1 Translation Contest The best translation of Iliad, will win a prize of a class set of The Iliad and a Skype class session with translator Stephen Mitchell. The winning translation will also be posted on the website. No knowledge of Greek is necessary. Contestants are welcome to be as free or as literal as they wish. Entries will be evaluated on the basis of the clarity and eloquence (music of the English). Stephen Mitchell will be the judge. Contest ends May 15, See official rules for details. This file contains 1) the Greek text, 2) an interlinear translation, and 3) a literal translation, with alternatives. 1) The Greek text: τὸν δ' ἐξήρπαξ' Ἀφροδίτη 380 ῥεῖα µάλ' ὥς τε θεός, ἐκάλυψε δ' ἄρ' ἠέρι πολλῇ, κὰδ δ' εἷσ' ἐν θαλάµῳ εὐώδεϊ κηώεντι. αὐτὴ δ' αὖ Ἑλένην καλέουσ' ἴε: τὴν δὲ κίχανε πύργῳ ἐφ' ὑψηλῷ, περὶ δὲ Τρῳαὶ ἅλις ἦσαν: χειρὶ δὲ νεκταρέου ἑανοῦ ἐτίναξε λαβοῦσα, 385 γρηὶ δέ µιν ἐϊκυῖα παλαιγενέϊ προσέειπεν εἰροκόµῳ, ἥ οἱ Λακεδαίµονι ναιετοώσῃ ἤσκειν εἴρια καλά, µάλιστα δέ µιν φιλέεσκε: τῇ µιν ἐεισαµένη προσεφώνεε δῖ' Ἀφροδίτη: δεῦρ' ἴθ': Ἀλέξανδρός σε καλεῖ οἶκον δὲ νέεσθαι. 390 κεῖνος ὅ γ' ἐν θαλάµῳ καὶ δινωτοῖσι λέχεσσι κάλλεί τε στίλβων καὶ εἵµασιν: οὐδέ κε φαίης ἀνδρὶ µαχεσσάµενον τόν γ' ἐλθεῖν, ἀλλὰ χορὸν δὲ
3 τὼς δέ σ' ἀπεχθήρω ὡς νῦν ἔκπαγλ' ἐφίλησα, 415 µέσσῳ δ' ἀµφοτέρων µητίσοµαι ἔχθεα λυγρὰ Τρώων καὶ Δαναῶν, σὺ δέ κεν κακὸν οἶτον ὄληαι. ὣς ἔφατ', ἔδεισεν δ' Ἑλένη Διὸς ἐκγεγαυῖα, βῆ δὲ κατασχοµένη ἑανῷ ἀργῆτι φαεινῷ σιγῇ, πάσας δὲ Τρῳὰς λάθεν: ἦρχε δὲ δαίµων. 420 For an explanation of the Greek, visit the following site and click on individual words: Abook%3D3%3Acard%3D340 1) Interlinear translation: 380 τὸν δ ἐξήρπαξ Ἀφροδίτη RD-ASM T VAAI3S NNSF, XP ὁ δέ ἐξαρπάζω Ἀφροδίτη him but, and snatch away from Aphrodite 381 ῥεῖα μάλ ὥς τε B B C T ῥεῖα μάλα ὡς τε easily, lightly very, very much thus, as and θεός, ἐκάλυψε δ ἄρ ἠέρι NNSM VAAI3S T T NDSF θεός καλύπτω δέ ἄρα ἀήρ God cover with but, and straightway lower air, the air πολλῇ, JDSF πολύς many
4 382 κὰδ δ εἷσ P T VAAI3S ἐν P κατά δέ ἵζω down, downwards but, and make sit, seat θαλάμῳ NDSM ἐν θάλαμος in, among inner room or chamber εὐώδεϊ JDSM εὐώδης sweet-smelling, fragrant κηώεντι. JDSM κηώεις fragrant 383 Αὐτὴ δ αὖ RP-NSFP T B αὐτός δέ αὖ self but, and again, on the contrary Ἑλένην καλέουσ ἴε τὴν δὲ NASF, XP VFAP-SNF VIAI3S RD-ASF T Ἑλένη καλέω εἶμι ὁ δέ Helen call, summon go her but, and κίχανε VIAI3S κιχάνω reach, hit 384 πύργῳ ἐφ ὑψηλῷ, περὶ δὲ NDSM P JDSM P T πύργος ἐπί ὑψηλός περί δέ tower on, upon high, lofty around but, and Τρῳαὶ ἅλις ἦσαν JNPF, XP B VIAI3P Τρωϊος ἅλις εἰμί of Tros in heaps, crowds be, exist 385 χειρὶ δὲ νεκταρέου ἑανοῦ NDSF T JGSM JGSM χείρ δέ νεκτάρεος ἑανός hand but, and nectarous fit for wearing
5 ἐτίναξε VAAI3S τινάσσω shake or brandish λαβοῦσα, VAAP-SNF λαμβάνω take 386 γρηῒ δέ μιν ἐϊκυῖα NDSF T RP3AS- VRAP-SNF γραῦς δέ μιν ἔοικα old woman but, and him, her, it be like παλαιγενέϊ JDSF παλαιγενής born long ago, full of years προσέειπεν VAAI3S προσεῖπον speak to 387 εἰροκόμῳ, ἥ οἱ JDSF RR-NSF RP3DS- εἰροκόμος ὁ οἷ dressing wool who him, her Λακεδαίμονι ναιετοώσῃ NDSF, XP Λακεδαίμων Lacedaemon VPAP-SDF ναιετάω dwell 388 ἤσκειν εἴρια VIAI3S NAPN ἀσκέω ἔριον work curiously, form by art wool καλά, μάλιστα δέ JAPN B T καλός μᾶλλον δέ beautiful, beauteous very, exceedingly but, and μιν RP3ASμιν him, her, it φιλέεσκε VIAI3S φιλέω love, regard with affection 389 τῇ μιν ἐεισαμένη RD-DSF RP3AS- VAMP-SNF ὁ μιν εἴδομαι her herself are visible, appear προσεφώνεε δῖ Ἀφροδίτη VIAI3S JNSF NNSF, XP
6 προσφωνέω δῖος Ἀφροδίτη call or speak to, address god-like, divine Aphrodite 390 δεῦρ ἴθ Ἀλέξανδρός σε B VPAM2S NNSM, XP RP2AS- δεῦρο εἶμι Ἀλέξανδρος σύ hither go Alexander you καλεῖ οἶκον δὲ νέεσθαι. VPAI3S NASM T VPUN- καλέω οἶκος δέ νέομαι call, summon house, abode but, and go or come 391 Κεῖνος ὅ RD-NSM RD-NSM ἐκεῖνος the person there, that person or thing γ ἐν θαλάμῳ T P NDSM γε ἐν θάλαμος at least, at any rate in, among inner room or chamber καὶ δινωτοῖσι λέχεσσι C JDPN NDPN καί δινωτός λέχος and, also turned, rounded couch, bed ὁ he 392 κάλλεΐ τε στίλβων καὶ εἵμασιν NDSN T VPAP-SNM C NDPN κάλλος τε στίλβω καί εἷμα beauty and glisten and, also garment οὐδέ κε φαίης BN T VPAO2S οὐδέ ἄν φημί but not perchance, may declare, make known 393 ἀνδρὶ μαχεσσάμενον τόν NDSM VAMP-SAM RD-ASM ἀνήρ μάχομαι ὁ man fight him γ ἐλθεῖν, ἀλλὰ T VAAN- C γε ἔρχομαι ἀλλά at least, at any rate come or go otherwise, but
7 χορὸν NASM δὲ T χορός δέ round dance but, and 394 ἔρχεσθ, ἠὲ χοροῖο νέον VPUN- C NGSM JASN ἔρχομαι ἤ χορός νέος come or go if, or round dance young, youthful λήγοντα VPAP-SAM λήγω stay, abate καθίζειν. VPANκαθίζω make sit down, seat 395 Ὣς φάτο, τῇ B VIUI3S RD-DSF ὥς φημί ὁ thus, in this way declare, make known her δ ἄρα θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσιν T T NASM P NDPN δέ ἄρα θυμός ἐν στῆθος but, and straightway soul in, among breast ὄρινε VIAI3S ὀρίνω stir, raise καί ῥ ὡς C T C καί ἄρα ὡς and, also straightway thus, as οὖν ἐνόησε θεᾶς περικαλλέα B VAAI3S NGSF JASF οὖν νοέω θεά περικαλλής really, at all events mere sight goddess very beautiful δειρὴν NASF δειρή neck, throat
8 397 στήθεά θ ἱμερόεντα NAPN T JAPN καὶ στῆθος τε ἱμερόεις breast and exciting love or desire, lovely ὄμματα μαρμαίροντα, C NAPN VPAP-PAN καί ὄμμα μαρμαίρω and, also eye flash, sparkle 398 θάμβησέν τ ἄρ VAAI3S T T θαμβέω τε ἄρα be astounded, amazed and straightway ἔπειτα ἔπος τ ἔφατ ἔκ B NASN T VIUI3S P ἔπειτα ἔπος τε φημί ἐκ thereupon word and declare, make known from out of τ T τε and ὀνόμαζε VIAI3S ὀνομάζω name or speak of by name, call or address by name 399 δαιμονίη, τί με JVSF RI-ASN RP1AS- δαιμόνιος τίς ἐγώ miraculous, good sir who? which? ego ταῦτα λιλαίεαι ἠπεροπεύειν; RD-APN VPUI2S VPAN- οὗτος λιλαίομαι ἠπεροπεύω this long or desire earnestly cheat, cajole 400 ἦ πῄ με B T RP1AS- ἦ πῃ ἐγώ in truth, truly in some way, somehow ego προτέρω πολίων εὖ ναιομενάων B NGPF B VPUP-PGF πρότερος πόλις ἐύς ναίω before, first city good, brave dwell, inhabit 401 ἄξεις, ἢ Φρυγίης ἢ VFAI2S C NGSF, XP C
9 ἄγω ἤ Φρυγίη ἤ lead or carry, convey if, or Phrygia if, or Μῃονίης ἐρατεινῆς, NGSF, XP JGSF Μῃονίη ἐρατεινός Maeonia lovely, charming 402 εἴ τίς τοι καὶ C RX-NSM RP2DS- C εἰ τις σύ καί whether any one, any thing you and, also κεῖθι φίλος μερόπων B JNSM JGPM ἐκεῖθι φίλος μέροψ there, in that place loved, beloved dividing the voice ἀνθρώπων NGPM ἄνθρωπος man 403 οὕνεκα δὴ νῦν C T B δῖον οὕνεκα δή νῦν on which account, wherefore exactness now Ἀλέξανδρον Μενέλαος JASM NASM, XP NNSM, XP δῖος Ἀλέξανδρος Μενέλαος god-like, divine Alexander Menelaus 404 νικήσας ἐθέλει στυγερὴν VAAP-SNM VPAI3S JASF νικάω ἐθέλω στυγερός conquer, prevail will, wish hated, abominated ἐμὲ οἴκαδ ἄγεσθαι, RP1AS- BP VPUN- ἐγώ οἶκος ἄγω Ego house, abode lead or carry, convey 405 τοὔνεκα δὴ νῦν δεῦρο B T B B τοὔνεκα δή νῦν δεῦρο for that reason, therefore exactness now hither
10 δολοφρονέουσα παρέστης; VPAP-SNF VAAI2S δολοφρονέων παρίστημι planning craft, wily-minded make stand or place beside 406 ἧσο παρ VPUM2S P ἧμαι παρά be seated, sit from the side of, alongside αὐτὸν ἰοῦσα, θεῶν δ ἀπόεικε RP3ASM VPAP-SNF NGPM T VPAM2S αὐτός εἶμι θεός δέ ἀποείκω self go God but, and withdraw from κελεύθου, NGSF κέλευθος road, way 407 μηδ ἔτι σοῖσι CLC B RS-DPM μηδέ ἔτι σός but not or and not, nor yet, as yet thy πόδεσσιν ὑποστρέψειας Ὄλυμπον, NDPM VAAO2S NASM, XP πούς ὑποστρέφω Ὄλυμπος foot turn round about, turn back Olympus 408 ἀλλ αἰεὶ περὶ C B P ἀλλά ἀεί περί otherwise, but always, for ever around κεῖνον RD-ASM ὀΐζυε VPAM2S ἐκεῖνος ὀϊζύω the person there, that person or thing wail, mourn καί ἑ φύλασσε, C RP3AS- VIAI3S καί ἕ φυλάσσω and, also him, her keep watch and ward, keep guard 409 εἰς ὅ κέ σ P RR-ASN T RP2AS-
11 εἰς ὅς ἄν σύ into, to which perchance, may you ἢ ἄλοχον ποιήσεται ἢ C NASF VFMI3S C ἤ ἄλοχος ποιέω ἤ if, or bedfellow, spouse make if, or ὅ RR-ASN γε ὅς γε who, which, that at least, at any rate δούλην. NASF δοῦλος born bondman or slave T 410 Κεῖσε δ ἐγὼν οὐκ B T RP1NS- BN, TN κεῖσε δέ ἐγώ οὐ thither, to that place but, and ego not εἶμι νεμεσσητὸν δέ VPAI1S JNSN T εἶμι νεμεσητός δέ go causing indignation or wrath but, and κεν T ἄν perchance, may εἴη VPAO3S εἰμί be, exist 411 κείνου RD-GSM ἐκεῖνος the person there, that person or thing πορσανέουσα λέχος Τρῳαὶ δέ μ VFAP-SNF NASN JNPF, XP T RP1AS- πορσύνω λέχος Τρωϊος δέ ἐγώ offer, present couch, bed of Tros but, and ego ὀπίσσω B ὀπίσσω backwards, back again
12 412 πᾶσαι μωμήσονται ἔχω JNPF VFMI3P VPAI1S πᾶς μωμάομαι ἔχω all, the whole find, fault with have or hold δ ἄχε ἄκριτα T NAPN JAPN δέ ἄχος ἄκριτος but, and pain, distress undistinguishable, unarranged θυμῷ. NDSM θυμός soul 413 Τὴν δὲ χολωσαμένη RD-ASF T VAMP-SNF ὁ δέ χολόω her but, and make angry, provoke προσεφώνεε δῖ Ἀφροδίτη VIAI3S JNSF NNSF, XP προσφωνέω δῖος Ἀφροδίτη call or speak to, address god-like, divine Aphrodite 414 μή μ ἔρεθε BN, TN RP1AS- VPAM2S μή ἐγώ ἐρέθω not ego stir to anger, provoke σχετλίη, μὴ χωσαμένη σε JVSF BN, TN VAMP-SNF RP2ASσχέτλιος μή χώομαι σύ unwearying not be angry, wroth you μεθείω, VAAS1S μεθίημι let go, let loose 415 τὼς δέ σ B T RP2AS- ἀπεχθήρω τώς δέ σύ so, in this wise but, and you ὡς νῦν ἔκπαγλ VAAS1S C B JAPN
13 ἀπεχθαίρω ὡς νῦν ἔκπαγλος hate utterly, detest thus, as now terrible, fearful ἐφίλησα, VAAI1S φιλέω love, regard with affection 416 μέσσῳ δ JDSN T μέσος δέ middle, in the middle but, and ἀμφοτέρων μητίσομαι ἔχθεα JGPM VFMI1S NAPN ἀμφότερος μητίομαι ἔχθος each or both of two devise, contrive hate, hatred λυγρὰ JAPN λυγρός sore, baneful 417 Τρώων καὶ Δαναῶν, σὺ NGPM, XP C NGPM, XP RP2NS- Τρώς καί Δαναοί σύ Tros and, also Danaans you δέ κεν κακὸν οἶτον T T JASM NASM δέ ἄν κακός οἶτος but, and perchance, may bad fate, doom ὄληαι. VAMS2S ὄλλυμι destroy, make end of 418 Ὣς ἔφατ, B VIUI3S ὥς φημί thus, in this way declare, make known ἔδεισεν δ Ἑλένη Διὸς ἐκγεγαυῖα, VAAI3S T NNSF, XP NGSM, XP VRAP-SNF δείδω δέ Ἑλένη Ζεύς ἐκγίγνομαι fear but, and Helen Zeus be born of
14 419 βῆ δὲ κατασχομένη VAAI3S T VAMP-SNF βαίνω δέ κατέχω walk, step but, and hold fast ἑανῷ ἀργῆτι φαεινῷ JDSM JDSM JDSM ἑανός ἀργής φαεινός fit for wearing bright, glancing shining, beaming 420 σιγῇ, πάσας δὲ Τρῳὰς NDSF JAPF T JAPF, XP σιγή πᾶς δέ Τρωϊος silence all, the whole but, and of Tros λάθεν ἦρχε δὲ VAAI3S VIAI3S T λανθάνω ἄρχω δέ escape notice, be unknown be first but, and δαίμων. NNSM δαίμων god, goddess. 2) Literal translation: Aphrodite snatched him [Paris] up, very easily, as a god can do, and shrouded him in thick mist, and put him down in his good-smelling, fragrant bedroom, and then she herself went to call Helen. She found her on the high wall (tower), and around her, in crowds, were the Trojan women. Then with her hand she took hold of her nectarous (fragrant) robe (garment) and shook (vibrated, plucked) it, and she spoke to her in the form (likeness) of an old woman, a wool-dresser (wool-comber), who used to prepare (card, fashion with art) the beautiful wool for her when she lived in Lacedaemon, and whom she most (especially) loved. In her form (likeness) shining (bright, radiant) Aphrodite spoke: Come here. Alexander calls you to go home. That man is in his bedroom and on his inlaid (adorned, ornamented) bed, gleaming (resplendent) with beauty and clothes. You would not say that he had come from fighting a man, but rather that he was going to a dance or was sitting there having recently ceased from (finished) dancing.
15 Thus she spoke, and she stirred her [Helen s] heart in her breast. And when she saw the very beautiful neck of the goddess, her lovely (charming, ravishing, exciting desire) breasts, and her flashing (gleaming, sparkling) eyes, she was astonished (awed) and she spoke and addressed her, saying: Daimonie [this Greek work is addressed to someone, generally intimate with the speaker, who is acting strangely, and calls attention to that strangeness. In the Loeb literal version it is translated as Strange goddess ], why do you desire (are you eager) to deceive (trick) me in this way? Will you lead me still further on to one of the well-populated cities of Phrygia or charming (delightful, lovely) Maeonia, if there too there is some mortal man who is dear to you, since now Menelaus has defeated noble (bright, radiant) Alexander and wishes (intends) to lead me, the loathsome one (shuddered at, dreadful, hateful), home? Is it for this reason that you have now come here in your treachery (with guile in your heart, planning treachery)? Go, sit by his [Paris s] side, abandon the path of the gods, do not turn your feet back to Olympus, but always be anxious around that man and protect (watch over, look after) him, until he makes you his wife (bed-mate) or perhaps his slave. There (thither) I will not go it would be shameful (worthy of blame or disgrace) to share that man s bed. All the Trojan women would blame (censure, reproach) me afterward; and I have measureless (endless, continual) grief in my heart. Angered, Aphrodite said to her: Do not provoke me (move me to anger), hardhearted (headstrong, rash, foolhardy) one, lest I desert you in anger and hate you, just as now I love you exceedingly (vehemently, strongly, deeply), and devise (plan, contrive) wretched (miserable, painful, disastrous, fatal) enmity (offense) at you from both sides, Trojans and Danaans. Then you would perish of an evil fate.
Crito vocabulary (by part of speech) Greek word part of speech frequency English meaning πολύς adj. 38 much or many δίκαιος adj. 28 just καλός adj. 18 beautiful πρότερος adj. 11 earlier ἀγαθός adj. 8 good
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