Translating Greek Tense Greek Tense John (Raising of Lazarus) [Martha scolds Jesus for not having been there to prevent Lazarus death ] Jesus

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1 A Principal Parts Fall Greek 2005 Croy Lesson 15 Ω 1 Present (Deponent) Present & M/P/D Imperfect & M/P/D σῴζω γίνοµαι 2 Future (Deponent) Future and M/D σώσω γενήσοµαι (Deponent) and M/D ἔσωσα ἐγενόµην 4 and Pluperfect σέσωκα γέγονα 5 M/P and Pluperfect M/P σέσωσµαι γεγένηµαι 6 Passive Passive & Future Passive ἐσώθην ἐγενήθην Greek Tense Translating Greek Tense The Greek denotes an action completed in the past, but the focus is on its result or continued status into the present. What did you do yesterday? I was studying Greek. << IMPERFECT I studied Greek. << AORIT Why do you look so tired? I have been studying Greek. << PERFECT The Greek denotes an action completed in the past, but the focus is on its result or continued status into the present. πεπίστευκα I have believed. I have been believing. UBJ have/has PAT form of verb UBJ have/has been PAT PROGREIVE form of verb Translating Greek Tense Greek Tense The Greek denotes an action completed in the past, but the focus is on its result or continued status into the present. γέγραπται γραπται It has been written It is written ἐγήγερται γερται He has been raised He is risen NOTE that the perfect may sometimes best be translated like a Present Tense The Greek denotes an action completed in the past, but the focus is on its result or continued status into the present. Colossians 1.16 for in [Christ] all things in heaven and on earth were created [] all things have been created [] through him and for him. 1

2 Translating Greek Tense Greek Tense John (Raising of Lazarus) [Martha scolds Jesus for not having been there to prevent Lazarus death ] Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live, and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die. πιστεύεις τοῦτο; λέγει αὐτῷ ναὶ κύριε, ἐγὼ πεπίστευκα ὅτι σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ The Greek denotes an action completed in the past, but the focus is on its result or continued status into the present. Mark 1.14 The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near ἤγγικεν PERFECT TENE is fulfilled / has been fulfilled is near / has come near Ephesians 2.8 Αug Redp TEM Tense Theme Ending PRE ACT -- TEM -- o/ε Prim IMPF ACT ἐ TEM -- o/ε ec FUT ACT -- TEM σ o/ε Prim 1AOR ACT ἐ TEM σα/α -- ec 1ΑΟR PA ἐ TEM θη -- ec 2ΑΟR ACT ἐ *TEM -- o/ε ec 2AOR M/D ἐ *TEM -- o/ε ecmp 2ΑΟR PA ἐ *TEM η -- ec PERF ACT -- X TEM κα / α -- Prim PERFECT ACTIVE ICATIVE rd λυ PERFECT ACTIVE ICATIVE λε λε rd λέλυ λε tart with the stem 2

3 PERFECT ACTIVE ICATIVE κα λεκα κα λεκα rd λέλυκα λεκα Add the κα tense code PERFECT ACTIVE ICATIVE κα λεκαµεν κας λεκατε rd λέλυκε(ν) λεκασι(ν) or καν Add the Primary Endings shortens to κε(ν) Two possible forms in P The endings also look like the Αug Redp TEM Tense Theme Ending PRE ACT -- TEM -- o/ε Prim IMPF ACT ἐ TEM -- o/ε ec FUT ACT -- TEM σ o/ε Prim 1AOR ACT ἐ TEM σα/α -- ec 1ΑΟR PA ἐ TEM θη -- ec 2ΑΟR ACT ἐ *TEM -- o/ε ec 2AOR M/D ἐ *TEM -- o/ε ecmp 2ΑΟR PA ἐ *TEM η -- ec PERF ACT -- X TEM κα / α -- Prim PERF MPD -- X TEM PrimMP PERFECT MIDDLE/PAIVE ICATIVE rd λυ tart with the stem PERFECT MIDDLE/PAIVE ICATIVE λε λε rd λέλυ λε PERFECT MIDDLE/PAIVE ICATIVE µαι λεµεθα σαι λέλυσθε rd λέλυται λέλυνται Add the Primary Mid/Pass Endings directly to the TEM

4 PERFECT MIDDLE/PAIVE ICATIVE 1 st πεπεισµαι πεπεισµεθα 2 nd rd γεγραπται πείθω γράφω Be aware of contractions with the tem and endings Greek Pluperfect Tense The Greek Pluperfect denotes an action completed prior to some point in the past, with the focus on its result or continued status up to that point. (It s like a past tense of the.) I had studied Greek when I was a child. I had been studying Greek until I finished seminary. Translating Greek Pluperfect Tense The Greek Pluperfect denotes an action completed prior to some point in the past, with the focus on its result or continued status up to that point. (It s like a past tense of the.) I had believed. I had been believing. UBJ had PAT form of verb UBJ had been PAT PROGREIVE form of verb Αug Redp TEM Tense Theme Ending PRE ACT -- TEM -- o/ε Prim IMPF ACT ἐ TEM -- o/ε ec FUT ACT -- TEM σ o/ε Prim 1AOR ACT ἐ TEM σα/α -- ec 1ΑΟR PA ἐ TEM θη -- ec 2ΑΟR ACT ἐ *TEM -- o/ε ec 2AOR M/D ἐ *TEM -- o/ε ecmp 2ΑΟR PA ἐ *TEM η -- ec PERF ACT -- X TEM κα / α -- Prim PERF MPD -- X TEM PrimMP PLPF ACT (ἐ) X TEM κει / ει -- ec PLUPERFECT ACTIVE ICATIVE rd λυ PLUPERFECT ACTIVE ICATIVE λε λε rd λέλυ λε tart with the stem 4

5 PLUPERFECT ACTIVE ICATIVE 1 st ἐλέλυ ἐλε 2 nd ἐλέλυ ἐλε rd ἐλέλυ ἐλε PLUPERFECT ACTIVE ICATIVE 1 st ἐλέλυκει ἐλεκει 2 nd ἐλέλυκει ἐλεκει rd ἐλέλυκει ἐλεκει Add the ἐ augment (usually) Add the κει tense code PLUPERFECT ACTIVE ICATIVE 1 st ἐλέλυκειν ἐλεκειµεν 2 nd ἐλέλυκεις ἐλεκειτε rd ἐλέλυκει ἐλεκεισαν Add the econdary endings NOTE: Because there is so much other coding to indicate the PLPF, the ἐ augment is sometimes omitted Αug Redp TEM Tense Theme Ending PRE ACT -- TEM -- o/ε Prim IMPF ACT ἐ TEM -- o/ε ec FUT ACT -- TEM σ o/ε Prim 1AOR ACT ἐ TEM σα/α -- ec 1ΑΟR PA ἐ TEM θη -- ec 2ΑΟR ACT ἐ *TEM -- o/ε ec 2AOR M/D ἐ *TEM -- o/ε ecmp 2ΑΟR PA ἐ *TEM η -- ec PERF ACT -- X TEM κα / α -- Prim PERF MPD -- X TEM PrimMP PLPF ACT (ἐ) X TEM κει / ει -- ec PLPF M/P (ἐ) X TEM ecmp PLUPERFECT ΜIDDLE/PAIVE ICATIVE rd λυ ONLY OCCUR 7 TIME IN THE NT tart with the stem PLUPERFECT ΜIDDLE/PAIVE ICATIVE λε λε rd λέλυ λε 5

6 PLUPERFECT ΜIDDLE/PAIVE ICATIVE 1 st ἐλέλυ ἐλε 2 nd ἐλέλυ ἐλε rd ἐλέλυ ἐλε PLUPERFECT ΜIDDLE/PAIVE ICATIVE 1 st ἐλέλυµην ἐλεµεθα 2 nd ἐλέλυσο ἐλεσθε rd ἐλέλυτο ἐλεντο Add the ἐ augment (usually) Add the econdary Middle/Passive endings directly to the TEM Present 1 2 Passive INFINITIVE Mid/Pass/Dep ειν (ε) σθαι (M/P/D) σαι (σα) σθαι (M/D) ειν (ε) σθαι (M/D) (θη / η) ναι (κε) ναι σθαι (M/P/D) PREENT INFINITIVE ειν - εσθαι to be loosening / to keep on being loosened 1st AORIT INFINITIVE λῦσαι σα σασθαι σθαι to loosen / to be loosened 2 nd AORIT INFINITIVE λαβεῖν λαβέσθαι to take / to be taken AORIT PAIVE INFINITIVE λυθῆναι to be loosened βληθῆναι to be thrown PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE λελυκέναι to have loosened PERFECT MIDDLE/PAIVE/DEPONENT INFINITIVE λεσθαι to have been loosened (passive) PERFECT REDUPLICATION When verb begins with: Most consonants > simple reduplication πεπιστευκα λελυκα Vowel / diphthong > lengthen the vowel / diphthong ἀγαπαω> ἠγαπηκα (yes, it looks just like an augment) Aspirated consonant (φ θ χ) > reduplicated with corresponding unaspirated consonant θεραπευω > τεθεραπευκα φιλεω > πεφιληκα Double consonant (ψ ζ ξ) or two consonants > reduplicate with ἐ (yes, it looks just like an augment) ζητεω > ἐζητηκα σταυροω > ἐσταυρωµαι Irregulars: ee section 105, page 86f. ἐγγίζω ἕτερος, -α, -ον οὔπω πολλάκις Croy Lesson 15 Vocabulary 6

7 Croy Lesson 15 Vocabulary ANALYI ἀκήκοα γέγονα ἤγγικα ἐγήγερµαι ἔγνωκα εἴρηκα (for Inf, no Pers/#) ἤγγικεν ἐγνώκειτε σέσωκέν προείρηκα ἐξεληθει γεγονέναι PER 1 2 # P TENE Pres, Impf, Aor, Fut MOOD Ind Inf VOICE Mid Dep Pass TRAN (for Inf, no Pers/#) ἤγγικεν ἐγνώκειτε σέσωκέν προείρηκα ἐξεληθει γεγονέναι PER ANALYI # P P TENE Pres, Impf, Aor, Fut,, Plpf Plpf Plpf MOOD Ind Inf INF VOICE M D P TRAN it has drawn near you had known s/he has saved I have spoken before s/he had gone out to have become Croy Lesson 15 Exercises Do sentences 4, 5, 8, 9 and 11 of Practice and Review Do NT #5 Work on: LP 15 Vocab Primary/econdary Endings Quiz on Tuesday the 1th Analysis of a few and/or Pluperfect forms hort translation 7

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