1 Greek Aa Fall 2007 Units 1-11 Review I. Nouns and Adjectives Instructions: Try to fill out the charts below from memory. When you have done as much as you possibly can, then check your answers against the textbook. While you're studying forms, be sure to pay attention to vocabulary as well--if you see a word you don't remember, look it up! A. Noun Types 1. First Declension 1. Feminine Nouns with Nominative -η Decline ψυχή, ψυχής. (Pay attention to accents of gen. & dat.) 2. Feminine Nouns with Nominative -ρᾱ, -εᾱ, -ιᾱ a. Remember the ρει rule: The -η of first-declension endings becomes -ᾱ after stems ending in ρ, ε, or ι. Decline χώρᾱ, χώρᾱς. 3. Feminine Nouns with Nominative -ᾰ Decline θάλαττα, θαλάττης. Similar Words: γέφῡρα, δόξα, μοῖρα, μοῦσα, πεῖρα 4. Masculine Nouns a. Nominative -ης/ -ᾱς b. Genitive -ου
2 c. Other cases: same as feminine nouns ending in -η/ -ᾱ Decline πολίτης, πολίτου. Similar Words: κλέπτης, νεανίας, ὁπλίτης, ποιητής, στρατιώτης, χορευτής 2. Second Declension 1. Masculine Nouns: Nominative -ος Decline καιρός, καιροῦ. 2. Femine Nouns: Identical to Masculine Nouns θεός (ἡ), ἵππος (ἡ), νῆσος, ὁδός 3. Neuter Nouns: Nominative -ον Decline ὅπλον, ὅπλου. 3. Third Declension Make sure you memorize the genitive singular as well as the nominative of these third declension nouns. Two nouns can look similar in the nominative, but have very different stems and declensions: just compare σωτήρ and ἀνήρ or πόλις and χάρις! 1. Consonant Stems a. Masculine/Feminine Monosyllabic αἴξ, αἰγός, ὁ/ἡ νύξ, νυκτός, ἡ Nominative ends in -ξ ( same as ) κῆρυξ, κήρυκος, ὁ
3 φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος, ἡ φύλαξ, φύλακος, ὁ Nominative ends in -ις ( sg. in -ι) ἐλπίς, ἐλπίδος, ἡ ( Sg. ἐλπίδα) χάρις, χάριτος, ἡ ( Sg. χάριν) Nominative ends in -ων/-ωρ ( sg. in -ον/-ορ) γέρων, γέροντος, ὁ δαίμων, δαίμονος, ὁ/ἡ ἡγεμών, ἡγεμόνος, ὁ ῥήτωρ, ῥήτορος, ὁ Nominative ends in -ων/-ως ( sg. in -ων/-ως) ἀγών, ἀγῶνος, ὁ ἔρως, ἔρωτος, ὁ Nominative ends in -ηρ ( sg. ending -ερ) σωτήρ, σωτῆρος, ὁ b. Neuter: -μα, -ματος Endings γράμμα, γράμματος ὄνομα, ὀνόματος ποίημα, ποιήματος πρᾶγμα, πράγματος σῶμα, σώματος χρῆμα, χρήματος Decline δαίμων, δαίμονος. Decline αἴξ, αἰγός. Decline σῶμα, σώματος.
4 2. Irregular Third Declension Nouns a. ὕδωρ, ὕδατος, τό b. -ηρ, -ρός ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός, ὁ θυγάτηρ, θυγατρός, ἡ μήτηρ, μητρός, ἡ πατήρ, πατρός, ὁ Decline πατήρ, πατρός. c. γυνή, γυναικός γυνή γυναῖκες γυναικός γυναικῶν γυναικί γυναιξί γυναῖκα γυναῖκας γύναι γυναῖκες 3. Vowel Stems a. -εύς, -έως, ὁ βασιλεύς, βασιλέως ἱερεύς, ἱερέως ἱππεύς, ἱππέως φονεύς, φονέως Decline φονεύς, φονέως. b. -ις, -εως, ἡ πόλις, πόλεως ὕβρις, ὕβρεως φύσις, φύσεως
5 Decline πόλις, πόλεως. c. -ος, -ους, τό γένος, γένους κάλλος, κάλλους πάθος, πάθους τέλος, τέλους Decline πάθος, πάθους. d. Proper Names ending in -ης Δημοσθένης, Δημοσθένους Σωκράτης, Σωκράτους Σωκράτης Σωκράτους Σωκράτει Σωκράτη Σώκρατες B. Adjective Types 1. First/Second Declension 1. Three-Termination: -ος, -η, -ον OR -ος, -ᾱ, -ον 2. Two-Termination: -ος (M/F), -ον (N) ἄδηλος, -ον ἄδικος, -ον ἀθάνατος, -ον ἄλογος, -ον ἀνάξιος, -ον βάρβαρος, -ον ἔμπειρος, -ον 2. Third Declension 1. -ων, -ον ἄφρων, ἄφρον
6 εὐδαίμων, εὔδαιμον σώφρων, σῶφρον Decline ἄφρων, ἄφρον. Masculine/Feminine Neuter 2. -ής, -ές ἀληθής, αληθές εὐγενής, εὐγενές εὐτυχής, εὐτυχές Decline ἀληθής, ἀληθές. Masculine/Feminine Neuter 3. Indeclinable Numerals πέντε: five [pentagon, pentagram] ἕξ: six [hexagon] ἑπτά: seven [heptagon] ὀκτώ: eight [octagon, octopus] C. Other Forms to know 1. Definite Article: ὁ, ἡ, τό 2. Demonstratives a. ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο b. οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο c. ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε
7 3. ἄλλος, ἄλλη, ἄλλο 4. αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό * Make sure you know the three different ways to translate αὐτός: 1) In the attributive position ἡ αὐτὴ γυνή = 2) In the predicative position ἡ γυνὴ αὐτή = 3) By itself in the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative cases πέμψουσιν αὐτήν = 5. πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν * Make sure you know the three different ways to translate πᾶς 1) In the attributive position ἡ πᾶσα χώρα = 2) In the predicative position πᾶς ὁ οἶνος = 3) Without the definite article πᾶσα χώρα = *REMEMBER: Adding the ending ως to an adjective produces an adverb. For example: ἀληθῶς = truly ἄλλως = otherwise κακῶς = badly καλῶς = beautifully D. Cases and Uses 1. Nominative 1. Subject 2. Predicate Nominative ἐκεῖνος ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ βασιλεύς. That man is the king. 2. Genitive 1. Possession ὁ Δημοσθένους πατήρ Demosthenes' father ἡ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου φύσις The nature of man 2. Personal Agent of Passive Verb (with ὑπό) τὰ τοῦ πολέμου πράγματα ἠγγέλθη ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. News of the war was announced by the herald. 3. Partitive Genitive ὁ πρῶτος τῶν στρατιώτων ἥκει. The first of the soldiers has come. 4. Genitive of Time or Space Within Which ἥξει πρώτης ἡμέρας. He will arrive during the first day. μένε τοῦ πεδίου. Stay within the plain. 5. Subjective Genitive τὸ τοῦ Σωκράτους πάθος The suffering of Socrates 6. Objective Genitive ὁ τῆς μητρὸς φονεὺς πείσεται. The murderer of my mother will suffer! 7. Verbs that take Genitive Objects
8 ἀκούω: to hear (person heard from-genitive, thing heard-accusative) ἄρχω: to rule, command (genitive) ; (Middle) to begin (genitive) ἀξιόω: To think someone (acc.) worthy of (genitive) 8. Adjectives that can take Genitive Objects αἴτιος, -τία, -τιον: Responsible for, Guilty of (genitive) ἄξιος, -α, -ον: Worthy of (genitive) ἐλεύθερος, -θέρα, -θερον: Free of (genitive) ἔμπειρος, -ον: Experienced in, Acquainted with (genitive) ἱερός, -ά, -όν: Sacred to (genitive) 3. Dative 1. Indirect Object πέμπε τὰ χρήματα τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις. Send money to the Athenians. 2. Personal Agent of Perfect and Pluperfect Passive Verbs πεπαίδευμαι εὐγενεῖ διδασκάλῳ. I have been educated by a noble teacher. 3. Dative of Means/ Instrument ὁ διδάσκαλος αὐτὸς πάθει ἐδιδάχθη. The teacher himself was taught by suffering. ὁ αὐτοῦ διδάσκαλος αὐτὸν λίθοις ἔβαλλεν. His teacher used to hit him with stones. 4. Dative Time When or Place Where ταύτῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὁ πόλεμος ἐτελεύτησεν. On this day, the war ended. (ἐν) ἐκείνῃ τῇ χώρᾳ ἄρχουσιν αἱ γυναῖκες. In that country, women rule. 5. Dative of Manner οἱ κλέπται τὰ χρήματα σιγῇ ἔλαβον. The thieves took the money in silence. 6. Dative of Respect ἐκεῖνος ὁ ἀνὴρ φύσει ἄφρων. That man is by nature foolish. καλῶ τὸν εὐγενῆ πατρὶ εὐτυχῆ. I call the well-born man fortunate in his father [with respect to his father]. 7. Verbs that Take Dative Objects δουλεύω: To be a slave to (dative) πείθω(in Middle/ Passive Only): To obey (dative) 8. Adjectives that Take Dative Objects πολέμιος, -ία, -ιον: Hostile to (dative) 4. Accusative 1. Direct Object δεχώμεθα τοὺς ξένους. Let s welcome the guests. 2. Accusative of Extent of Time or Space ἔμειναν ὄκτω ἡμέρας. They stayed eight days. ὁ Ἡρακλὴς τὸν αἶγα πέντε στάδια βέβληκεν.
9 Heracles has thrown the goat five stades. 5. Vocative 1. Direct Address II. Prepositions Make sure you can recognize all the prepositions below. Pay special attention to those prepositions that can take more than one case, and be sure you know which meaning of the preposition goes with each case. A. Prepositions which Take the Genitive ἄνευ: without ἀντί: instead ἀπό: from, away from ἐκ: from, out of πρό: before, in front of χάριν: (takes preceding genitive) for the sake of B. Prepositions which Take the Dative ἅμα: at the same time as; together with ἐν: in, on σύν: with C. Prepositions which Take the Accusative εἰς: into, to; for [the purpose of] D. Prepositions which Take Multiple Cases διά (+gen.) through (+acc.) on account of κατά (+gen.) under; against (+acc.) according to μετά (+gen.) with (+acc.) after παρά (+gen.) from [the side of] (+dat.) at [the side of], at the house of (+acc.) to [the side of], beside; contrary to περί (+gen.) concerning, about (+dat.) around (+acc.) around, concerning ὑπέρ (+gen.) over, above; on behalf of
10 ὑπό (+acc.) over (of motion or measure, e.g. βάλλω τὸν λίθον ὑπὲρ τὸ ὕδωρ, "I throw the stone over the water"), beyond (+gen.) by (personal agent w/ passive); under (+dat.) under, under the power of (+acc.) under (with motion, e.g. βάλλω τὸν λίθον ὑπὸ τὴν γέφυραν, "I throw the stone under the bridge"); toward (of time) III. IV. Particles ἄν: used with Potential Optatives and in the following conditionals Fill in the Blanks: 1. Protasis of Future Vivid 2. Apodosis of Future Vivid 3. Protasis of Present 4. Apodosis of Present 5. Apodosis of Past Note: The only conditional that does not use ἄν is the. ἆρα: signals a question ἅτε: (with participle) because γάρ: for γε: at any rate, at least δή: in fact, of course εἰ/ ἐάν: if εἴθε/ εἰ γάρ: (with the optative of wish) Would that..., If only... καίπερ: although καίτοι: and further, and yet μέν...δέ: on the one hand...on the other hand; the one...the other μή: not Fill in the Blanks: Cases When μή Is Used Instead of οὐ 1. of Conditionals 2. Clauses 3. Conditional Circumstantial Participles 4. Optative of 5. Subjunctive 6. Subjunctive 7. Infinitive 8. Result Clauses 9. Present Prohibitions (i.e. to negate the present imperative) οἷα: (with participle) because ὅμως: nevertheless οὐ (οὐκ, οὐχ): not οὖν: then, therefore [Do not confuse with οὐ/ οὐκ!] τοι: let me tell you, you know; often left untranslated, as in compound οὔτοι, "not" ὡς : (with participle) on the grounds that Conjunctions
11 ἀλλά: but δέ: but ἐπεί: after, when, since ἐπειδή: after, when, since ἐπειδάν: after, when, whenever ἤ [ἤ...ἤ]: or [either... or] ἵνα: in order that καί [καί... καί]: and [both...and] μῆτε... μῆτε: neither...nor ὅπως: in order that ὅτε/ὅταν: when, whenever οὔτε...οὔτε: neither...nor τε: and ὡς: in order that ὥστε: so as, so that V. Adverbs A. Time ἀεί: always ἅμα: at the same time ἐνταῦθα: then ἔπειτα: then, thereupon νῦν: now πάλαι: long ago τότε: then B. Space ἐκεῖ: there [in that place] ἐνταῦθα: here, there C. Manner εὖ: well D. Interrogative πότε: When? πῶς: How? E. Indefinite ποτε: as some time, ever πως: in some way, in any way
12 Grammatical Constructions Know how to identify and translate all the grammatical constructions listed below. I. Purpose Clauses A. Introduced by the conjunctions,, and B. Negated by C. Primary Sequence 1. Follows main verbs in the following tenses: a. b. c. 2. Verb in the Subjunctive D. Secondary Sequence 1. Follows main verbs in the following tenses: a. b. c. 2. Verb in the Optative II. Conditionals Supply the verbs and any identifying particles or conjunctions contained in the protases and apodoses of the following conditionals: 1. Future More Vivid Protasis: Apodosis: 2. Future Less Vivid Protasis: Apodosis: 3. Present General Protasis: Apodosis: 4. Past General Protasis: Apodosis: 5. Present Contrafactual Protasis: Apodosis: 6. Past Contrafactual Protasis: Apodosis: B. Conditionals With Relative Pronouns ὅς, ἥ, ὅν C. With Temporal Conjunctions ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὅτε (ἐπειδάν, ὅταν) III. Result Clauses A. Actual Verb:
13 Case of Subject: Negative Particle: B. Natural Verb: Case of Subject: Negative Particle: IV. Independent Uses of the Subjunctive A. Hortatory Subjunctive 1 st Person Verb Present of Aorist Subjunctive Declarative Sentence Can be positive or negative (with μή) Let s. B. Deliberative Subjunctive 1 st Person Verb Present or Aorist Subjunctive Can be positive or negative (with μή) Shall I/ Shall we...? C. Prohibitive Subjunctive 2 nd or 3 rd Person Verb AORIST Subjunctive Only NEGATIVE ONLY (with μή) Used instead of negative aorist imperative Don t...! / May he/she/it/they not...! V. Independent Uses of the Optative A. Optative of Wish 1. Can (but does not have to) be introduced by εἴθε or εἰ γὰρ 2. Negated by μή 3. Would that... / If only... B. Potential Optative 1. Optative plus ἄν 2. Negated by οὐ 3. could/ would/ may/ might VI. Infinitives A. Supplementary Infinitive 1. Dependent on main verb of a sentence 2. Verbs that take a supplementary infinitive ἀξιόω, to think it right that, think (someone) worthy to βούλομαι, to want δηλόω, to make clear, show διδάσκω, to teach ἐθέλω, to be willing, wish κελεύω, to order, command κωλύω, to prevent
14 παύω, to stop πείθω, to persuade B. Articular Infinitive 1. Consist of a neuter article followed by the infinitive 2. Can be used in same way as a noun 3. Translated as either an English infinitive or a gerund 4. Some examples: τὸ δουλεύειν αἰσχρόν. To be a slave is a shameful thing. μὴ βλάπτε τῷ τὰ χρῆματα κλέπτειν τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς πολίτας. Do not harm the good citizens by stealing their money. βούλομαι νικᾶν ἀντὶ τοῦ νικᾶσθαι. I want to conquer instead of being conquered. VII. Participles A. Attributive 1. Translated with an adjectival relative clause: The person who... The thing that... *Know the three different varieties of the attributive position B. Circumstantial 1. Temporal 2. Causal 3. Concessive 4. Conditional 5. Purpose 6. Genitive Absolute Good luck on the Final! (Friday, January 18, 9:15 a.m. in Sever 203)