Chapter 39. The Aorist Participle (part 1) The Weirdos and the Second Aorist The Aorist Participles of γινωσκω and διδωµι

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1 Chapter 39 The Aorist Participle (part 1) The Weirdos and the Second Aorist The Aorist Participles of γινωσκω and διδωµι 39.1 In chapters 31 and 32 we met the Second Aorist Indicative Active - the form of the simple past tense used when the verb has different stems for the Present and the Aorist aspects. We also met the "Weirdos" - verbs which have completely different stems for some of their tenses. In the case of the Second Aorist Indicative, because the stems are different, the personal endings can be the same as those of the Imperfect. A similar situation holds when we meet the participles. We don't have any new endings to learn for this chapter. The Aorist Stem implies a "simple action", a completed action, or an act that took place at one point in time. The Present Stem implies a continuous or repeated action. When these stems are used to form participles, the Present Stem, which we used in chapters 19, 23, and 36, indicates an action that is going on at the same time as that of the main verb. e.g. The cat goes out howling. The cat is howling as she goes out. The Aorist Stem indicates as action that was completed before that of the main verb. e.g. The cat, having gone out, wants to come in again. The cat went out, and now she wants to come in. English tends to use consecutive sentences or clauses to show a sequence of events. In such a case, all the verbs look to be equally important, so English can not show which is the most important action in a sequence. Greek uses participles for the subsidiary actions - the Indicative verb shows the main action, and the participles show other actions which are contemporaneous or previous to the main verb. In Matthew 28:19-20 the Imperative is µαθητευσατε - "make disciples". All the other verb forms are participles, describing how one is to make disciples The Second Aorist Active Participle is formed by adding -ων to the Aorist Stem of the verb. This gives the Masculine Nominative Singular form. The Masculine and Neuter forms follow a Third Declension pattern, while the Feminine follows a First Declension pattern, exactly like the Present Active participle. The only differences are the Stem, and the way in which the participle is translated. : Masculine Feminine Neuter Singular Nom. STEM-ων STEM-ουσα STEM-ον Acc. STEM-οντα STEM-ουσαν STEM-ον Gen. STEM-οντος STEM-ουσης STEM-οντος Dat. STEM-οντι STEM-ουσῃ STEM-οντι Plural Nom. STEM-οντες STEM-ουσαι STEM-οντα Acc. STEM-οντας STEM-ουσας STEM-οντα Gen. STEM-οντων STEM-ουσων STEM-οντων Dat. STEM-ουσι(ν) STEM-ουσαις STEM-ουσι(ν) Contract verbs, in -αω, -εω, -οω, follow the usual rules of contraction. NOTE - there is NO AUGMENT on the participle (nor with the Aorist Subjunctive, Infinitive, or Imperative, which we shall meet later).

2 39.3 Translating Aorist Participles The translation for an Aorist participle should show that the action of the Aorist participle was completed before the action of the main verb. Colloquial English tends to write a series of sentences or clauses, each with a verb in the Indicative, e.g. "The cat went out, and now she wants to come back in." This shows the sequence of events, but does not show which is the main action. I prefer to use the slightly stilted style which translates Greek participles as English participles : Present participles as "doing something", Aorist participles as "having done something". One can always re-work the translation into a colloquial style, but a fairly literal first version helps one to understand how the text flows and fits together The Weirdos and their compounds The verb tables which give the Principal Parts of verbs list the Aorist Indicative Active in the third column. This has an augment added to the Aorist Stem. So we need to remove the augment before making the Aorist Participle, or the Subjunctive, Infinitive, or Imperative. Present Active or Middle Aorist Active Indicative Participle Indicative Participle take αἱρεω αἱρων εἱλον εἱλων come/go ἐρχοµαι ἐρχοµενος ἠλθον ἐλθων eat ἐσθιω ἐσθιων ἐφαγον φαγων say λεγω λεγων εἰπον εἰπων see ὁραω ὁρων εἰδον ἰδων suffer πασχω πάσχων ἐπαθον παθων drink πινω πινων ἐπιον πιων run τρεχω τρεχων ἐδραµον δραµων carry, bring φερω φερων ἠνεγκον ἐνεγκων or ἠνεγκα or ἐνεγκας 1. και προσελθων ὁ πειραζων εἰπεν Having approached, the tempter said to him, αὐτῳ, Eἰ υἱος εἶ του θεου... "If you are the Son of God... (Matt. 4:3) 2. ἰδων δε τους ὀχλους Having seen the crowds, ἀνεβη εἰς το ὀρος. he went up onto the mountain. (Matt. 5:1) 3. οἱ δε ἐξελθοντες Having gone out, ἀπηλθον εἰς τους χοιρους. they went away into the pigs. (Matt. 8:32) "They went out (of the men), and entered the pigs." 4. ἐλθοντι δε εἰς την οἰκιαν After he came into the house, προσηλθον αὐτῳ οἱ τυφλοι. the blind men approached him. (Matt. 9:28) ( Literally : "To 'the having come into the house' him came the blind men.") ( ἐλθοντι is Dative singular, agreeing with αὐτῳ, so it is "he" (Jesus) who had come into the house.) 5. εἰδεν αὐτον ὁ πατηρ αὐτου και... And his father saw him and,... δραµων ἐπεπεσεν having run he fell ἐπι τον τραχηλον αὐτου. on his neck (hugged him). (Luke 15:29) 6. ὁτε δε ὁ υἱος σου οὑτος ὁ καταφαγων But when this son of yours - the one having eaten up σου τον βιον µετα πορνων ἠλθεν, your property with prostitutes - came, ἐθυσας αὐτῳ τον σιτευτον µοσχον. you killed the fatted calf for him. (Luke 16:30) 7. και προδραµων εἰς το ἐµπροσθεν And having run ahead to the front ἀνεβη ἐπι συκοµορεαν. he climbed up a sycamore-fig tree. (Luke 19:4) 8. ἡ δε ἠνοιξεν τους ὀφθαλµους αὐτης, But she opened her eyes και ἰδουσα τον Πετρον ἀνεκαθισεν. and having seen Peter, she sat up. (Acts 9:40) 9. εἰδεν ἐν ὁραµατι φανερως.. He saw in a vision, clearly, ἀγγελον του θεου εἰσελθοντα an angel of the Lord having come προς αὐτον και εἰποντα αὐτῳ, to him and having said to him, Kορνηλιε. "Cornelius!" (Acts 10:3) ( He saw a clear vision in which an angel of the Lord came and said to him, "Cornelius!" )

3 10. διελθοντες δε πρωτην φυλακην και Having gone through the first dungeon δευτεραν ἠλθαν ἐπι την πυλην and the second they came to the την σιδηραν την φερουσαν εἰς iron gate leading to the city, which την πολιν, ἡτις αὐτοµατη ἠνοιγη opened automatically for them, and αὐτοις, και ἐξελθοντες προηλθον... having gone out they proceeded.. (Acts 12:10) (Prisons in Jerusalem at that time were often caves which were connected by tunnels. φυλακη may mean a holding-cell, or a guard-post. ἠλθαν is a First Aorist version of ἠλθον, φερουσαν is a Feminine Accusative Singular Participle. ἡτις is used in place of the Relative Pronoun ἣ, ἠνοιγη is an irregular Second Aorist of ἀνοιγω. This is how the author actually wrote - the grammar books came later.) 39.5 Other verbs with Second Aorists - Review Section 32.3 before proceeding to this section. The following pairs of Present and Aorist Participles should be learned as soon as possible. Present Participle Aorist Participle leading ἀγων ἀγαγων having led sinning ἁµαρτανων ἁµαρτων having sinned killing ἀναιρων ἀνελων having killed dying ἀποθνῃσκων ἀπoθανων having died throwing βαλλων βαλων having thrown finding εὑρισκων εὑρων having found having ἐχων ἐσχων having had being chosen λαγχανων λαχων having been chosen (by lot) taking, getting λαµβανων λαβων having taken, got escaping notice λανθανων λαθων having escaped notice lacking, needing λειπων λιπων having lacked, needed learning µανθανων µαθων having learned suffering πάσχων παθων having suffered drinking πίνων πιων having drunk falling πιπτων πεσων having fallen giving birth to τικτων * τεκων * having given birth to obtaining τυγχανων τυχων having obtained fleeing φευγων φυγων having fled * The Masculine forms τικτων and τεκων are given in the table, but because it is women who "give birth to", these participles are met with only in the Feminine forms τικτουσα, τεκουσα etc. NOTE - αἰρω - (I pick up), and the -βαινω (come/go) family, use the set of endings for the First Aorist participle. ἁµαρτανω - (I sin), occasionally takes First Aorist endings on its Second Aorist stem. We will meet them in Chapter βαλουσα γαρ αὑτη το µυρον τουτο She, having put this perfumed oil ἐπι του σωµατος µου on my body, προς το ἐνταφιασαι µε ἐποιησεν. did (it) to prepare me for burial. (Matt. 26:12) (She put this perfumed oil on my body to prepare me for burial.) 2. παραλαβων δε τους δωδεκα εἰπεν Having taken the twelve along (aside), he said προς αὐτους, Ἰδου ἀναβαινοµεν to them "Look, we are going up εἰς Ἰερουσαληµ... to Jerusalem... " (Luke 18:31) 3. Συλλαβοντες δε αὐτον ἠγαγον και Having arrested him the led (him) and brought (him) εἰσηγαγον εἰς την οἰκιαν του ἀρχιερεως. to the house of the High Priest. (Luke 22:54) 4. ἐξηλθεν δε εἰς Tαρσον He went out to Tarsus ζητειν Σαυλον, και εὑρων to look for Saul, and having found him ἠγαγεν εἰς Ἀντιοχειαν. he took (him) to Antioch. (see Acts 11:25)

4 5. ἰδοντες δε οἱ βοσκοντες Having seen what had happened, the herdsmen το γεγονος ἐφυγον. fled. (Luke 8:34) ( το γεγονος = "the thing having happened" = "what had happened") 6. και ὁ δευτερος (ἀδελφος) ἐλαβεν αὐτην, And the second (brother) took her and died και ἀπεθανεν µη καταλιπων σπερµα. not having left seed (children). (see Mark 12:21) 7. ὁ πιων οἰνον παλαιον οὐ θελει νεον. The one having drunk old wine does not want new. (He who has drunk old wine does not wish for new.) (see Luke 5:39) 8. Συµεων Πετρος δουλος Simon Peter, a slave και ἀποστολος Ἰησου Xριστου and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those τοις ἰσοτιµον ἡµιν λαχουσιν πιστιν having been chosen to an equally-precious ἐν δικαιοσυνῃ του θεου ἡµων faith with us in the righteousness of our God και σωτηρος Ἰησου Xριστου,.. and savior Jesus Christ... (2 Peter 1:1) ( τοις is Dative plural, agreeing with λαχουσιν = "to the ones having been chosen" ἰσοτιµον is Masculine/Feminine Accusative singular, so can only go with πιστιν = "an equally-precious faith" - presumably indicating that the faith of the readers is as precious as that of the writer.) 9. Xριστος ὁ ἀποθανων,... Christ who died (the one having died)... ὃς και ἐστιν ἐν δεξιᾳ του θεου, and who is on the right (hand) of God, ὃς και ἐντυγχανει ὑπερ ἡµων. who also intercedes for us. (Romans 8:34) 10. ὁ δε θεος... ὁ καλεσας ὑµας... But God himself,... who called you ὀλιγον παθοντας having suffered for a short time, αὐτος καταρτισει, στηριξει, (he) will restore (you), make (you) resolute, σθενωσει, θεµελιωσει. strengthen, establish (you). (1 Peter 5:10) (After you have suffered for a short time, God himself will.... ) 39.6 γινωσκω and διδωµι γινωσκω (I know) and διδωµι (I give) and their compounds use a very similar set of endings for their participles. The only different ending is the Aorist Masculine Nominative singular, ending in -ους rather than -ων, So, for γινωσκω and διδωµι we have Present Indicative Present Participle Aorist Stem Aorist Participle know γινωσκω γινωσκων, -ουσα, -ον γνo- γνους, -ουσα, -ον give διδωµι διδους, -ουσα, -ον δο- δους, δουσα, δον read ἀναγινωσκω ἀναγινωσκων, -ουσα, -ον ἀναγνo- ἀναγνους, -ουσα, -ον betray παραδιδωµι παραδιδους, -ουσα, -ον παραδο- παραδους, -ουσα, -ον 1. ἰδοντες δε οἱ ὀχλοι... ἐδοξασαν The crowds, having seen, glorified God, τον θεον τον δοντα ἐξουσιαν... who gave (the one having given) authority.. τοις ἀνθρωποις. to men. (Matt. 9:8) 2. ὁ ἀναγινωσκων νοειτω. Let the one reading understand. (Matt. 24:15) (Let him who reads, understand) 3. Ἡµαρτον παραδους αἱµα ἀθῳον. I sinned, having betrayed innocent blood. (Matt. 27:4) 4. και εὐθυς ἐπιγνους ὁ Ἰησους Immediately Jesus, having discerned τῳ πνευµατι αὐτου ὁτι in his spirit that οὑτως διαλογιζονται ἐν ἑαυτοις they were debating this way amongst themselves, λεγει αὐτοις, Tί ταυτα διαλογιζεσθε said (says) to them, "Why are you debating ἐν ταις καρδιαις ὑµων ; these things in your hearts?" (Mark 2:8) 5. και εἰπαν λεγοντες προς αὐτον,... And they spoke, saying to him,... τίς ἐστιν ὁ δους σοι "Who is the one having given to you την ἐξουσιαν ταυτην ; this authority?" (Luke 20:2) (And they said to him, "Who gave you this authority?")

5 6. ὁ γαρ ἀρτος του θεου ἐστιν For the Bread of God is ὁ καταβαινων ἐκ του οὐρανου the one coming down from (out of) heaven και ζωην διδους τῳ κοσµῳ. and giving life to the world. (John 6:33) 7. και ὁ... θεος ἐµαρτυρησεν αὐτοις And God bore witness to them, δους το πνευµα το ἁγιον having given (to them) the Holy Spirit καθως και ἡµιν. just as (he did) to us also. (Acts 15:8) 8. και ὁ χιλιαρχος δε ἐφοβηθη ἐπιγνους And the tribune was afraid, having found out ὁτι Ῥωµαιος ἐστιν. (after he found out) that he is a Roman. (Acts 22:29) ( ἐφοβηθη is an Aorist passive of φοβεοµαι ) 9. γνους δε ὁ Παυλος ὁτι ἑν µερος Paul. knowing that one part ἐστιν Σαδδουκαιων το δε ἑτερον was (made) of Sadducees, and the other Φαρισαιων ἐκραζεν ἐν τῳ συνεδριῳ, of Pharisees, cried out in the Sanhedrin, Ἀνδρες ἀδελφοι, ἐγω Φαρισαιος εἰµι,... "Guys, brothers, "I am a Pharisee.. " (Acts 23:6) ( ἑν is the Neuter Nominative Singular of εἱς µια ἑν - one ) 10. µη ἀποδιδοντες κακον ἀντι κακου Not repaying evil with evil ἢ λοιδοριαν ἀντι λοιδοριας. or insult with insult. (1 Peter 3:9) 39.7 Eye-training for Present and Second Aorist Participles, and the Aorist Indicative For several verbs, there are only one or two letters different between the Present Participles and the Second Aorist Participles. Also, the Aorist Indicative looks similar to the Aorist Participle, except for the presence of the augment. So the eye needs to be trained to spot whether there is an augment. Remember that for compound verbs the augment will be found between the stem and the prefix. If the word is a Participle, the eye must also distinguish between the long form (continuing or repeated action - Present) or the short form (single action - Aorist). 1. ταυτα λαβων ἀπηλθεν. Having taken these (things) he goes away. 2. τουτο λαβουσα ἐξηλθεν. Having taken this (thing), she goes away. 3. ἐλαβεν δε ταυτα και ἀπηλθεν. He/she took these (things) and went away. 4. λαµβανων τους ἀρτους ἐσθιει αὐτους. Taking the loaves, he eats them. 5. λαµβανω τους ἀρτους και ἐσθιω αὐτους. I take the loaves and I eat them. 6. λαµβανουσα τους ἀρτους ἐσθιει αὐτους. Taking the loaves, she eats them. 7. βλεπω το παιδιον λαµβανον τους ἀρτους. I see the child taking the loaves. 8. λαβον τον ἀρτον το τεκνον ἐφαγεν αὐτο. Having taken the bread, the child ate it. 9. αὐτοι ἐλαβον τον ἀρτον και ἐφαγον αὐτο. They took the bread and ate it. 10. Παρελαβον οὐν τον Ἰησουν. Then they took Jesus along (with them). (John 19:16) 39.8 Sentences for reading and translation 1. και ἰδων τον Ἰησουν το πνευµα εὐθυς συνεσπαραξεν το παιδιον, και πεσων ἐπι της γης ἐκυλιετο ἀφριζων. ( see Mark 9:20) 2. οἱ µεν οὐν... κατηλθον εἰς Ἀντιοχειαν, και συναγαγοντες το πληθος ἐπεδωκαν την ἐπιστολην, ἀναγνοντες δε ἐχαρησαν ἐπι τῃ παρακλησει. ( ἐπεδωκαν = Aorist of ἐπιδιδωµι - I give over, deliver) (see Acts 15:30) 3. µακαριος ὁ ἀναγινωσκων και οἱ ἀκουοντες τους λογους της προφητειας και τηρουντες αὐτους. (see Rev. 1:3) 4. ἐλθων οὐν ὁ Ἰησους εὑρεν αὐτον τεσσαρας ἠδη ἡµερας ἐχοντα ἐν τῳ µνηµειῳ. (John 11:17) 5. οἱ δε ἐξελθοντες διεφηµισαν αὐτον ἐν ὁλῃ τῃ γῃ ἐκεινῃ. (Matt. 9:31) 6. οἱ δε Φαρισαιοι ἰδοντες εἰπαν αὐτῳ, Ἰδου οἱ µαθηται σου ποιουσιν ὃ οὐκ ἐξεστιν ποιειν ἐν σαββατῳ. (Matt. 12:2)

6 7. ἐξελθοντες δε οἱ Φαρισαιοι συµβουλιον ἐλαβον κατ' αὐτου. (Matt. 12:14) 8. ὁ δε Ἰησους γνους ἀνεχωρησεν ἐκειθεν. (Matt. 12:15) 9. τοτε πορευεται και παραλαµβανει µεθ' ἑαυτου ἑπτα ἑτερα πνευµατα... και εἰσελθοντα κατοικει ἐκει. (Matt. 12:45) 10. ὁµοια ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεια των οὐρανων κοκκῳ σιναπεως, ὃν λαβων ἀνθρωπος ἐσπειρεν ἐν τῳ ἀγρῳ αὐτου. (Matt. 13:31) 39.9 Writing Practice : Write the Greek, while saying aloud (Matt. 5:7-9) µακαριοι οἱ ἐλεηµονες, ὁτι αὐτοι ἐλεηθησονται. µακαριοι οἱ καθαροι τῃ καρδιᾳ, ὁτι αὐτοι τον θεον ὀψονται. µακαριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοι, Happy are the ones showing mercy for they shall be shown mercy Happy are the clean in heart for they shall see God Happy are the ones making peace New Testament Passage for reading and translation : Luke 8:43-48 In your Greek New Testament, read the passage aloud several times until you can read it without long pauses or stumbling. Then use the translation helps to translate it. ἐν ῥυσει with a flow ἡ ῥυσις, -εως flow προσαναλωσασα having spent (on someone) ( Feminine Nominative First Aorist Participle) προσαναλισκω I spend ἀναλισκω I consume, I destroy ἀπ' οὐδενος by no-one οὐκ.. ἀπ' οὐδενος not by anyone ( Greek uses a double negative, English does not) θεραπευθηνια to be healed ( Aorist Passive Infinitive of θεραπευω - I heal) ἡψατο (she) touched ( Aorist Middle of ἅπτοµαι / ἅπτω - I touch / I ignite) το κρασπεδον edge, fringe, tassel ἐστη (it) stopped ( Aorist of ἱστηµι - I stand, set, place, put) τίς ; who? ( NOTE the accent - the tone of the voice goes up) τις someone ( NO accent - the tone of voice stays flat) ὁ ἁψαµενος "the one having touched" ( Aorist Middle/Passive of ἅπτοµαι - I touch) ἀρνουµενων παντων "when all denied" ( a use of the Genitive of a Participle - see chapter 41) ἐπιστστατα Master! ( Vocative of ὁ ἐπιστατης - master, teacher) ἀποθλιβουσιν (they) press around ( ἀποθλιβω, from ἀπο + θλιβω - I press) ἐγνων I knew, was aware ( Aorist of γινωσκω - see Section 32.4) ἐξεληλυθυιαν (it) had gone out ( Feminine Perfect Participle of ἐξερχοµαι - I go out) ἐλαθεν (she) escaped notice ( Aorist of λανθανω - I escape notice) προσπεσουσα having thrown (herself) down before ( Fem. Aorist Participle of προσπιπτω) δι' ἣν ἀιτιαν for which reason παντος of each, of every ἰαθη she was healed ( Aorist Passive of ἰαοµαι - I heal) σεσωκεν (it) has healed ( Perfect of σῳζω - I heal) πορευου Go! ( an Imperative of πορευοµαι - I come/go, travel) Vocabulary to learn ἀνακαθίζω I sit up ( from ἀνα - up + καθιζω - I sit) ἀποδίδωµι I pay back, repay, give away ( from ἀπο - away from + διδωµι - I give) ἅπτοµαι I touch, take hold of ( Deponent - Middle of ἅπτω ) ἅπτω I ignite, light βόσκω I tend, feed (a herd) ( Participle ὁ βοσκων - herdsman)

7 ἐνταφιάζω I prepare for burial ( from ἐν + ὁ ταφος - grave, tomb) ( Aorist Infinitive - ἐνταφιασαι - to bury) ἐντυγχάνω I intercede, plead ( from ἐν + τυγχανω - I get, experience) θεµελιόω I establish, lay a foundation θύω I sacrifice, kill καταρτίζω I mend, restore, put right ῥέω I flow στηρίζω I strengthen, make firm, establish τρέµω I tremble ἡ αἰτία, -ας reason, cause, charge ὁ βίος, -ου livelihood, life, property, living ἡ βουλή, -ης plan, purpose, decision ὁ θεµέλιος, -ου foundation ὁ κόκκος, -ου grain, seed ( hence staphylococci - small round bacteria) ὁ µόσκος, -ου calf το µύρον, -ου perfume, oil, ointment το ὅραµα, -τος vision ( from ὁραω - I see) το πλῆθος, -ους crowd ἡ πόρνη, -ης prostitute ( hence "porn") ὁ σίδηρος, -ου iron το σίναπι, -εως mustard (plant) ( hence the Botanical name for mustard - sinapis) ἡ συκῆ, -ης fig tree το συµβoύλιον, -ου council, consultation, resolution ( from συν + βουλη - plan) ὁ τάφος, -ου grave, tomb ὁ χοῖρος, -ου pig, hog δώδεκα twelve ( Indeclinable) σιδηροῦς -ᾶ, -οῦν made of iron φανερός, -α, -ον visible, evident ( from φαινω - I shine, give light, reveal and φανεροω - I reveal, make known, show) ὄπισθεν from behind, behind ( from ὀπισω - after, behind) παραχρῆµα immediately φανερῶς clearly, publicly, openly ( Adverb, from φανερoς) Vocabulary for reference ἀφρίζω I foam at the mouth διαφηµιζω I spread a rumor around, spread around κυλίοµαι I roll around σθενοω I strengthen ( compare ἁσθενης - weak; ἀσθενεω - I am ill) σπαράσσω I throw into convulsions συ(ν)σπαράσσω I convulse ἡ Ἀντιόχεια, -ας Antioch ( there were several towns named Antioch) ὁ ἐπιστάτης, -ου master, teacher ( from ἐπι - above + ἰστηµι - I stand) ἡ λοιδορία, -ας insult ἡ συκοµορέα, -ας fig-mulberry tree ( from ἡ συκη - fig tree + ἡ µορεα - mulberry tree) ( not the cultivated fig tree grown in America, but a large tree which bears clusters of small figs) ὁ τράχηλος, -ου neck, throat ἀθῷος, -ος, -ον guiltless, innocent ( see Section 10.6) αὐτόµατος, -η, -ον of itself, automatically ( an adjective, but used like an adverb) ἰσότιµος, -ος, -ον equally valuable, of equal privilege ( ἰσος - equal + ἡ τιµη - honor, price) σιτευτός, -η, -ον fattened, fatted

Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * *

Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * * Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * * In the first chapter, we practiced the skill of reading Greek words. Now we want to try to understand some parts of what we read. There are a

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