Dialogues of the Gods

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2 Lucian s Dialogues of the Gods An Intermediate Greek Reader Greek Text with Running Vocabulary and Commentary Evan Hayes and Stephen Nimis

3 Lucian s Dialogues of the Gods: An Intermediate Greek Reader: Greek text with Running Vocabulary and Commentary First Edition 2015 by Evan Hayes and Stephen Nimis All rights reserved. Subject to the exception immediately following, this book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form (beyond copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publisher. The authors have made a version of this work available (via ) under a Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. The terms of the license can be accessed at Accordingly, you are free to copy, alter and distribute this work under the following conditions: 1. You must attribute the work to the author (but not in a way that suggests that the author endorses your alterations to the work). 2. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. 3. If you alter, transform or build up this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license as this one. ISBN-10: ISBN-13: Published by Faenum Publishing, Ltd. Cover Design: Evan Hayes Fonts: Garamond GFS Porson

4 Table of Contents Acknowledgements...ix Introduction...xi Abbreviations...xvii Dialogues of the Gods: Text and Commentary 1. (5) Prometheus and Zeus (6) Eros and Zeus (7) Zeus and Hermes (10) Ganymede and Zeus (8) Hera and Zeus (9) Hera and Zeus (11) Hephaestus and Apollo (13) Hephaestus and Zeus (12) Poseidon and Hermes (14) Hermes and Helius (19) Aphrodite and Selene (20) Aphrodite and Eros (15) Zeus, Asclepius and Heracles (16) Hermes and Apollo (17) Hermes and Apollo (18) Hera and Leto (21) Apollo and Hermes (22) Hera and Zeus (23) Aphrodite and Eros (1) Ares and Hermes (2) Pan and Hermes (3) Apollo and Dionysus (4) Hermes and Maia (24) Zeus and Helios (25) Apollo and Hermes

5 Lucian Grammatical Topics Imperatives... 7 Endings of the Second Person Singular Middle... 9 οἶδα and εἶδον The Different Meanings of αὐτός Potential Optatives General or Indefinite Clauses Perfect with Present Meaning Translating Participles Result Clauses Defective Verbs Circumstantial Participles Participles: General Principles Contrafactual Conditions General Conditions List of Verbs Glossary iv

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8 For David Russel Keys ὁ δ ἔρως βίαιόν τί ἐστι, καὶ οὐκ ἀνθρώπων μόνον ἄρχει, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡμῶν αὐτῶν ἐνίοτε. - Lucian, Dial. Deorum 6

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10 Acknowledgments The idea for this project grew out of work that we, the authors, did with support from Miami University s Undergraduate Summer Scholars Program, for which we thank Martha Weber and the Office of Advanced Research and Scholarship. The Miami University College of Arts and Science s Dean s Scholar Program allowed us to continue work on the project and for this we are grateful to the Office of the Dean, particularly to Phyllis Callahan and Nancy Arthur for their continued interest and words of encouragement. Work on the series, of which this volume is a part, was generously funded by the Joanna Jackson Goldman Memorial Prize through the Honors Program at Miami University. We owe a great deal to Carolyn Haynes, and the 2010 Honors & Scholars Program Advisory Committee for their interest and confidence in the project. The technical aspects of the project were made possible through the invaluable advice and support of Bill Hayes, Christopher Kuo, and Daniel Meyers. The equipment and staff of Miami University s Interactive Language Resource Center were a great help along the way. We are also indebted to the Perseus Project, especially Gregory Crane and Bridget Almas, for their technical help and resources. Special thanks to Mark Lightman, whose enthusiasm for these volumes early on, and especially for the works of Lucian, has inspired us to keep moving forward. We also profited greatly from advice and help on the POD process from Geoffrey Steadman. All responsibility for errors, however, rests with the authors themselves. ix

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12 Introduction The aim of this book is to make Dialogues of the Gods by Lucian of Samosata (c. 120 CE 190) accessible to intermediate students of Ancient Greek. The running vocabulary and grammatical commentary are meant to provide everything necessary to read each page, so that readers can progress through the text, improving their knowledge of Greek while enjoying one of the most entertaining authors of antiquity. The dialogues present various gods and goddesses discussing some of the most famous episodes in mythology, wittily displaying their faults and concerns. Lucian s Dialogues of the Gods is a great text for intermediate readers. The dialogues are breezy and fun to read with relatively simple sentence structure. Typical for Lucian, classical literature is the source for most of the material, with amusing takes on traditional stories and scenarios. In these vignettes the Greek gods are shown to be petty and jealous beings rather than the august gods of Homer or tragedy. Zeus figures in several of them as a promiscuous figure, now receiving some amatory advice from Eros (6), now plotting with Hermes to circumvent Hera s vigilance (7), now comforting the terrified Ganymede with promises of a better life on Olympus (10), or dueling verbally with Hera (8, 22). Zeus also settles a squabble between two of his semi-divine sons (15), and chides Helius for allowing Phaethon to drive his chariot (25). In reviewing the representation of Zeus in the Dialogues of the Gods, Berdozzo notes the prominence of his lust for power, his devotion to sensual pleasure and his defective sense of justice, features that make him much more objectionable than the representation of divinity in Homer or comedy. Berdozzo suspects an underlying criticism of religion, but one could also argue for a covert critique of secular authority, since Roman emperors regularly associated themselves with Zeus/Juppiter. Even more prominent than Zeus is Hermes, who figures in twelve dialogues; and his varied roles are discussed thoroughly be Nesselrath (2010). First are five dialogues in which Hermes is the faithful adjunct of Zeus, helping arrange his love affairs, listening to complaints about Zeus from other gods, and making excuses for Zeus (3, 4, 10, 1, 9). In 24 Hermes even complains to his mother about the burdens of his many duties. Another four dialogues represent Hermes as an interlocutor with his brother Apollo. Two of these deal with the love-life of Hephaestus, where the two gods come off as lusty teenagers. In xi

13 Lucian another, Apollo seeks sympathy from Hermes about the loss of his lover Hyacinth; in yet another Hermes explains to Apollo the arrangement the Dioscuri have made to share their immortality. Hermes figures in two other dialogues that treat material from the Homeric Hymns (11, 12), in both cases with humorous expansions. Nesselrath concludes his discussion of Hermes by noting that Lucian simply takes traditional mythic elements literally until the myths self-destruct. Along those lines it can be noted that Lucian offers unusual versions of famous stories from epic (1, 8, 17, 21), tragedy: (5, 12) and the Homeric hymns (11, 22), often implicitly critiquing the verisimilitude of traditional stories, as when Poseidon expresses disbelief at the details of the birth of Dionysus (12), or Apollo expresses surprise at the differences among siblings (23). Lucian could count on his readers knowing the traditional versions of these stories as a basis for the humor. Other times Lucian represents the gods as all too human, as when Leto and Hera insult each other s children (18), or when Asclepius and Heracles argue about who should have pride of place on Olympus (15). Some stories, such as Zeus love for Ganymede, are brought up more than once in the Dialogues; and often these same motifs can be found in other works of Lucian. Most scholars agree that this group of dialogues does not seem to cohere into a whole greater than the sum of its parts. Rather, Lucian seems to be experimenting with the dialogue form and trying out different approaches to the classical material he treats. Lucian of Samosata Little is known about the life of Lucian except what can be deduced from his numerous surviving works. By his own account, he was a professional rhetor, a sophist, trained in public speaking. As such he is a good representative of the renaissance of Greek literature in the imperial period known as the second sophistic. His Greek prose is patterned on the best Attic authors, a learned version of Greek that was more prestigious than the living lingua franca of the time, koine Greek, the Greek of the New Testament and public administration in the eastern half of the Roman Empire. His seventy works were transmitted in many manuscripts, indicating his continuous popularity in the Greek-speaking world. In the renaissance he was reintroduced to the Latin west and was widely read up to the beginning of the 20th century, when for various reasons he fell out of favor among classicists. Interest in Lucian has grown again in recent times, along with a greater interest in prose of the imperial period. xii

14 Dialogues of the Gods The Greek Text The Greek text is that of K. Jacobitz (1896), which has been digitized by the Perseus Project and made available with a Creative Commons license, as is our text. Here and there we have made minor changes to the text in the name of readability. This is not a scholarly edition; for that one should turn to the OCT of Macleod. There are two numbering systems for the dialogues reflecting two manuscript traditions. Neither set of numbers is likely to go back to the author himself. The numbers used here are from the edition of Jacobitz. The other system, found in the Loeb and elsewhere, is represented with a number in parentheses. Jacobitz lists the story of Paris judgement of the three goddesses as number 20 in his edition, but this work is quite different in character from the rest of the dialogues and is usually listed as a separate work; hence we have not included it here. Select Bibliography Bartley, Adam. Techniques of Composition in Lucian s Minor Dialogues. Hermes (2005), Berdozzo, Fabio. Die Figur des Zeus in Lukians Dialogi Deorum, in Ulrich Berner and Ilinca Tanaseanu-Döbler, edd., Religion und Kritik in der Antike (Münster: Lit, 2009), Bompaire, J. Lucien Écrivain: Imitation et Creátion. Paris, Branham, R. Bracht. Unruly Eloquence: Lucian and the Comedy of Traditions. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Deferrari, R. J. Lucian s Atticism. Hackert: Amsterdam, Dickie, Matthew. Lucian s Gods, in edd. J. N. Bremmer and A. Erskine, The Gods of Ancient Greece (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010), Householder, F. W. Literary Quotation and Allusion in Lucian. King s Crown Press: Morningside Heights, Ligota, Christopher and Letizia Panizza, ed., Lucian of Samosata Vivus et Redivivus. Warburg Institute Colloquia, 10. London/Turin: The Warburg Institute-Nino Aragno Editore, xiii

15 Lucian Marsh, David. Lucian and the Latins: Humor and Humanism in the Early Renaissance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther. Vom kleinen Meisterdieb zum vielgeplagten Götterboten : Hermes in den Göttergesprächen Lukians, in ed. Christine Schmitz, Mythos im Alltag - Alltag im Mythos : die Banalität des Alltags in unterschiedlichen literarischen Verwendungskontexten (München: Fink, 2010), How to use this book The page by page vocabularies gloss all but the most common words. We have endeavored to make these glossaries as useful as possible without becoming fulsome. A glossary of frequently occurring vocabulary, which are either not glossed at all or are not glossed in every occurrence, can be found as an appendix in the back, but it is our hope that most readers will not need to use this appendix often. There is also a list of verbs used by Lucian that have unusual forms in an appendix; the principal parts of those verbs are given there rather than in the glossaries. The commentary is almost exclusively grammatical, explaining subordinate clauses, unusual verb forms, and idioms. Brief summaries of a number of grammatical and morphological topics, listed in the table of contents, are interspersed through the text as well. A good reading strategy is to read a passage in Greek, check the glossary for unusual words and consult the commentary as a last resort. An Important Disclaimer: This volume is a self-published Print on Demand (POD) book, and it has not been vetted or edited in the usual way by publishing professionals. There are sure to be some factual and typographical errors in the text, for which we apologize in advance. The volume is also available only through online distributors, since each book is printed when ordered online. However, this publishing channel and format also account for the low price of the book; and it is a simple matter to make changes when they come to our attention. For this reason, any corrections or suggestions for improvement are welcome and will be addressed as quickly as possible in future versions of the text. Please corrections or suggestions to xiv

16 About the Authors: Dialogues of the Gods Evan Hayes is a recent graduate in Classics and Philosophy at Miami University and the 2011 Joanna Jackson Goldman Scholar. Stephen Nimis is Emeritus Professor of Classics at Miami University and Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the American University in Cairo. xv

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18 xvii Abbreviations abs. absolute acc. accusative act. active adj. adjective adv. adverb aor. aorist app. apposition artic. articular attrib. attributive circum. circumstantial com. command comp. comparison dat. dative delib. deliberative f. feminine fut. future gen. genitive i.e. id est ( that is ) imper. imperative impf. imperfect ind. indirect indic. indicative inf. infinitive intr. intransitive m. masculine mid. middle neut. neuter neg. negative nom. nominative obj. object opt. optative part. participle pass. passive perf. perfect pl. plural plupf. pluperfect pot. potential pred. predicate pres. present pron. pronoun purp. purpose quest. question s. singular sc. scilicet ( supply ) st. statement subj. subjunctive suppl. supplementary voc. vocative

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20 ΛΟΥΚΙΑΝΟΥ ΘΕΩΝ ΔΙΑΛΟΓΟΙ Lucian s Dialogues of the Gods

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22 1. (5) Prometheus and Zeus Prometheus, chained to the Caucasus and condemned to have his immortal liver gouged by an eagle every day, begs Zeus for mercy. Although still angry, Zeus relents when Prometheus reveals his secret that the child of Thetis will surpass his own father. ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΣ: Λῦσόν με, ὦ Ζεῦ: δεινὰ γὰρ ἤδη πέπονθα. ΖΕΥΣ: Λύσω σε, φῄς, ὃν ἐχρῆν βαρυτέρας πέδας ἔχοντα καὶ τὸν Καύκασον ὅλον ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς ἐπικείμενον, ὑπὸ ἑκκαίδεκα γυπῶν μὴ μόνον κείρεσθαι τὸ ἧπαρ, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἐξορύττεσθαι, ἀνθ ὧν ἡμῖν τοιαῦθτα ζῷα, τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ἔπλασας, καὶ τὸ πῦρ βαρύς, -εῖα, -ύ: heavy γύψ, γύπος, ἡ: a vulture δεινός, -ή, -όν: fearful, terrible ἑκκαίδεκα: sixteen ἐξορύττω: to dig out ἐπίκειμαι: to be laid upon ζῷον, τό: a living being, animal ἤδη: already ἧπαρ, -ατος, τό: a liver Καύκασος, ὁ: Mt. Caucasus κείρω: to cut, tear κεφαλή, ἡ: a head λύω: to loose, release ὅλος, -η, -ον: whole, entire ὀφθαλμός, ὁ: an eye πάσχω: to suffer πέδη, ἡ: a fetter, chain πλάττω: to form, mould, shape πῦρ, τό: fire τοιοῦτος, -αύτη, -οῦτο: such as this λῦσον: aor. imper., release me! πέπονθα: perf. of πάσχω, I have suffered λύσω: fut. in rhetorical question, shall I free you? ἐχρῆν: impf. impersonal, you, whom it would be necessary to + inf. ἔχοντα: pres. part. acc., you having heavier chains ἐπικείμενον: perf. part. acc., the Caucasus having been laid over your head μὴ μόνον... ἀλλὰ καὶ: not only... but also κείρεσθαι... ἐξορύττεσθαι: pres. inf. pass. after ἐχρῆν, it would be necessary to be torn... to be gouged τὸ ἧπαρ... τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς: acc. of respect, eviscerated in liver and eyes ἀνθ ὧν: here = ἀντὶ τοῦτων ὅτι, in exchange for these things, namely that i.e., because τοιαῦθ ἡμῖν ζῷα: pred. acc., humans to be such creatures to us ἔπλασας: aor., because you formed humans, but Prometheus is not usually the creator of humans 3

23 Lucian ἔκλεψας, καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας ἐδημιούργησας; ἃ μὲν γὰρ ἐμὲ ἐξηπάτησας ἐν τῇ διανομῇ τῶν κρεῶν, ὀστᾶ πιμελῇ κεκαλυμμένα μοι παραθεὶς, καὶ τὴν ἀμείνω τῶν μοιρῶν σεαυτῷ φυλάττων, τί χρὴ λέγειν; ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΣ: Οὔκουν ἱκανὴν ἤδη τὴν δίκην ἐκτέτικα τοσοῦτον χρόνον τῷ Καυκάσῳ προσηλωμένος τὸν κάκιστα ὀρνέων ἀπολούμενον αἰετὸν τρέφων τῷ ἥπατι; ΖΕΥΣ: Οὐδὲ πολλοστημόριον τοῦτο, ὧν σε δεῖ παθεῖν. αἰετός, -οῦ, ὁ: an eagle κλέπτω: to steal ἀμείνων, -ον: better κρέας, τό: flesh, meat, a piece of meat ἀπόλλυμι: to destroy utterly, kill, slay μοῖρα, -ας, ἡ: a part, portion γυνή, -αίκος, ἡ: a woman ὄρνεον, τό: a bird δεῖ: it is necessary ὀστέον, τό: a bone δημιουργέω: to fabricate οὔκουν: not therefore, so not διανομή, ἡ: a distribution παρατίθημι: to place beside δίκη, ἡ: a fine, penalty πιμελή, ἡ: soft fat, lard ἐκτίνω: to pay off, pay in full πολλοστημόριος, -ον: many times smaller ἐξαπατάω: to deceive thoroughly προσηλόω: to nail, pin ἱκανός, -η, -ον: sufficient τρέφω: to nourish κακός, -ή, -όν: bad φυλάττω: to keep guard καλύπτω: to cover, hide χρόνος, ὁ: time ἔκλεψας: aor., you stole fire, Prometheus most famous feat; cf. Hesiod, Theogony 560ff ἐδημιούργησας: aor., you fabricated women, although this feat too was not typically attributed to Prometheus ἐν τῇ διανομῇ: in the distribution of meat, one of Prometheus most famous tricks, providing an explanation for the serving of bones to the gods (and the meat to the men). Cf. Hesiod Theogony, 637ff πιμελῇ: dat. of means, hidden with fat κεκαλυμμένα: perf. part. acc., the bones that were hidden παραθεὶς: aor. part. instrumental, deceived by having served τὴν ἀμείνω (=ἀμείνο(ν)α): the better of the portions φυλάττων: pres. part. instrumental, you deceived by keeping ἐκτέτικα: perf. of ἐκ-τίνω, I have paid τοσοῦτον χρόνον: acc. of duration, for such a long time προσηλωμένος: perf. part. mid., having had you nailed ἀπολούμενον: fut. part. acc. of ἀπόλλυμι indicating purpose, the eagle intending to destroy τῷ ἥπατι: dat. of means, nourishing with my liver παθεῖν: aor. inf. of πάσχω after δεῖ, necessary to suffer 4

24 Dialogues of the Gods ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΣ: Καὶ μὴν οὐκ ἀμισθί με λύσεις, ὦ Ζεῦ, ἀλλά σοι μηνύσω τι πάνυ ἀναγκαῖον. ΖΕΥΣ: Κατασοφίζῃ με, ὦ Προμηθεῦ. ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΣ: Καὶ τί πλέον ἕξω; οὐ γὰρ ἀγνοήσεις αὖθις ἔνθα ὁ Καύκασός ἐστιν, οὐδὲ ἀπορήσεις δεσμῶν, ἤν τι τεχνάζων ἁλίσκωμαι. ΖΕΥΣ: Εἰπὲ πρότερον ὅν τινα μισθὸν ἀποτίσεις ἀναγκαῖον ἡμῖν ὄντα. ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΣ: Ἢν εἴπω ἐφ ὅ τι βαδίζεις νῦν, ἀξιόπιστος ἔσομαί σοι καὶ περὶ τῶν ὑπολοίπων μαντευόμενος; ΖΕΥΣ: Πῶς γὰρ οὔ; ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΣ: Παρὰ τὴν Θέτιν, συνεσόμενος αὐτῇ. ἀγνοέω: not to perceive or know ἁλίσκομαι: to be taken, caught ἀμισθί: without reward ἀναγκαῖος, -α, -ον: necessary ἀξιόπιστος, -ον: trustworthy ἀπορέω: to be without (+ gen.) ἀποτίνω: to pay back, repay, return αὖθις: again βαδίζω: to go slowly, to walk δεσμός, ὁ: a band, fetter εἶπον: to speak, say (aor.) ἔνθα: there, where Θέτις, ἡ: Thetis κατασοφίζομαι: to outwit μαντεύομαι: to prophesy, presage μηνύω: to disclose what is secret μισθός, ὁ: wages, pay, hire πάνυ: altogether, entirely πλέων, πλέον: more πρότερον: prior, first σύνειμι: to be together with, consort τεχνάζω: to employ art ὑπόλοιπος, -ον: left behind, staying behind ἕξω: fut. of ἔχω, what more will I have? i.e. what good will that do? ἤν... ἁλίσκωμαι: pres. subj. in future more vivid protasis, if I am caught τεχνάζων: pres. part. supplementing ἁλίσκωμαι, am caught tricking ἀποτίσεις: fut. in ind. quest., tell me what reward you will pay ἀναγκαῖον: acc. pred., what pay being necessary to me ἢν εἴπω: aor. subj. in future more vivid protasis, If I say ἐφ ὅ: say the thing about which ἔσομαι: fut., will I be? παρὰ τὴν Θέτιν (sc. βαδίζεις): (you are going) to Thetis συνεσόμενος: fut. mid. part. of συν-εἰμι expressing purpose, going in order to consort with + dat. 5

25 Lucian ΖΕΥΣ: Τουτὶ μὲν ἔγνως. τί δ οὖν τὸ ἐπὶ τούτῳ; δοκεῖς γὰρ τι ἀληθές ἐρεῖν. ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΣ: Μηδέν, ὦ Ζεῦ, κοινωνήσῃς τῇ Νηρηΐδι: ἢν γὰρ αὕτη κυοφορήσῃ ἐκ σοῦ, τὸ τεχθὲν ἴσα ἐργάσεταί σε, οἷα καὶ σὺ ἔδρασας τὸν Κρόνον. ΖΕΥΣ: Τοῦτο φῄς, ἐκπεσεῖσθαί με τῆς ἀρχῆς; ΠΡΟΜΗΘΕΥΣ: Μὴ γένοιτο, ὦ Ζεῦ. πλὴν τοιοῦτό τι ἡ μῖξις αὐτῆς ἀπειλεῖ. ΖΕΥΣ: Χαιρέτω τοιγαροῦν ἡ Θέτις: σὲ δὲ ὁ Ἥφαιστος ἐπὶ τούτοις λυσάτω. ἀληθής, -ές: unconcealed, true ἀπειλέω: to threaten ἀρχή, ἡ: a beginning, rule γιγνώσκω: to know, to perceive δράω: to do ἐκπίπτω: to fall from (+ gen.) ἐργάζομαι: to work, enact ἐρέω: to say (fut.) Ἥφαιστος, ὁ: Hephaestus ἴσος, -η, -ον: equal to, the same as κοινωνέω: to consort with κυοφορέω: to become pregnant μῖξις, ἡ: a mixing, intercourse Νηρηΐς, Νηρηΐδος, ἡ: a Nereid, i.e. Thetis οἷος, -α, -ον: what sort of τίκτω: to give birth to τοιγαροῦν: therefore, accordingly χαίρω: to rejoice, fare well ἔγνως: aor., you knew τὸ ἐπὶ τούτῳ: what is the thing in addition to this? μηδέν... κοινωνήσῃς: aor. subj. in prohibition, consort with her not at all ἢν... κυοφορήσῃ: aor. subj. in fut. more vivid protasis, if she becomes pregnant τὸ τεχθὲν: aor. part. pass., the one born ἴσα... οἷα: correlatives, the same things which you did i.e. just as Zeus overthrew his own father, Cronos ἔδρασας: aor. of δράω, which you did ἐκπεσεῖσθαι: fut. inf. mid. of εκ-πίπτω πίπτω, in apposition to τοῦτο, this, namely that I will fall from + gen. μὴ γένοιτο: aor. opt. in wish for the future, may it not happen! τοιοῦτό τι: acc., threatens some such outcome χαιρέτω: pres. 3 sing. imper., let her fare well! i.e. goodbye! λυσάτω: aor. 3 sing. imper., let Hephaestus release! 6

26 2. (6) Eros and Zeus Zeus complains to Eros that his love life is humiliating. Eros gives him some advice. ΕΡΩΣ: Ἀλλ εἰ καί τι ἥμαρτον, ὦ Ζεῦ, σύγγνωθί μοι: παιδίον γάρ εἰμι καὶ ἔτι ἄφρων. ΖΕΥΣ: Σὺ παιδίον, ὁ Ἔρως, ἀρχαιότερος ὤν πολὺ Ἰαπετοῦ; ἢ διότι μὴ πώγωνα, μηδὲ πολιὰς ἔφυσας, διὰ ταῦτα καὶ βρέφος ἀξιοῖς νομίζεσθαι γέρων καὶ πανοῦργος ὤν; ἁμαρτάνω: to miss, err ἀξιόω: to deem worthy (+ inf.) ἀρχαῖος, -α, -ον: old ἄφρων, -ον: without sense βρέφος, -ους, τό: a baby γέρων, -οντος, ὁ: an old man διότι: for the reason that, since Ἰαπετός, ὁ: Iapetus νομίζω: to consider, believe παιδίον, τό: a little child πανοῦργος, -ον: villainous πολιάς, -άδος, ἡ: a grey-haired person πώγων, -ωνος, ὁ: a beard συγγιγνώσκω: to forgive φύω: to grow, become by nature ἥμαρτον: aor. in simple protasis, if I erred σύγγνωθι: aor. imper., forgive me! Ἰαπετοῦ: gen. of comp., older than Iapetus, the father of Prometheus; the expression is proverbial; see Hesiod Theogony 134 ἔφυσας: note the two senses, because you have not grown a beard nor become grey ὤν: pres. part. concessive, even though being old Imperatives There are many more imperatives in Lucian s dialogues, so it is worth reviewing their forms. Here is the regular conjugation of the present and first aorist illustrated with λύω: Present Imperative Aorist Imperative Number Person Active Middle / Passive Active Middle Passive Singular Plural 2nd 3rd 2nd 3rd λῦε λύετο λύετε λυόντων λύου (from ε-σο) λυέσθω λύεσθε λυέσθων The imperatives of second aorist verbs regularly take the same endings as the present imperative: λάβε, λαβέτω, etc. The perfect imperative is rare, but note μέμνησο (remember!) and δέδιθι (fear!). 7 λῦσον λυσάτω λύσατε λυάντων λύσαι λυσάσθω λύασθε λύάσθων λύθητι λύθήτω λύθητε λυθέντων

27 Lucian ΕΡΩΣ: Τί δαί σε μέγα ἠδίκησα ὁ γέρων, ὡς φῂς ἐγώ, διότι με καὶ πεδῆσαι διανοῇ; ΖΕΥΣ: Σκόπει, ὦ κατάρατε, εἰ μικρά, ὃς ἐμοὶ μὲν οὕτως ἐντρυφᾷς, ὥστε μηδέν ἐστιν ὃ μὴ πεποίηκάς με, σάτυρον, ταῦρον, χρυσόν, κύκνον, αἰετόν: ἐμοῦ δὲ ὅλως οὐδεμίαν ἥντινα ἐρασθῆναι πεποίηκας, οὐδὲ συνῆκα ἡδὺς γυναικὶ διὰ σὲ γεγενημένος, ἀλλά με δεῖ μαγγανεύειν ἐπ αὐτὰς, καὶ κρύπτειν ἐμαυτόν: αἱ δὲ, τὸν μὲν ταῦρον, ἢ κύκνον φιλοῦσιν, ἐμὲ δὲ ἢν ἴδωσι, τεθνᾶσιν ὑπὸ τοῦ δέους. ἀδικέω: to do wrong κύκνος, ὁ: a swan αἰετός, -οῦ, ὁ: an eagle μαγγανεύω: to use charms or philtres γυνή, γυναικος, ἡ: a woman μικρός, -ά, -όν: small, little δαί: what? how? (strengthens τί) πεδάω: to bind with fetters δέος, δέους, τό: fear, alarm, affright ποιέω: to make διανοέω: have in mind to (+ inf.) σάτυρος, ὁ: a satyr ἐντρυφάω: to treat contemptuously σκοπέω: to look at or after ἐράω: to love (+ gen.) συνίημι: to understand ἡδύς, -εῖα, -υ: sweet ταῦρος, ὁ: a bull κατάρατος, -ον: accursed, abominable φιλέω: to love κρύπτω: to hide, cover, cloak χρυσός, ὁ: gold δαί: strengthening τί, what in the world? ὁ γέρων: attributive, I, who am an old man διότι... διανοῇ: pres. 2 sing. mid. causal, since you plan to + inf. εἰ μικρά: ind. quest. after σκόπει, consider whether these are small things οὕτως... ὥστε: you abuse me in such a way... so that πεποίηκας: perf., which you have made me σάτυρον... ἀετόν: in pursuit respectively of Antiope, Europa, Danae, Leda and Ganymede (see DMort 4) ὅλως: completely i.e. as just Zeus himself ἐρασθῆναι: aor. inf. pass. after πεποίηκας, you have caused no one to fall in love οὐδὲ συνῆκα: aor. of συν-ἵημι ἵημι, nor did I understand γεγενημένος: perf. part. in ind. st. after συνῆκα, understand that I had become desirable αἱ δὲ: but they i.e. the women ἢν ἴδωσι: aor. subj. in present general protasis, if ever they see me ὑπὸ τοῦ δέους: by fear, using the agency expression 8

28 Dialogues of the Gods ΕΡΩΣ: Εἰκότως: οὐ γὰρ φέρουσιν, ὦ Ζεῦ, θνηταὶ οὖσαι τὴν σὴν πρόσοψιν. ΖΕΥΣ: Πῶς οὖν τὸν Ἀπόλλω ὁ Βράγχος καὶ ὁ Ὑάκινθος φιλοῦσιν; Βράγχος, ὁ: Branchus εἰκότως: in all likelihood, reasonably θνητός, -ή, -όν: mortal πρόσοψις, -εως, ἡ: an appearance, aspect Ὑάκινθος, ὁ: Hyacinthus φέρω: to bear, endure οὖσαι: pres. part. causal, since they are mortal ὁ Βράγχος: son of Smyrcus and lover of Apollo ὁ Ὑάκινθος: lover of Apollo tragically slain by accident Endings of the Second Person Singular Middle The regular middle-passive endings in the singular are as follows: primary secondary -μαι -μην -σαι -σο -ται -το The endings of the second person middle (-σαι, -σο) undergo changes when preceded by the thematic vowel -ε- in the conjugation of verbs like παὺομαι. Specifically, the intervocalic -σ- drops out and the vowels contract: εσαι εαι ῃ (sometimes spelled ει) and εσο εο ου. Compare the following: κεῖμαι παύομαι ἐκείμην ἐπαυόμην κεῖσαι παύῃ ἐκείσο ἐπαύου κεῖται παύεται ἐκείτο ἐπαύετο Contract verbs undergo further changes in the present system, producing an ending that can sometimes be confused with active endings. θεῶμαι ποιοῦμαι δηλοῦμαι ἐθεώμην ἐποιούμην ἐδηλούμην θεᾷ ποιῇ δηλοῖ ἐθεῶ ἐποιοῦ ἐδηλοῦ θεᾶται ποιεῖται δηλοῦται ἐθέατο ἐποίειτο ἐδηλοῦτο Particularly noteworthy is that the 2 s. middle primary ending is identical to the 3 s. active ending of the subjunctive, in both contract and uncontracted verbs. Note also the effect of the loss of intervocalic -σ- in the present middle imperative of contract verbs: τιμάε-σο τιμά-εο τιμῶ ποιέ-εσο ποιέ-εο ποιοῦ δηλό-εσο δηλό-εο δηλοῦ and the first aorist of παύομαι: ἐπαύσα-σοσο ἐπαύσα-ο ἐπαύσω 9

29 Lucian ΕΡΩΣ: Ἀλλὰ ἡ Δάφνη κἀκεῖνον ἔφευγε, καίτοι κομήτην καὶ ἀγένειον ὄντα. εἰ δ ἐθέλεις ἐπέραστος εἶναι, μὴ ἐπίσειε τὴν αἰγίδα μηδὲ τὸν κεραυνὸν φέρε, ἀλλ ὡς ἥδιστον ποίει σεαυτὸν, ἁπαλὸν καὶ καλὸν ὀφθῆναι ἑκατέρωθε καθειμένον βοστρύχους, τῇ μίτρᾳ τούτους ἀνειλημμένους, πορφυρίδα ἔχε, ὑποδέου χρυσίδας, ὑπ αὐλῷ καὶ τυμπάνοις εὔρυθμα βαῖνε, καὶ ὄψει ὅτι πλείους ἀκολουθήσουσί σοι τῶν Διονύσου Μαινάδων. ἀγένειος, -ον: beardless κεραυνός, ὁ: a thunderbolt αἰγίς, -δος, ἡ: the aegis or shield of Zeus κομήτης, -ου, ὁ: wearing long hair ἀκολουθέω: to follow Μαινάς, -άδος, ἡ: a Maenad, a companion of ἀναλαμβάνω: to take into one s hands Dionysus ἁπαλός, -η, -ον: tender μίτρα, ἡ: a belt or girdle αὐλός, ὁ: a pipe πλεῖος, πλεῖον: more βόστρυχος, ὁ: a curl or lock of hair πορφυρίς, -ίδος, ἡ: a purple garment or ἐθέλω: to will, wish (+ inf.) covering ἑκατέρωθε: on each side τύμπανος, ὁ: a tambourine ἐπέραστος, -ον: lovely, amiable ὑποδέω: to bind or fasten under ἐπισείω: to shake at or against φεύγω: to flee εὔρυθμος, -ον: rhythmical χρυσίς, -ίδος, ἡ: something golden καθίημι: to let fall down ἡ Δάφνη: pursued unsuccessfully by Apollo, she was turned into a laurel tree καίτοι... ὄντα: pres. part. acc. concessive, that one, even though being ὡς ἥδιστον: as attractive as possible ὀφθῆναι: aor. pass. inf. of ὁράω after καλὸν, beautiful to be seen καθειμένον: pres. part., letting fall down ἀνειλημμένος: perf. part. of ἀνα-λαμβάνω, having tied them up ὑποδέου: pres. imper. mid., bind on below golden (shoes)! εὔρυθμα: neut. pl. used adverbially, go rhythmically ὄψει: fut. mid. of ὁράω, you will see πλείους: nom. pl., that more will follow 10

30 Dialogues of the Gods ΖΕΥΣ: Ἄπαγε, οὐκ ἂν δεξαίμην ἐπέραστος εἶναι τοιοῦτος γενόμενος. ΕΡΩΣ: Οὐκοῦν, ὦ Ζεῦ, μηδὲ ἐρᾶν θέλε: ῥᾴδιον γὰρ τοῦτό γε. ΖΕΥΣ: Οὔκ, ἀλλ ἐρᾶν μέν, ἀπραγμονέστερον δ αὐτῶν ἐπιτυγχάνειν: ἐπὶ τούτοις αὐτοῖς ἀφίημί σε. ἄπαγε: away! go on! ἀπράγμων, -ον: free from trouble ἀφίημι: to send forth, discharge δέχομαι: to take, accept, receive ἐπέραστος, -ον: lovely, amiable οὐκ ἂν δεξαίμην: aor. opt. in future less vivid apodosis, I would not accept + inf. γενόμενος: aor. part. representing the optative in a future less vivid protasis, if I were to become such ἐρᾶν: complementing θέλε, don t wish to love ἀπραγμονέστερον: acc. adverbial, with less trouble ἐπὶ τούτοις: on these conditions Future Conditions The future less vivid condition indicates a future action as a possibility; The future more vivid condition indicates a future action as a probability. More vivid: ἐ ὰ ν (Attic contraction = ἤ ν or ἂ ν) plus subjunctive in the protasis, future indicative or equivalent in the apodosis: in English if he does this... then he will... ἤν εἴπω ἐφ ὅ τι βαδίζεις νῦν, ἀξιόπιστος ἔσομαί σοι: If I tell you why you are now traveling, will I be worthy of your trust? Less vivid: εἰ plus optative in the protasis, ἂ ν plus the optative in the apodosis: in English: If he were to... then he would... οὐκ ἂν δεξαίμην ἐπέραστος εἶναι τοιοῦτος γενόμενος. I would not agree to be loved if I were to become (where the aorist participle represents an aorist optative) Lucian often mixes a future more vivid apodosis with a future less vivid protasis: τοῦτ αὐτό μοι τὸ ἥδιστον ποιήσεις, εἰ ἀγρυπνήσαιμι μετὰ σοῦ φιλῶν πολλάκις καὶ περιπτύσσων. This you will do most sweetly for me, if I were to be sleepless with you, kissing and embracing. The future indicative can be used in the protasis, producing a condition even more vivid than the future more vivid conditions, often used in threats. This is called the future emotional condition by Smyth. εἰ μὴ παύσῃ λοιδορούμενός μοι, αὐτίκα μάλα εἴσῃ ὅτι οὐ πολύ σε ὀνήσει ἡ ἀθανασία: If you don t cease abusing me (i.e. and you had better!), you will know right away that your immortality will not benefit you. 11 ἐπιτυγχάνω: to happen upon θέλω: to will, wish ῥᾴδιος, -α, -ον: easy τοιοῦτος, -αύτη, -οῦτο: such as this

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