1 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary ἀποκτείνω ἀποκτείνωσιν ἀπεκτάνθησαν ἀποκτανθῆναι βασιλεύς, έως, ὁ διάβολος δίδωμι, δοῦναί Ἑβραϊστί Ἑλληνικός, ή, όν κέρας, ατος, τό ὄνομα, ατος, τό ὁράω εἶδον ὅμοιος, ομοία, ὅμοιον ποταμός, οῦ, ὁ Practical Application Pres/Fut/2AorAct PerfAct/ AorPas/-μι 1AorAct Other Mid/Pas GNT: Revelation Lesson 21 Revelation Infinitives ἁκούειν (Rev 9.20) βλέπειν (Rev 9.20) Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries περιπατεῖν (Rev 9.20) προφητεῦσαι (Rev 10.11) ἀποκτανθῆναι (Rev 11.5) δοῦναί (Rev 10.9) γενέσθαι (Rev 1.1; 22.6) Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self
2 Infinitives An infinitive is a verbal noun. In English the infinitive is normally identical with the dictionary entry form of a verb (the first person, present, singular active) and expressed with the preposition to, as in to walk. Generally, when we read a Greek infinitive in the NT, we translate it just that way, with the preposition to. Though Greek infinitives function as a sort of noun, they don t have gender. Therefore, they always take the neuter article, as in τὸ παθείν, literally, the to-suffer, (Acts 1.3). Infinitives in the NT are often used to set the stage. i.e., to explain the circumstances surrounding the main action of a clause. In Acts 1.3, Luke says that Jesus showed Himself, but the circumstances were after (μετὰ) His to suffer (τὸ παθείν). Greek infinitives are easy to spot because they only have four possibl endings: ειν, αι, ναι and σθαι. Which of the four endings an infinitive uses depends upon whether it is active or passive, and whether it is present, future, aorist or perfect in its tense form. BUT, for now, all you have to do is memorize the four endings and you ll always be able to recognize an infinitive in the NT text! Okay, there are always exceptions to the rule. For the verb to love, αγαπάω, the infinitive, αγαπεῖν, contracts to αγαπᾷν in which the epsilon and iota in the εῖν shrink to an alpha with an iota subscript. But trust me, memorize ειν, αι, ναι and σθαι and you ll (almost) always be able to spot a Greek infinitive! Infinitives are called infinitives because they are not limited (made finite) by a subject (noun) designated as doing the action; they picture an action without reference to someone or something doing it. However, sometimes a noun acts as if it were the subject of an infinitive, and in such cases the noun is in the accusative case instead of the expected nominative (see Lesson 19). Likewise, when infinitives have an object, that object is always in the accusative case. A great example is in 1John 3.16: we ought to lay down our lives. where the infinitive is to lay down and the object (the thing laid down) is lives. In the Greek, lives ( souls ) is in the accusative case: τὰς ψυχὰς θεῖναι. Parsing Verbs To parse a verb means to identify the verb s form, and thereby its function in the sentence. A common way to parse a GNT verb is to give its: 1. Person: 1st, 2nd or 3rd 2. Number: or 3. Tense:, Imperfect, Future,, Perfect or Pluperfect 4. Mood: Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive or Optative (sometimes Infinitive is given in place of mood) 5. Voice: Active, Passive or Middle 6. The lexical form (the form of the word you would look up in a dictionary or lexicon) Revelation Lesson 21b Thus, for the verb ἀποκτείνωσιν that appears in Rev 9.15, we would parse it by saying that it is the 3rd person plural, aorist subjunctive active, of ἀποκτείνω (to kill). Therefore, in this instance the verb communicates that a plural subject (four angels) are authorized that they may (subjunctive) actively kill at a point in time (aorist). BibleWorks parses in a different order: Mood, Tense, Voice, Person, Number. The order you choose isn t important, but it is helpful to get into the habit of parsing in the same order all the time so you ll remember to include all 6 elements.
3 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Voice Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self Vocabulary ἄλλος, η, ο βλέπω δαιμόνιον, ου, τό δύναμαι δύνανται εἴδωλον, ου, τό ἔργον, ου, τό λοιπός, ή, όν μετανόεω μετανόησαν ὅμοιος, ομοία, ὅμοιον πληγή, ῆς, ἡ προσκυνέω προσκυνήσουσιν φάρμακον, ου, τό χείρ, χειρός, ἡ Practical Application N A G D N A G D GNT: Revelation Lesson 22 Revelation Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries Adjective Other Mas. Fem. Neu. ἄλλος ἄλλη ἄλλο ἄλλον ἄλλην ἄλλο ἄλλου ἄλλης ἄλλου ἄλλῳ ἄλλῃ ἄλλῳ ἄλλοί ἄλλαί ἄλλα ἄλλους ἄλλaς ἄλλα ἄλλων ἄλλων ἄλλων ἄλλοις ἄλλαις ἄλλοις
4 Adjectives Revelation Lesson 22b Greek adjectives, like the article, agree with the nouns which they modify in number, gender and case. On the preceding page, see how the endings of the indefinite adjective ἄλλος change according to number, gender and case. Adjectives are sometimes put in what is called the atrributive position. For example, in Revelation 1.5, John calls Jesus ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστός ὁ πρωτότοκος τῶν νεκρῶν. At first glance, it looks like John is calling Jesus, the witness, the faithul (something unspecified), the firstborn of the dead. However, the article before the adjetive (ὁ πιστός) tells us that this adjective is attributing a quality directly to the preceding noun. Thus, the correct translation is, the faithul witness, the firstborn of the dead. Sometimes, an adjective stands alone in instances where a noun is only implied. For example, in Revelation 5.1, John sees a scroll in God s right (the adjective δεξιὰν). John doesn t specify, God s right what, but the word hand is implied in what had become a common idiom (right = right hand). In a more controversial example, Paul used the adjectival phrase τὸ τέλειον, the perfect, but did not specify the perfect what (1 Corinthians 13.10)! In a closely related passage, Ephesians 4.13, Paul spoke of an ἄνδρα τέλειον, a masculine phrase meaning perfect man, implying that his neuter phrase, τὸ τέλειον, was his way of speaking of the idea of maturity itself. In other words, τὸ τέλειον in 1 Corinthians does not imply a following noun, but serves as the noun itself: maturity. The immediate context supports this idea. In 1 Corinthians 13.11, Paul continued, When I was a child, etc.; when I became a man, I did away with childish things.
5 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary ἀνοίγω βιβλαρίδιον, ου, τό βιβλίον, ου, τό δεξιός, ά, όν ἔθνος, ους, τό θάλασσα, ης, ἡ ἵστημι ἑστῶτος κοιλία, ας, ἡ λαμβάνω λάβε λαός, οῦ, ὁ μέλι, ιτος, τό προφητεύω προφητεῦσαι στόμα, ατος, τό Practical Application GNT: Revelation Lesson 23 Revelation Negations Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries οὐ and οὐδέ with Indicative. μή and μηδέ with Imperative and Subjunctive, Infinitive and Participle. Two negatives don t make a positive! οὐ (or οὐ μή) in questions expecting an affirmative answer. μή in questions expecting a negative answer (see Luke 6.39). Prohibitions μή + Subjunctive = Don t start. (e.g. Rev. 7.3; 10.4; 22.10). μή + Imperative = Stop doing (e.g. Revelation 5.5). Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self
6 The Verb ἵστημι The important verb, ἵστημι, occurs 928 times in our Bible (including the LXX). It appears most often in Daniel (49 times), and 21 times in the Revelation. ἵστημι has transitive and intransitive tense forms. The transitive tense forms are Active, Future Active, and First Active. The intransitive tense forms include Future Middle and Passive, Second Active, Perfect Active, First Passive, and Pluperfect. When this verb is transitive, i.e., when it has an object, it means to put, place, set or bring. When it is intransitive i.e., simply describing the action of its subject, it means to stand, stand still, stop, appear, etc. ἵστημι is always intransitive in the Revelation. Besides the fact that passive forms of ἵστημι have intransitive, and therefore active meaning, there are two other oddities about the verb: (1) The Perfect tense form acts like tense form, and the Pluperfect (see εἱστήκεισαν in Rev 7.11) acts like an Imperfect tense form; (2) There are two forms of the Perfect Participle Active, ἑστηκως and ἑστως, and John uses them both in the Revelation. Here are the forms of ἵστημι in the Revelation: Revelation Lesson 23b 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Infinitive Participle Imperfect Future Future Mid. 2nd Act. 1st Pas. Perfect Act. Pluperfect ἕστηκα ἐστάθη ἕστηκεν εἱστήκει* στήσονται ἔστησαν ἑστήκασιν εἱστήκεισαν σταθῆναι ἑστῶτα ἑστῶτος ἑστῶτας ἑστηκότες, ἑστῶτες ἑστηκὸς, ἑστὸς *This form in 11.1 only in Scrivener s edition of the GNT (which is equivalent to the Textus Receptus, the Greek basis for the KJV).
7 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary ἅγιος, ία, ον ἐγείρω ἔγειρε ἔθνος, ους, τό ἐκβάλλω ἔκβαλε ἡμέρα, ας, ἡ θυσιαστήριον μάρτυς, μάρτυρος, ὁ ναός, οῦ, ὁ πατέω πατήσουσιν περιβάλλω περιβεβλημένοι προσκυνέω προσκυνοῦντας Practical Application GNT: Revelation Lesson 24 Revelation Case Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Vocative Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self
8 Parsing Participles A participle is a verbal adjective, usually translated as a verb ending in -ing. For the verb περιβάλλω (to put or throw around), for example, the participle περιβάλλων would translate as putting on. As an adjective, such a participle would normally modify a noun or pronoun, as in the king putting on his robe. However, in the Greek OT and NT, participles often only imply their referent. Remember that to parse a verb we give its: 1. Person: 1st, 2nd or 3rd 2. Number: or 3. Tense:, Imperfect, Future,, Perfect or Pluperfect 4. Mood: Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive or Optative (sometimes Infinitive is given in place of mood) 5. Voice: Active, Passive or Middle 6. Lexical Form (the form of the word you would look up in a dictionary or lexicon) Because a participle is a verbal adjective, it has characteristics of both a verb and an adjective. Therefore, to parse a participle, we must give its: 1. Verbal Form = Participle 2. Tense:, Imperfect, Future,, Perfect or Pluperfect 3. Voice: Active, Passive or Middle 4. Case: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive or Dative 5. Gender: Masculine, Feminine or Neuter 6. Number: or 7. Lexical Form (the form of the word you would look up in a dictionary or lexicon) Revelation Lesson 24b So, to parse a participle like, περιβεβλημένοι (Rev 11.3), we would say it is a: Participle, Perfect, Middle, Nominative, Masculine, of περιβάλλω. Like regular adjectives, participles must match the noun or pronoun they modify in case, gender and number. Since περιβεβλημένοι is Nominative, Masculine,, where in Rev 11.3 is the Nominative, Masculine, noun or pronoun that it modifies?
9 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary αἷμα, ατος, τό ἐξουσία, ας, ἡ θέλω θελήσωσιν κλείω κλεῖσαι οὐρανός, οῦ, ὁ πατάσσω πατάξαι πληγή, ῆς, ἡ προφητεία, ας, ἡ στρέφω στρέφειν τελέω τελέσωσιν ὕδωρ, ατος, τό Practical Application GNT: Revelation Lesson 25 Revelation Case Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Vocative Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self
10 The Verb γίνομαι Revelation Lesson 25b The important verb, γίνομαι, occurs 2,893 times in our Bible (including the LXX). It appears most often in the Greek version of Genesis (201 times), and 38 times in the Revelation. γίνομαι is a Deponent Verb (see Lesson 12B): its lexical form is passive, but its meaning is active. The verb γίνομαι is very flexible. It means to be born, or to become, but can also simply mean to happen or occur. It is also generally used to express the imperative of the verb to be (as in Rev 3.2: be awake! ), since the imperative of εἰμι is very rare. The common NT expressions και ἐγενετο and ἐγενετο δε are literal translations of a Hebrew idiom that adds more vividness to a narrative than meaning. It is the phrase made famous in the KJV s, and it came to pass. An unhelpful mistranslation of γίνομαι occurs in almost every English translation of 2Th 2.7. In that verse, Paul teaches that when the Antichrist is no longer restrained, he will be allowed to be born (γένηται) out of the midst of the population. Our English versions have confused the matter by saying that something will be taken out rather than be born, but γένηται is never used in this way in the NT.* The lexical form of the verb, γίνομαι (1st person, singular, present, indicative, middle = I am), only occurs in Job 7.4. Here are the forms of γίνομαι that occur in the Revelation: 1st 2nd 3rd Mid. Imperfect Future Future Mid. Act. 2nd Mid. Perfect Act. Pluperfect ἐγενόμην ἐγένετο γέγονεν 1st 2nd 3rd ἐγένοντο γέγοναν Imperative γίνου Infinitive γενέσθαι Participle *Paul normally uses the verb αἴρω to describe something being removed, as in Col The form γένηται is used to translate the Hebrew word taken from (לקח) in Job 28.2, but in this instance should be read as produced from.
11 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary ἀναβαίνω ἀνάβατε ἀνέβησαν εἰσέρχομαι εἰσῆλθεν ἐχθρός, ά, όν ἤμισυς, εια, υ θεωρέω θεωροῦντας νεφέλη, ης, ἡ ὀργίζω ὠργίσθησαν πόλις, εως, ἡ πούς, ποδός, ὁ φόβος, ου, ὁ ὥρα ας, ᾑ Practical Application GNT: Revelation Lesson 26 Revelation Phrases 2 Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ εῖδον, καὶ ἰδοὺ μετὰ ταῦτα, μετὰ τοῦτο οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτων οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς ὁ καθήμενος ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου προσεκύνησαν τῷ θεῷ τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self
12 Thoughts On Syntax Revelation Lesson 26b Syntax (σὺν, with + τάσσω, arrange) is the study of a language s rules for how words must fit together in phrases, clauses and sentences. Interestingly, word order in Koine Greek is much less important than it is in English for conveying meaning, but certain rules for word order still preside. For example, in Koine Greek, there are certain words that cannot appear first in a clause or sentence. Such words are called Postpositives, and they include γάρ, γέ, δέ, οῦν and τέ. These words generally appear second in a clause (though they can occur later in the word order), but they are usually translated first. Thus, Rev 10.2b reads: τὸν δὲ εὐώνυμον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. Literally, the word order is: the and left upon the sea. We translate the Postpositive δὲ first, though, and render the phrase, and the left [foot] upon the sea. More important than the rules for word order are the rules for what forms of words can go together. These are the rules of Agreement (also called Concord). Verbs must agree in person and number with their subject. Adjectives must agree with their antecedent noun or pronoun in number, gender and case. An interesting topic of syntax is that of phraseology: what phrases have become common or standardized just because people like to use them? Certain words are commonly put together just because it s the way speakers have hit upon for expressing a certain idea. Sometimes a phrase becomes idiomatic and therefore should not be read with a wooden literalness. For example, the word arrangements of some prepositional phrases are not to be read as though literally referring to spatial or physical reality. For example, the phrase ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς, should not be read out of the Father as if something is spatially being extracted from the father. Rather the phrase usually means belonging to the father, or originating from the father (in a spiritual or moral sense). It is syntax, i.e., the way an individual author likes to phrase things, that distinguishes one NT author from another stylistically. John likes to use different phrases than Paul or Peter. It s also syntax that distinguishes NT Greek (Koine) from classical Greek. This stands to reason since in the constant evolution of language, we now use different phrases to express things than did our grandparents. This phenomenon underscores the fact that truly learning a language involves learning not just words but phrases. If you want to sound like a native speaker, you will learn their phrasing and eventually even their figures of speech.
13 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Voice Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self Vocabulary διαθήκη, ης, ἡ εὐχαριστέω εὐχαριστοῦμεν καιρός, οῦ, ὁ κιβωτός, οῦ, ἡ κρίνω κριθῆναι ὀργή, ῆς, ἡ μισθός, οῦ, ὁ ταχύς, εῖα, ύ Diphthongs are marked in blue, consonants with a different pronunciation in red. Practical Application To thank a Greek person, say, Εὐχαριστῶ, or Εὐχαριστῶ παρὰ πολύ. GNT: Revelation Lesson 27 Revelation Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries εω VERBS RULES OF CONTRACTION ε + ε > ει ε + ο > ου ε + long vowel or diphthong drops out. φιλεω > φιλω φιλεεις > φιλεις φιλεει > φιλει φιλεομεν > φιλουμεν φιλεετε > φιλειτε φιλεουσιν > φιλουσιν
14 Revelation Lesson 27b CHRIST S COMING (7) Silence Thunder, Rumblings, Lightning, Earthquake (7) Loud Voices, Lightning, Rumblings, Thunder, Earthquake, Hail (7) Loud Voice, Lightning, Rumblings, Thunder, Ultimate Earthquake, Islands Displaced, Hail (6) Great Earthquake; Sun turns black, Moon turns Red; Sky Recedes; Island s Displaced ARMAGEDDON (JOEL 3.14,15) (3) Third of Fresh Water Ruined (4) Sun, Moon, Stars Darkened by Third (5) Sun and Sky Darkened (6) Demonic Troops From the Euphrates (3) Fresh Water Turned to Blood (4) Sun Scorches People (5) Kingdom of Beast Darkened (6) Human Troops From the Euphrates GREAT TRIBULATION (2) All Sea Life Destroyed (2) Third of Sea Life Destroyed (1) People on the Earth Who Worship the Beast plagued with sores (1) Hail, Fire, Blood Cast Upon the Earth; flora burned (5) Martyrdom ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION BEGINNING OF TRAVAIL (1) Conquest (2) War (3) Economic Woe (4) Sword, Famine, Plague SEALS TRUMPETS BOWLS The Staggered Chronology Of The Revelation Judgments
15 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary ἁρπάζω ἡρπάσθη δέκα διάδημα, ατος, τό δράκων, οντος, ὁ ἐκεῖ ἔρημος, ου, ἡ κατεσθίω κατάφαγε ὅπου τίκτω ἔτεκεν τεκεῖν τέκῃ σημείον, ου, τό τρέφω Practical Application GNT: Revelation Lesson 28 Revelation Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries The Adjective Male ἄρσην = nom. mas. sing. ἄρσενα = acc. mas. sing. ἄρρενα = acc. mas. sing. ἄρσενoς = gen. mas. sing. ἄρσενι = dat. mas. sing. ἄρσενες = nom. mas. plu. ἀρρένων = gen. mas. plu. ἄρσεν = nom./acc. neu. sing. ἄρσενα = nom. neu. plu. Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self
16 Revelation Lesson 28b Forming The Subjunctive The Subjunctive mood is that form of the verb that expresses the verbal action as being possible or probable. The Subjunctive mood only occurs with the and tenses. The Subjunctive is most common, but the Subjunctive is used when there is a need to stress the continuity or repetition of the action. To form the subjunctive, endings (but no augments) are added to the verb stem. The endings are the same as those of the present indicative of λύω, except that the initial syllables of the endings are lengthened where possible and their iotas written subscript. Note: The Subjunctive looks very similar to the Future Indicative (see 11B), but the subjunctive is distinguished by the lengthening of the ending vowels (except in the case of the first person singular, which must be determined by context). Thus: The Indicative The Subjunctive The Subjunctive The Subj. Mid./Pas. I loose I may loose I may loose I may be loosed λύ ω λύ ω λύ σ ω λύ ω μαι λύ εις λύ ῃς λύ σ ῃς λύ ῃ λύ ει λύ ῃ λύ σ ῃ λύ η ται λύ ο μεν λύ ω μεν λύ σ ω μεν λύ ω μεθα λύ ε τε λύ η τε λύ σ η τε λύ η σθε λύ ουσι(ν) λύ ωσι(ν) λύ σ ωσι(ν) λύ ω νται Among other uses, the Subjunctive Mood is the mood of ἵνα clauses (which are Purpose and Noun clauses). Purpose Clauses (also called final clauses), use the Subjunctive Mood to state the purpose of something. In such clauses, ἵνα means in order that, but often translates simply as that. Noun Clauses using ἵνα and the Subjunctive generally clarify something, and ἵνα means that or is untranslated. Thus, in Matthew 4.3, the devil says, Say! Say what? that the stones these bread may become!
17 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Voice Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self Vocabulary ἄρτι βοηθέω ἐβοήθησεν διώκω ἐδίωξεν ἐντολή, ῆς, ἡ εὐφραίνω εὐφραίνεσθε θυμός, οῦ, ὁ καταπίνω ὀπίσω ὄφις, εως, ὁ ποταμοφόρητος, ον σπέρμα, ατος, τό Practical Application GNT: Revelation Lesson 29 Revelation Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries Adverbs From Adjectives When Greek adverbs are formed from adjectives, they change the ν of the masculine genitive plural adjective to a ς. I ve listed the lexical form (masculine nominative singular) of the sample adjectives below on the left; convert them to their genitive plural, then replace the ν with ς to get the adverbs on the right. ἀληθης (true) => ἀληθῶς (truly) εὐθύς (straight) => εὐθέως (immediately) καλος (good) => καλῶς (well) ὁμοιος (like) => ὁμοίως (similarly) οὑτος (this) => οὕτως (thus) πλούσιος (rich) => πλουσίως (richly) Only some adverbs are formed this way, but when you see the ως ending, think adverb!
18 Revelation Lesson 29b Revelation And The Septuagint We have already noted the dependance of the Revelation upon the OT (Lesson Sheet 5B), and particularly upon the book of Daniel (Lesson 10B). We have also looked at the Revelation s symmetries with the book of Genesis (Lesson 27B). Now let us note that most of the Revelation s quotations of (or allusions to) the OT refer to the Septuagint (LXX), not to the Hebrew original. This is reasonable, since the Greek translation of the OT, used constantly by the apostles to reach their Hellenistic world, was also the text most easily integrated into the Greek NT writings. (We can trust that, whether or not the LXX was divinely inspired, the apostles made inspired use of it, even as they did of pagan poets: see Acts 17.28, and 1Co where Paul likely quotes the poet Menander.) This means that when we study the Greek text of Revelation, we must look for its clear quotations in the LXX rather than in the Hebrew Bible, and we must be on the lookout for words and phrases of importance in the LXX (like παντοκράτωρ). John s use of παντοκράτωρ (Almighty) ties the Revelation to many LXX references in Jer, Zec and Mal, and makes us realize that παντοκράτωρ is the NT way to say, Lord of hosts, i.e., Lord of [angel] armies. For the translators of the LXX and for the apostles, the implications of the fact that YHVH commands angel armies could best be communicated to a Hellenistic reader by saying that YHWH is almighty. Likewise, the word παράδεισος (Rev 2.7) takes us back to the LXX and the 14 times the word is used in Genesis. The LXX usage of παράδεισος makes it clear that the word means garden and has special reference to Eden. A search for the phrase paradise of God (Rev 2.7), brings up Gen 13.10, and Eze and This gives us some important connotations for the phrase in Rev 2.7: First, the παραδείσῳ τοῦ θεοῦ is the Garden in heaven where the anointed cherub resided before he was cast out (Eze ); secondly, this heavenly garden was reflected in the earthly Eden, and subsequently in the Jordan Valley of Abraham s time; thirdly, an association between the heavenly garden and the land of Israel (including the mountains of Lebanon) continued into Ezekiel s time (Eze ). (The fact that the tree of life is in this heavenly garden, also tells us that the paradise of God is in the heavenly city of New Jerusalem (Rev 22.2, 14)). Keeping the LXX open while we study the Greek text of the Revelation, also reveals a connection between: The Dragon And Leviathan Howard Wallace traced parallels between the dragon and beast imagery of Rev and ANE myths. More importantly, he made the connection with references to Leviathan in the OT. The LXX uses δράκων to translate Leviathan in all instances but one (Job 3.8). Psa mentions the heads (plural) of Leviathan, and the LXX renders it, τὰς κεφαλὰς τοῦ δράκοντος, the heads of the dragon! The mentions of Leviathan in the OT (the longest passage is Job ) are mysterious and generally seem more metaphorical than literal. Nevertheless, Leviathan is set forth as a sea monster, the dragon who lives in the sea (Isa 27.1), and so it is significant that the multi-headed dragon of Rev stood on the sand of the seashore, and his beast comes up out of the sea (Rev 13.1). The Rev is thus making an allusion to those OT passages in which Leviathan is a representation of God s ancient enemy, the twisted serpent (Isa 27.1).
19 Person & Number Tense Forms Future Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect 1st I We, Us 2nd You You 3rd He, She, It They Typical Aktionsart Summary Punctiliar Stative Past Past Participle (Verbal Adjective) Mood Indicative: Indicates Imperative: Commands Subjunctive: Expresses Possibility Optative: Expresses A Wish [Infinitive: Verbal Noun] Vocabulary ἄρκος, ου, ὁ, ἡ βλασφημέω βλασφημῆσαι θαυμάζω ἐθαύμασεν θεραπεύω ἐθεραπεύθη καταβολή, ῆς, ἡ κόσμος, ὁ πάρδαλις, εως, ἡ πολεμέω πολεμήσω σκηνή, ῆς, ἡ τεσσαράκοντα or τεσσεράκοντα Practical Application GNT: Revelation Lesson 30 Revelation Roderick Graciano Timothy Ministries Where s The Comma? Revelation 13.9 uses a run-on phrase, in-the book of-the life of-the lamb the having-been-slain As the early Greek manuscripts used little or no punctuation, it is difficult to know if the following phrase, from the foundation of the world applies to the perfect participle, having been slain, or to the verb preceding the run-on phrase, has been written. Does John mean that the names of the saved were written in the Book of Life since the creation, or that the Lamb was slain (in some sense) since the creation? Or both? See Acts , 1Peter , Ephesians 1.4 and Revelation 17.8 Voice Active: Subject does action Passive: Subject acted upon Middle: Subject acts upon self
20 Revelation Lesson 30b Forming The First There are two types of verbs, the First (or Weak) and the Second (or Strong). They are formed differently from one another, and very few verbs use both. (The verb ἵστημι, Lesson 23B, uses both forms, First Active with transitive meaning and Second Active and First Passive with intransitive meaning.) Because the is a past tense, it is formed like the Imperfect by placing an ε augment before the stem (only in the Indicative mood). The First Active, however, also adds a σα after the stem.* (Exceptions to the σα additon are ἔλυσε (Active, 3rd person singular) and ἐλύσω (Middle 2nd person singular). The First Passive adds θη after the stem instead of the σα. Thus: Active Active Middle Passive Active Infinitive I loose I loosed I loosed myself I was loosed To loose λύ ω ἔ λυ σα ἐ λυ σά μην ἐ λύ θη ν λῦ σ αι λύ εις ἔ λυ σα ς ἐ λύ σω ἐ λύ θη ς λύ ει ἔ λυ σε ἐ λύ σα το ἐ λύ θη Passive Infinitive λύ ο μεν λύ ε τε ἐ λύ σα μεν ἐ λύ σα τε ἐ λυ σά μεθα ἐ λύ σα σθε ἐ λύ θη μεν ἐ λύ θη τε To be loosed λυ θῆ ναι λύ ουσι(ν) ἔ λυ σα ν ἐ λύ σα ντο ἐ λύ θη σαν Remember that though the is a past tense, it is most fundamentally a punctiliar tense. What this means is that though we normally interpret an verb as expressing past action, the is often used to speak of a present or future (sometimes hypothetical) event as a completed whole. Thus, the Infinitive, πολεμῆσαι, to make war (in Rev. 13.4, who is able to make war? ) speaks of a hypothetical future possibility. The is used, because the future possibility is viewed as a whole event, i.e., to start a war, fight it, and lose it. If the Infinitive had been used in this verse, the question would have been, who is able to keep on making war? or who is able to continue a war? * Some grammars make σ the characteristic tense addition for the and understand the α as a connecting vowel (see Dana and Mantey, Section 69).
Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * * In the first chapter, we practiced the skill of reading Greek words. Now we want to try to understand some parts of what we read. There are a
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