Herodotus Histories Book 7

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1 Herodotus Histories Book 7 Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and Commentary Geoffrey Steadman

2 Herodotus Histories Book 7 Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and Commentary 011 by Geoffrey D. Steadman All rights reserved. Subject to the exception immediately following, this book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publisher. The author has made an online version of this work available (via ) under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. The terms of the license can be accessed at creativecommons.org. Accordingly, you are free to copy, alter, and distribute this work freely under the following conditions: (1) You must attribute the work to the author (but not in any way that suggests that the author endorses your alterations to the work). () You may not use this work for commercial purposes. (3) If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license as this one. The Greek text is the edition by Karl Hude, first published by Oxford University Press in ISBN-13: ISBN-10: Published by Geoffrey Steadman Cover Design: David Steadman Fonts: Times New Roman, SPIonic, GFS Porson

3 Table of Contents Pages Preface...v-vi Ionic Dialect..vii-viii How to Use this Commentary...ix Running CoreVocabulary.x-xv Abbreviations..xvi Verb Synopsis Alphabetized Core Vocabulary Histories Book VII Xerxes Decides to Invade Greece (sections ).-33 The Expedition Crosses the Hellespont (7.0-60) Catalogue of Xerxes Forces ( ) Xerxes Expedition Invades Northern Greece ( ) The Greeks Reaction to Xerxes Invasion ( ) Greek Embassy to Syracuse, Corcyra, and Crete ( ) The Persians and Greeks Meet at Thermopylae ( ) The Battle of Thermopylae (7.10-5) The Persians Emerge Victorious (7.6-39).4-37

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5 v Preface to the Series The aim of this commentary is to make Herodotus Histories Book 7 as accessible as possible to intermediate and advanced Greek readers so that they may experience the joy, insight, and lasting influence that comes from reading one of greatest works in classical antiquity in the original Greek. To accomplish this goal, I have decided to eschew the traditional commentary format and adopt the best features of Clyde Pharr s widely popular edition of Vergil s Aeneid. Facing each of the 118 pages of the Greek text (Hude s 1908 Oxford Classical Text) is a single page of commentary, which is divided into halves. The top half includes all of the corresponding vocabulary words that occur 19 or fewer times in the Greek, arranged alphabetically in two columns. The bottom half of the commentary is devoted to grammatical notes, which are organized according to the OCT page line numbers and likewise arranged in two columns. To complement the vocabulary within the commentary, I have added a Running Core Vocabulary List at the beginning of this commentary that includes all words occurring 0 or more times arranged in the order in which they first occur in the dialogue. An alphabetized form of this list can be found in the glossary. Together, this book has been designed in such a way that, once readers have reviewed and mastered the Running Core List, they will be able to rely solely on the Greek text and facing commentary and not need to turn a page or consult outside dictionaries as they read. The grammatical notes are designed to help beginning readers read the text, and so I have passed over detailed literary and philosophical explanations in favor of short, concise, and frequent entries that focus exclusively on grammar and morphology. The notes are intended to complement, not replace, an advanced level commentary, and so I encourage readers to consult some of the additional readings listed in the bibliography. Assuming that readers finish elementary Greek with varying levels of ability, I draw attention to subjunctive and optative constructions, identify unusual aorist and perfect forms, and in general explain aspects of the Greek that they should have encountered in first year study but perhaps forgotten. As a rule, I prefer to offer too much assistance rather than too little.

6 vi Print on Demand Books This volume is a self-published, print-on-demand (POD) book, and as such it gives its author distinct freedoms and limitations that are not found in traditional publications. After writing this commentary, I simply purchased an ISBN number (the owner is de facto the publisher) and submitted a digital copy for printing. The most significant limitation regarding a POD book is that it has not undergone extensive peer-review or general editing. This is a serious shortcoming that should make readers wary. There are sure to be typographical and factual errors that an extra pair of eyes could have spotted immediately. Until all of the mistakes have been identified and corrected, I hope the reader will excuse the occasional error. The benefits of POD, however, outweigh the costs. This commentary and others in the series simply would not exist without POD. Since there is no traditional publisher acting as a middle man, there is no one to deny publication of this work because it is a financial gamble and may not be profitable for the publisher. In addition, since the production costs are so low and there is no standing inventory of unsold books, I am able to offer this book at a comparatively low price. Finally, since this book is no more than a.pdf file waiting to be printed, I am able to make corrections and place a revised edition of a POD book for sale as often as I want. In this regard, we should liken PODs to software instead of traditional typeset books. Although the first edition of a POD may not be as polished as a traditional book, I am able to respond very quickly to readers recommendations and criticisms and create an emended and augmented POD that is far superior to previous editions. Consider, therefore, what you hold in your hand as an inexpensive beta version of the commentary. If you would like to recommend changes to this volume or download a free.pdf copy, please contact me at the address or URL below. I would like to thank E. B. for saving the reader from a quite a few callous errors and typos found in earlier versions of this commentary. Geoffrey Steadman Ph.D. geoffreysteadman.wordpress.com

7 vii How to Use this Commentary Research shows that, as we learn how to read in a second language, a combination of reading and direct vocabulary instruction is statistically superior to reading alone. One of the purposes of this book is to encourage active acquisition of vocabulary. 1. Master the core vocabulary list as soon as possible. A. Develop a daily regimen for memorizing running vocabulary and forms before you begin reading. Start with an intensive review of the running core list on the next page and then turn to less frequent vocabulary words as you encounter them. B. If you have to consult the alphabetized core list as you read, either photocopy the list or print it from online and keep it by your book to avoid page-flipping. More importantly, place a dot or similar mark by all core words that you consult. As review progresses, focus extra effort on the words that accumulate marks. C. Download and use the core list flashcards available online (ppt or jpg format). Research has shown that you must review new words at least seven to nine times before you are able to commit them to long term memory, and flashcards are particularly efficient at promoting repetition. Develop the habit of deleting flashcards that you have mastered and focus your efforts on the remaining words.. Read actively and make lots of educated guesses One of the benefits of traditional dictionary work is that it gives readers an interval between the time they encounter a questionable word or form and the time they find the dictionary entry. That span of time often compels readers to make educated guesses and actively seek out understanding of the Greek. Despite the benefits of facing vocabulary lists (see the preface), there is a risk that without that interval of time you will become complacent in your reading habits and treat the Greek as a puzzle to be decoded rather than a language to be learned. Your challenge, therefore, is to develop the habit of making an educated guess under your breath each time before you consult the facing vocabulary and grammar. If you guess correctly, the commentary will reaffirm your understanding of the Greek. If you answer incorrectly, you will become more aware of your weaknesses and therefore more capable of correcting them. 3. Reread a passage immediately after you have completed it. Repeated readings not only help you commit Greek to memory but also increase your ability to read the Greek as Greek. Always read the words out loud (or at least whisper them to yourself). While you may be inclined to translate the text into English as you reread, develop the habit of reading Greek as Greek and acquiring meaning without turning the text into English. 4. Reread the most recent passage immediately before you begin a new one. This additional repetition will strengthen your ability to recognize vocabulary, forms, and syntax quickly, bolster your confidence, and most importantly provide you with much-needed context as you begin the next selection in the text.

8 viii Major Differences between Ionic and Attic Greek Herodotus wrote in an Ionic dialect, and below is a summary of some of the differences that readers will encounter from the Attic dialect that they learned in elementary Greek. Many of these examples are taken from the first pages of Book Vowel Changes Attic a. a> h after e, i, r pra=gma prh=gma a0ggeli/a a0ggeli/h b. e ei before n, r, l ce/noj cei=noj, e3neka ei3neka c. o ou before n, r, l mo/noj mou/noj o1noma ou1noma Herodotus (Ionic) d. ei hi+ basilei/a basilhi/h stratei/a strathi/h d. au or ou w ou]n w}n e9autou= e9wutou=. Consonant Changes a. tt ss qa/latta qa/lassa, te/ttarej te/sserej b. p k in kou=, koi=oj etc. pw=j kw=j po/teroj ko/teroj c. f, q, x p, t, k a0fikne/omai a0pikne/omai, au]qij au]tij de/xomai de/komai 3. Changes in Declension Endings a. First Declension 1. masc. gen. sg. -ou -ew Kambu/sou Kambu/sew. gen. pl. -wn -e/wn Persw~n Perse/wn 3. dat. pl. -aij -h si(n) Pe/rsaij Pe/rsh si b. Second Declension 1. dat. pl. -oij -oisi(n) e9ka/stoij e0kastoisi c. Third Declension 1. endings are uncontracted basilei=j basile/ej basilh= basile/a ge/nouj ge/neoj

9 Major Differences between Ionic and Attic Greek ix 4. Changes in Verbs Attic Herodotus (Ionic) a. e-augment sometimes omitted: w#rmhto o3rmhto h0mei/beto a0mei/beto b. uncontracted vowel stems: w!n e0w&n (pple ei0mi/) o1ntej e0o/ntej e0donei=to e0done/eto dokei=n doke/ein c. 3 rd pl. mid./pass. often changes: i. -ntai -atai ti/qentai tiqe/atai ii. -nto -ato a0fani/zointo a0fani/zoi/ato 5. Personal Pronouns a. 1 st person gen. sg. e0mou= e0me/o (e0meu=) gen. pl. h9mw~n e0me/wn b. nd person gen. sg. sou= se/o (seu=) dat. sg. soi/ toi gen. pl. u9mw~n u9me/wn acc. pl. u3maj u9me/aj c. 3 rd person acc. sg. au0tw ~, h = oi9 acc. sg. au0to/n, h/n, o/ min 6. Reflexive Pronoun nom. pl. au0toi/, ai/, a/ sfei=j gen.. pl. au0tw~n sfe/wn dat. pl. au0toi=j, ai=j sfi, sfin acc. pl. au0tou/j, a/j, a/ sfe/aj au wu all forms e0mautou=, h=j, ou= e0mwutou=, h=j, ou= seautou=, h=j, ou= sewutou=, h=j, ou= e9autou=, h=j, ou= e9wutou=, h=j, ou= 7. Relative Pronoun Non-nominative forms are identical to the definite article (o3j h4, to/; tou=, th=j, tou=; tw ~, th =, tw ~ ). e0n w { e0n tw ~ in which o[n to/n whom adapted from Herodotus Book III S. Newmyer (Bryn Mawr, 1986)

10 x Running Core Vocabulary The following includes all words that occur 0 or more times (and a few other common words) in Herodotus Histories Book 7 in a running list. The number in the left column indicates the page on which the word first occurs. For an alphabetized core vocabulary, consult the glossary. 3 a1ggeloj, o9: messenger, envoy 3 0Aqhnai=oj, -a, -on: Athenian, of Athens 3 a0mfo/teroj, -h, -on: each of two, both, 0 3 a0p-ikne/omai: to come, arrive 3 a0po/: from, away from. (+ gen.) 3 a0po-dei/knumi: show, indicate, declare 3 a1ristoj, -h, -on: best, most excellent 3 au0to/j, -h/, -o/: -self; he, she, it; the same 3 basileu/j, o9: a king, chief 3 Darei=oj, -ou, o9: Darius 3 de/: but, and, on the other hand 3 dei=: it is necessary, must, ought (+ inf.), 0 3 deino/j, -h/, -o/n: terrible; wondrous, clever 3 dh/: indeed, surely, really, certainly, just 3 dia/: through (gen.) on account of (acc.) 3 ei0mi/: to be, exist 3 e0k, e0c: out of, from (+ gen.) 3 e3kastoj, -h, -on: each, every one 3 9Ella/j, -a/doj, h9 : Hellas, Greece 3 e0n: in, on, among. (+ dat.) 3 e0nqau=ta: here, hither, there, thither, then 3 e0pei/ (e0pei/te): when, after, since, because 3 e0pi/: near, at (gen), to (acc), upon (dat) 3 e0j: into, to, in regard to (acc.) 3 e3teroj, -h, -on: one (of two), other 3 e1toj, -ewj, to/: a year 3 ga/r: for, since 3 gi/nomai: to come to be, become; happen 3 gunh/, gunaiko/j, h9: a woman, wife 3 h1: or (either...or); than 3 i3ppoj, o9: a horse (i3ppoj, h99: cavalry) 3 kai/: and, also, even, too 3 kata/: down from (gen) or along (acc) 3 ma=llon: more, rather 3 ma/xh, h9: battle, fight, combat 3 mega/lwj: greatly, exceedingly, very much 3 me/n: on the one hand 3 min: him, her, it; acc. sg. au0to/n 3 nhu=j, neo/j, h9: a ship, boat, (nhi+/, ne/a; ne/ej) 3 no/moj, o9: law, custom

11 Running Core Vocabulary xi 3 Ce/rchj, o9: Xerxes 3 o9rma/w: to set out, begin; set in motion 3 ou0, ou0k, ou0x: not 3 ou[toj, au3th, tou=to: this, these 3 ou3twj: in this way, thus, so 3 pai=j, paido/j, o9, h9: a child, boy, girl; slave 3 para/: from, at, or to the side of 3 par-e/xw: to provide, furnish, grant 3 pa=j, pa=sa, pa=n: every, all, the whole 3 pe/mpw: to send; dismiss 3 peri/: around; about, concerning 3 Pe/rshj, -ou, o9: a Persian 3 ple/wn, pleu=n (ple/on): more, greater 3 poie/w: to do, make, create; mid. consider 3 po/lij, h9: a city 3 polu/j, polla/, polu/: much, many 3 pro/teroj, -a, -on: former, earlier; before 3 strateu/w: march, wage war, campaign 3 strati/h, h9: army, expedition, campaign 3 te: and, both 3 tij, ti: anyone, -thing; someone, -thing 3 to/te: at that time, then 3 trei=j, tri/a: three 3 u9po/: by, because of (gen), under (dat) 3 w9j: as, thus, so, that; when, since 5 a0lla/: but 5 a1lloj, -h, -o: other, one...another 5 a1n: modal adv. 5 a1neu: without (+ gen.), 0 5 a1nqrwpoj, o9: human being, human, man 5 a0nh/r, a0ndro/j, o9: a man; husband 5 a0po-qnh/skw: to die off, perish, 0 5 a0rxh/, h9: a beginning; rule, office 5 basilhi/h, -hj, h9: a kingship, rule 5 ge: at least, at any rate; indeed 5 gnw/mh, h9: opinion, intention, purpose 5 doke/w: to seem, seem best, think, imagine 5 e0gw/: I 5 e0kei=noj, -h, -on: that, those 5 e1poj, -eoj, to/: a word 5 e1rxomai: to come or go 5 e1ti: still, besides, further 5 e1xw: to have, hold; be able; be disposed 5 e9wutou=, -h=j, -ou=: himself, her-, it- (e9autou=) 5 h1dh: already, now, at this time 5 hn (e0a/n): ei0 a1n, if (ever) (+ subj.)

12 xii Running Core Vocabulary 5 kta/omai: to procure, get, gain, acquire, 4 5 kw: yet, up to this time, 0 5 le/gw: to say, speak 5 meta/: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.) 5 o3ti: that; because 5 oi0ko/j, -o/toj: likely, reasonable (Att. ei0ko/j) 5 ou0damo/j, -h/, -o/n: no one; adv. in no way 5 ou0-de/: and not, but not, nor, not even 5 ou1-te: and not, neither...nor 5 pro/: before, in front; in place of (+ gen.) 5 pro/j: to (acc), near, in addition to (+ dat.) 5 punqa/nomai: to learn by inquiry or hearsay 5 sfei=j: they 5 u3steroj, -a, -on: after, later, next, last 5 fhmi/: to say, claim, assert 5 xra/omai: to use, employ, possess (+ dat.) 5 w}n: and so, then; at all events (Att. ou]n) 7 Ai1guptoj, o9: Egypt 7 a1kroj, -h, -on: topmost, excellent 7 a1cioj, -h, -on: worthy of, deserving of 7 gh=, h9: earth 7 di/dwmi: to give, offer, grant, provide 7 e0qe/lw: to be willing, wish, desire 7 ei0: if, whether 7 i3na: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.) 7 kako/j, -h/, -o/n: bad, base, cowardly, evil 7 lo/goj, o9: word, speech, account 7 mh/: not, lest 7 mou=noj, -h, -on: alone, only, solitary 7 nu=n: now; as it is 7 o3de, h3de, to/de: this, this here 7 oi[oj, -a, -on: of what sort, as, 4 7 pa/r-eimi: to be near, be present 7 pei/qw: to persuade, trust; mid. obey 7 so/j, -h/, -o/n: your, yours 7 su/: you 7 toiou=toj, -au/th, -ou=to: such 7 fe/rw: to bring, carry, bear 7 fula/ssw: to keep watch, keep guard 7 xei/r, xeiro/j, h9: hand 7 xro/noj, o9: time 7 xw/rh, h9: land, region, area, place 9 a1gw: to lead, to bring, to carry, convey 9 a9li/skomai: to be taken, be caught 9 ba/rbaroj, o9: foreigner, a non-greek 9 deu/teroj, -h, -on: second; adv. next, 0

13 Running Core Vocabulary xiii 9 dio/: di 0o3, on which account 9 dou=loj, o9: a slave; adj. slavish, 0 9 ei]pon: aor., said, spoke 9 qa/lassa, h9: sea 9 ma/lista: most of all; certainly, especially 9 me/llw: to be about to, to intend to 9 nh=soj, h9: an island, 3 9 o3kwj: how, in what way; in order that, that 9 ou0d-ei/j, ou0de-mi/a, ou0d-e/n: no one, nothing 9 prw~toj, -h, -on: first, earliest 9 ti/qhmi: to set, put, place, arrange, 1 9 xra/w: declare, proclaim, direct by oracle 11 a3ma: at the same time; along with (+ dat.) 11 e1qnoj, -eoj, to/: race, people, tribe 11 e0la/sswn, -on: smaller, fewer 11 e0lau/nw: to march, drive, set in motion 11 e0mo/j, -h/, -o/n: my, mine 11 e0pi/stamai: to know (how), understand 11 eu]: well 11 qeo/j, o9: a god, divinity 11 i9ro/j, -h/, -o/n: holy, divine; temple (i9ero/j) 11 kou/: anywhere, somewhere; I suppose 11 lei/pw: to leave, forsake, abandon 11 o9ra/w: to see, look, behold 11 o3soj, -h, -on: as much as, as many as 11 o3te: when, 1 11 strathge/w: wage war, campaign against 11 strato/j, to/: army, encamped army 13 ai1tioj, -a, -on: responsible, blameworthy 13 bou/lomai: to wish, be willing, desire 13 e0a/w: to permit, allow, let be, suffer 13 ei[j, mi/a, e1n: one, single, alone 13 3Ellhn, 3Ellhnoj, o9: Greek 13 Zeu/j, o9: Zeus (gen. Dio/j, Zhno/j, dat. Dii+/, acc. Di/a) 13 h3lioj, o9: the sun 13 keleu/w: to bid, order, command, exhort 13 me/gaj, mega/lh, me/ga: big, large important 13 me/soj, - h, -on: middle, in the middle of 13 prh=gma, to/: deed, act; affair, trouble 13 xrh/: it is necessary or fitting; must, ought 15 a0p-alla/ssw: set free, release; mid. depart 1 15 a1ra: then, after all, as it turned out 15 dei=: it is necessary, must, ought (+ inf.) 15 kale/w: to call, summon, invite 15 kalo/j, -h/, -o/n: beautiful, fair, noble, fine 15 ma/xomai: to fight, contend, dispute

14 xiv Running Core Vocabulary 15 o0li/goj, -h, -on: few, little, small, 15 peira/w: try, attempt; make trial of (gen.) 15 plh=qoj, -eoj, h9: crowd, multitude; size 15 po/lemoj, o9: war, battle, fight 15 poleme/w: wage war, fight (+ dat.) 15 su/n: along with, with, together (+ gen.) 15 tro/poj, o9: manner, way; turn 15 xrh=ma, -atoj, to/: money, goods 17 a0nti/oj, -h, -on: opposite; a0nti/on in reply 17 ei0re/w: will say (pres. often le/gw, fhmi/) 17 pole/mioj, -a, -on: hostile, of the enemy 19 a0kou/w: to hear, listen to 19 a0na/gkh, h9: necessity, force, constraint 19 dia-bai/nw: to walk across, cross 19 kote/: ever, at some time, once 19 ple/w: to sail 19 potamo/j, o9: river, stream 19 toi: ya know, let me tell you, surely 19 toio/sde, -a/de, -o/nde: such 19 fulakh/, h9: a watch, guard 19 xwre/w: to go, come; have room for 1 a0na/: up, upon ( dat.); up to, on to ( acc.) 1 du/o: two 1 lamba/nw: to take, receive, catch, grasp 1 me/nw: to stay, remain, 0 3 Lakedai/mo/nioj, -h, -on: Lacedaemonian 3 ma/la: very, very much, exceedingly, 4 3 o9do/j, h9: road, way, path, journey 5 ei]don: saw, beheld (aor. of o9ra/w) 5 h9me/rh, h9: day 5 e0p-i/sthmi: to stand near, set over 5 fai/nw: to show; mid. appear, seem 7 a1nemoj, -ou, o9: wind 7 basi/lhioj, -on: royal, kingly 7 o9moi=oj, -h, -on: like, similar, resembling 7 o0pi/sw: back(wards), again, hereafter 7 skeuh/, o9: attire, equipment, gear, 9 qei=oj, -h, -on: from god, divine 9 o0fei/lw: to owe, ought (+ inf.), 31 0Artabanoj, o9: Artabanus 73 pa/lai: long ago, formerly, of old 75 ai0xmh/, h9: spear(point); war, battle 75 e0pi-xw/rioj, -h, -on: local, native 77 a0nti/: instead of, in place of (+ gen.) 77 e1p-eimi: to be upon, be set upon 81 pro/s-eimi: to be in addition, 1

15 Running Core Vocabulary xv 33 a1nw: up, above, 3 33 h1peiroj, h9: mainland, land 33 kefalh/, h9: the head 33 oi]da: to know 33 oi]ka: to seem likely; it seems, (Att. e1oika0) 33 o3te: when 33 xw=roj, o9: ground, place, land 35 oi0ke/w: to inhabit, dwell, live 35 o9rme/w: to lie at anchor 35 o1roj, -eoj, to/: a mountain, hill 35 pedi/on, to/: plain 35 pezo/j, h/, o/n: on foot, infantry 35 plh/n: except, but (+ gen.) 35 sta/dion, to/: a stade, (600 Greek feet) 35 ta/ssw: to arrange, put in order 39 o3plon, to/: a tool, implement; arms 39 ou1noma, -atoj to/: name (Att. o1noma) 39 poreu/omai: to travel, journey, march 39 tugxa/nw: to chance to, get; meet; happen 41 ei1romai: to ask, enquire, question 41 bi/oj, o9: life 43 decio/j, -h/, -o/n: on the right hand or side 43 e1cw: out of (+ gen.); adv. outside 45 a0po-pe/mpw: to send away, to dismiss 45 strathgo/j, o9: general, leader 47 qu/w: to sacrifice 47 kat-i/hmi: to send down, let go down 49 a0gge/llw: to announce, proclaim, report 51 qumo/j, o9: desire, heart; soul, life, 0 53 de/ka: ten 53 muri/oj, -h, -on: countless, endless, infinite, 4 53 xi/lioi, -ai, -a: a thousand 55 qhe/omai: to see, watch, look at; consider 57 sum-forh/, h9: event, accident, misfortune, 4 59 nautiko/j, h/, o/n: naval; navy; neut. fleet 61 a1rxw: to begin; to rule, be leader of 63 a0nagkai=oj, -h, -on: necessary, inevitable 63 o3moioj, -h, -on: like, similar; adv likewise 63 o9moio/w: to make like, assimilate; be like 65 a0gaqo/j, -h/, -o/n: good, brave, noble 65 oi]koj, o9: a house, abode, dwelling 69 a1krh, h9: promontory (on the sea), headland 69 e1c-esti: it is allowed, permitted; is possible 71 basi/lhion, to/: palace. 71 r9e/w: to flow, run, stream 71 tei=xoj, -eoj to/ : wall, city-wall

16 xvi 87 muria/j, a/doj, h9: ten-thousand, countless 93 a0nagkai/h, h9: necessity, force, (Ion a0nagkh/) 93 tosou=toj, au/th, ou=to: so great/much/many 95 su/m-maxoj, -on: allied; an ally 97 a3rma, -atoj, to/: a chariot 97 e0p-e/rxomai: come upon, approach, attack 101 a0n-i/hmi: to send up, let go, give up 101 ei1kosi: twenty 103 a0p-o/llumi: to lose, destroy, kill, ruin 115 o3mwj: nevertheless, however, yet 119 e0c-i/hmi: to send out, let out 119 steino/j, -h/, -o/n: narrow 13 o0noma/zw: to name, call by name 133 xrhsth/rion, to/: an oracle 135 pa/llw: to brandish, poise, shake 147 pau/w: to stop, make cease 153 e9pta/: seven Abbreviations abs. absolute acc. accusative act. active adj. adjective adv. adverb aor. aorist app. appositive comp. comparative dat. dative dep. deponent d.o. direct object f. feminine fut. future gen. genitive imp. imperative impf. imperfect imper. impersonal indic. indicative i.o. indirect object inf. infinitive inter. interrogative m. masculine n. neuter nom. nominative obj. object opt. optative pple. participle pass passive pf. perfect pl. plural plpf. pluperfect pred. predicate prep. preposition pres. present pron. pronoun reflex. reflexive rel. relative seq. sequence sg. singular subj. subject superl. superlative voc. vocative

17 To make the ancients speak, we must feed them with our own blood. -von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff

18 ISTORIWN H ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀγγελίη ἀπίκετο περὶ τῆς μάχης τῆς ἐν Μαραθῶνι γενομένης παρὰ βασιλέα Δαρεῖον τὸν Ὑστάσπεος, καὶ πρὶν μεγάλως κεχαραγμένον τοῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι διὰ τὴν ἐς Σάρδις ἐσβολήν, καὶ δὴ καὶ τότε πολλῷ τε δεινότερα ἐποίεε καὶ μᾶλλον ὅρμητο στρατεύεσθαι ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα. καὶ αὐτίκα μὲν ἐπηγγέλλετο πέμπων ἀγγέλους κατὰ πόλις ἑτοιμάζειν στρατιήν, πολλῷ πλέω ἐπιτάσσων ἑκάστοισι ἢ πρότερον παρεῖχον, καὶ νέας τε καὶ ἵππους καὶ σῖτον καὶ πλοῖα. τούτων δὲ περιαγγελλομένων ἡ Ἀσίη ἐδονέετο ἐπὶ τρία ἔτεα, καταλεγομένων τε τῶν ἀρίστων ὡς ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα στρατευομένων καὶ παρασκευαζομένων. τετάρτῳ δὲ ἔτεϊ Αἰγύπτιοι <οἱ> ὑπὸ Καμβύσεω δουλωθέντες ἀπέστησαν ἀπὸ Περσέων. ἐνθαῦτα δὴ καὶ μᾶλλον ὅρμητο καὶ ἐπ ἀμφοτέρους στρατεύεσθαι. στελλομένου δὲ Δαρείου ἐπ Αἴγυπτον καὶ Ἀθήνας τῶν παίδων αὐτοῦ στάσις ἐγένετο μεγάλη περὶ τῆς ἡγεμονίης, ὡς δεῖ μιν ἀποδέξαντα βασιλέα κατὰ τὸν Περσέων νόμον οὕτω στρατεύεσθαι. ἦσαν γὰρ Δαρείῳ καὶ πρότερον ἢ βασιλεῦσαι γεγονότες τρεῖς παῖδες ἐκ τῆς προτέρης γυναικός, Γοβρύεω θυγατρός, καὶ βασιλεύσαντι ἐξ Ἀτόσσης τῆς Κύρου ἕτεροι τέσσερες. τῶν μὲν δὴ προτέρων ἐπρέσβευε Ἀρτοβαζάνης, τῶν δὲ ἐπιγενομένων Ξέρξης. ἐόντες δὲ μητρὸς οὐ τῆς αὐτῆς ἐστασίαζον, ὁ μὲν [γὰρ] Ἀρτοβαζάνης κατ ὅ τι πρεσβύτατός τε εἴη παντὸς τοῦ

19 Herodotus VII a0ggeli/h, h9: message, report, news, 1 0Aqh=nai, ai9: Athens, 13 Ai0gu/ptioj, -h, -on: Egyptian, 8 Ai1guptoj, o9: Egypt, 7 a0p-i/sthmi: stand away, remove; to revolt, 4 0Asi/h, h9: Asia, 17 0Ato/ssa, -hj, h9: Atossa, 5 au0ti/ka: straightway, at once; presently, 11 basileu/w: to rule, be king, reign, 9 Gobru/hj, -ew, o9: Gobryas (male) 6 done/w: to shake, agitate, trouble, disturb, 1 doulo/w: to make a slave, enslave, 1 e0p-agge/llw : to tell, proclaim, announce, 8 e0pi-gi/nomai: to be born after, come after, 6 e0pi-ta/ssw: arrange (behind), order (dat) 4 e0s-bolh/, h9: inroad, invasion, attack, 1 e9toima/zw: to make ready, prepare, 1 h9gemoni/h, h9: sovereignty, hegemony, 10 quga/thr, h9: a daughter, 14 Kambu/shj, -ew, o9: Cambyses, 5 kata-le/gw: to pick, recount, 14 Ku=roj, -ou, o9: Cyrus, 11 Maraqw~n, -qw~noj, o9: Marathon, mega/lwj: greatly, mightily, 10 mh/thr, h9: a mother, 1 para-skeua/zw: to prepare, get ready, 15 peri-agge/llw: to send a message around, ploi=on to/: ship, transport, vessel, 11 presbeu/w: to be elder; venerate, honor, 1 pre/sbuj, -ewj, o9: old, old (man), 10 pri/n: until, before, 10 Sa/rdeij, i/wn, ai9: Sardis, capital of Lydia, 14 si=toj, o9: to grain, food, 10 stasia/zw: to dispute, quarrel, rebel, revolt, 1 sta/sij, h9: party, faction; quarrel, 4 ste/llw: to send, set forth, 9 te/sserej, -a: four, (Att. te/ssarej) 1 te/tartoj, -h, -on: fourth, 5 9Usta/sphj, -eoj o9: Hystaspes, 5 xara/ssw: exasperate; make sharp/pointed, 1 1 a0pi/keto: 3 rd sg. aor. mid. a0p-ikne/omai; Att. a0fi/keto (Att. f Ion. p) genome/nhj: aor. pple gi/nomai with ma/xhj para\: to ; acc. place to which basile/a: 3 rd decl. acc. sg. basileu/j to\n 9Usta/speoj: (son) of Hystapes; a patronymic (article + proper name in gen.) 3 kexarame/non: pf. pass pple xara/ssw modifies acc. sg. Darei=on above toi=si 0Aqhnai/ousi: by ; dat. of agent e0j Sa/rdij: against Sardis; Ion. Sa/rdi<j (Att. Sa/rdeij) is plural, here acc. pl. 4 kai\ dh\ kai\: and especially; and indeed also pollw ~: much; dat. degree of difference as often with a comparative adj. deino/tera deino/tera: comparative neut., add things e0poi/ee: uncontracted impf. poie/w 5 o3rmhto: o3rma/eto, impf. o9rma/w; Att. w#rmhto, Ion. verbs often lack e0-augment e0pi\: against 6 kata\ po/lij: city to city; distributive kata/ by cities; poli<j (Att. po/leij) is acc. pl. pollw ~: far; much, dat. degree difference 7 ple/w: more (things); ple/o(n)a, contracted comparative neuter. acc. pl. ple/wn, -on e0pita/sswn e9ka/stoisi: ordering each (to provide); add inf. pare/xein; pres. pple h1: than; following the comparative ple/w pro/teron: previously; comparative adverb 8 parei=xon: 3 rd pl. impf. par-e/xw ne/aj: ships; acc. pl.; in apposition to ple/w ploi=a: transport ships; acc. pl. 9 tou/twn...periaggellome/nwn: gen. absolute e0done/eto: impf. passive (Att. e0donei=to) e0pi\: over 10 katalegome/nwn a0ri/stwn : gen. abs. w(j e0pi\: as if against 11 teta/rtw e1tei+: on ; dat. time when, e1toj u9po\: by ; gen. of agent with pass. pple 1 Kambu/sew: -ew is a common gen. sg. form doulwqe/ntej: aor. pass. pple doulo/w 13 e0nqau=ta dh\: at that very moment, just then kai\ ma=llon: even more; kai\ is adverbial o3rmhto: o3rma/eto, impf. o9rma/w; see l. 5 stellome/nou Darei/ou: gen. abs. 15 tw~n..au0tou=: of his sons; modifies sta/sij 16 w(j: that a0pode/canta: acc. aor. pple a0po-dei/knumi kata\...no/mon: according to the custom 17 h]san.gegonot/ej: had been born; periphrastic plpf (pf. pple + impf ei0mi/) 18 basileu=sai: than (he) ruled; aor. inf. 19 Gobru/ew qugatro/j: daughter of Gobryas basileu/santi: (to him) while ruling 1 e0pigenome/nwn: of (sons) born afterwards e0o/ntej: being (from); nom. pl. pple ei0mi/ 3 kat 0 o3 ti: insofar as; on account of that ei1h: he was; opt. ei0mi/ of alleged cause

20 ISTORIWN H γόνου καὶ ὅτι νομιζόμενον εἴη πρὸς πάντων ἀνθρώπων τὸν πρεσβύτατον τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔχειν, Ξέρξης δὲ ὡς Ἀτόσσης τε παῖς εἴη τῆς Κύρου θυγατρὸς καὶ ὅτι Κῦρος εἴη ὁ κτησάμενος τοῖσι Πέρσῃσι τὴν ἐλευθερίην. Δαρείου δὲ οὐκ ἀποδεικνυμένου κω γνώμην, ἐτύγχανε κατὰ τὠυτὸ τούτοισι καὶ Δημάρητος ὁ Ἀρίστωνος ἀναβεβηκὼς ἐς Σοῦσα, ἐστερημένος τε τῆς ἐν Σπάρτῃ βασιληίης καὶ φυγὴν ἐπιβαλὼν ἑωυτῷ ἐκ Λακεδαίμονος. οὗτος ὡνὴρ πυθόμενος τῶν Δαρείου παίδων τὴν διαφορήν, ἐλθών, ὡς ἡ φάτις μιν ἔχει, Ξέρξῃ συνεβούλευε λέγειν πρὸς τοῖσι ἔλεγε ἔπεσι, ὡς αὐτὸς μὲν γένοιτο Δαρείῳ ἤδη βασιλεύοντι καὶ ἔχοντι τὸ Περσέων κράτος, Ἀρτοβαζάνης δὲ ἔτι ἰδιώτῃ ἐόντι Δαρείῳ οὐκ ὦν οὔτε οἰκὸς εἴη οὔτε δίκαιον ἄλλον τινὰ τὸ γέρας ἔχειν πρὸ ἑωυτοῦ ἐπεί γε καὶ ἐν Σπάρτῃ ἔφη ὁ Δημάρητος ὑποτιθέμενος, οὕτω νομίζεσθαι, ἢν οἳ μὲν προγεγονότες ἔωσι πρὶν ἢ τὸν πατέρα σφέων βασιλεῦσαι, ὁ δὲ βασιλεύοντι ὀψίγονος ἐπιγένηται, τοῦ ἐπιγενομένου τὴν ἔκδεξιν τῆς βασιληίης γίνεσθαι. χρησαμένου δὲ Ξέρξεω τῇ Δημαρήτου ὑποθήκῃ, γνοὺς ὁ Δαρεῖος ὡς λέγοι δίκαια βασιλέα μιν ἀπέδεξε. δοκέειν δέ μοι, καὶ ἄνευ ταύτης τῆς ὑποθήκης ἐβασίλευσε ἂν Ξέρξης ἡ γὰρ Ἄτοσσα εἶχε τὸ πᾶν κράτος. ἀποδέξας δὲ βασιλέα Πέρσῃσι Ξέρξεα Δαρεῖος ὁρμᾶτο στρατεύεσθαι. ἀλλὰ γὰρ μετὰ ταῦτά τε καὶ Αἰγύπτου ἀπόστασιν τῷ ὑστέρῳ ἔτεϊ παρασκευαζόμενον συνήνεικε αὐτὸν Δαρεῖον, βασιλεύσαντα τὰ πάντα ἕξ τε καὶ τριήκοντα ἔτεα, ἀποθανεῖν, οὐδέ οἱ ἐξεγένετο οὔτε τοὺς ἀπεστεῶτας Αἰγυπτίους οὔτε Ἀθηναίους τιμωρήσασθαι. ἀποθανόντος δὲ Δαρείου ἡ βασιληίη ἀνεχώρησε ἐς τὸν παῖδα τὸν ἐκείνου Ξέρξην. ὁ τοίνυν Ξέρξης ἐπὶ μὲν τὴν Ἑλλάδα οὐδαμῶς πρόθυμος ἦν

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