LESSON TWENTY: VERB STEM IN RELATIONSHIP TO PRESENT TENSE STEM. Memorization of Vocabulary 20 (also includes vocabulary of 1 John 1:5-10)

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1 LESSON TWENTY: VERB STEM IN RELATIONSHIP TO PRESENT TENSE STEM Memorization of Vocabulary 20 (also includes vocabulary of 1 John 1:5-10) ἀγγελια message ἁγιαζω I make holy, sanctify ἀδικια unrighteousness αἷµα blood ἀληθεια truth ἀλληλων one another in genitive form (see, under pronouns) ἁµαρτανω I sin ἁµαρτια sin ἀναγγελλω Ι report, proclaim ἀρεσκω I strive to please, accommodate αὐτη this (feminine) see pronouns ἀφιηµι Ι forgive, pardon (one of the µι verbs) βαλλω I throw δικαιος righteous ἑαυτους ourselves as it has πλανωµεν with it. καθαριζω Ι make clean, cleanse, purify καλυπτω Ι cover, hide, conceal κραζω I cry out, scream λεγω Ι say (aorist is εἰπον) οὐδεµια not at all (οὐ - not, δε - even, µια - one in feminine) ὁµολογεω Ι confess πασης genitive of πας - all, every (see 3 rd declension adjectives) περιπατεω Ι walk, conduct myself πιστος faithful σκοτια darkness, gloom (feminine) σκοτος darkness, gloom (neuter) 3 rd declension τινω Ι pay, undergo φυλασσω active voice: I watch, guard, defend middle voice: be on guard against. avoid, look out for φως light (3 rd declension; dative singular is φωτι) ψευδοµαι I lie, tell falsehood ψευστης liar ὡς as A. Introduction By definition, verb stem is that part of the verb to which is added prefixes (for example, augment or reduplication) and suffixes (for example, signs of tense or 1

2 voice, and endings). With some verbs like λυω, the present tense stem is the same as verb stem. In others, however, the present tense stem is a modified form (usually by lengthening) modified from the verb stem. It is important to be aware of the verb stems because the prefixes and suffixes of other tenses (apart from the present and the imperfect) of the same verb are added to the verb stem (and not the present tense stem) and this could cause difficulties in figuring out a form where the verb stem is different from the present tense stem. As a general rule, the present tense stem is found in the present tense (all voices and moods) and in the imperfect (all voices but only indicative mood) while the verb stem is used in the other tenses. An example is the verb βαλλω that we used to show the difference between the imperfect and the 2 nd aorist (see lesson six). What we have in the imperfect (βαλλ ) is present tense stem while what we have in the 2 nd aorist (βαλ ) is verb stem. The present tense stem has been lengthened from the verb stem, and it is the one we memorize our vocabulary in (that is, the present indicative form). As a general principle, if one wants to know the verb stem, the place to go to is the 2 nd aorist, if a verb has one. The formula would then be: 1. Get the 2 nd aorist form: for example, for λαµβανω (I take) is ἐλαβον, for ἁµαρτανω (I sin) is ἡµαρτον, ἀποθνησκω (I die) is ἀπεθανον. 2. Remove the augment and ending. For example, in ε/λαβ/ον, remove first and last parts, getting λαβ (the verb stem); for η/µαρτ/ον, the augment is by lengthening vowel α in αµαρτανω to η and so to work towards the stem, we shorten it back (η > α), remove the ending -ον and we end up with αµαρτ as stem, and for απε/θαν/ον, we know that we have a preposition απο at the beginning of the word and so we leave that out together with the augment, remove the ending -ον and we are left with θαν as stem. For the purpose of trying to gain an understanding of the verb stem in relationship to the present tense stem, we can observe as a general principle, that present tense stems have been formed from the verb stem in one way or another. Thus: B. Patterns of Change (or no change) of Verb stem to Present tense stem 1. Maintaining in the present tense the same stem as we have in the verb stem, for example, λυω. These create minor difficulties in trying to remember their principal parts. 2. Adding a consonantal ι (that is, y sound). This has phonetic consequences that may not look obvious from the present tense form. Note the following for example: a. The verb φυλασσω comes from verb stem φυλακ to which is added the y sound (ι) before the personal endings. Thus φυλακ ι ω for first person 2

3 singular. However, κι between two vowels (φυλα/κι/ω, in this case the α before the κ in the verb stem and the personal ending ω) becomes σσ. Thus, the vocabulary word, φυλασσω. Since φυλακ is the verb stem, it means the future is φυλακ+σ+ω = φυλαξω and the 1 st aorist is ε/φυλακ+σ+α = εφυλαξα b. The verb αγιαζω is from the verb stem αγιαδ. Since δι between two vowels (αγια/δι/ω) become ζ, we end up with ἁγιαζω for present tense stem. It is also important to note that: 1) δ before σ (as we have in future and aorist tenses) and κ (as we have it in perfect and pluperfect tenses) disappears. Future of ἁγιαζω would be αγια/δ/σ/ω. As the δ disappears, we end up with ἁγιασω. The 1 st aorist is ηγιασα, resulting from αγιαδ/σ/α, with lengthening of vowel to take care of the augment requirement. Relate this to aorist form of αγνιζω; future and aorist forms of δοκιµαζω; future and aorist forms of καθαριζω as provided in appendix one at the end of this work (lesson twenty two) 2) δ before µ (as we have it in perfect middle) and θ (as we have in aorist passive) becomes σ. Thus (for ἁγιαζω whose stem is αγιαδ ) the perfect middle/passive is ηγιασµαι (resulting from αγιαδ/µαι and lengthening of vowel for augment requirement). Τhe aorist passive is ἡγιασθην (resulting from αγιαδ/θην). c. The verb κραζω is from the verb stem κραγ. Then follows: κραγ ι ω and as γι between two vowels becomes ζ we end up with κραζω. Relating this to φυλασσω (whose verb stem is φυλακ) under number a above, we note that when the y sound is added to a guttural (κ in the case of φυλασσω or γ as in the case of κραζω) we end up with either σσ or ζ. This is observable in such other verbs as κηρυσσω (I proclaim, preach, whose future and aorist forms are κηρυξω and εκηρυξα, respectively) and πατασσω (I strike, whose future and aorist forms are παταξω and επαταξα, respectively) d. The verb βαλλω is from the verb stem βαλ. As λι between two vowels becomes λλ, we have the stem βαλλ in the present (and imperfect indicative). This is the same thing that happens for a verb like στελλω. Beginning with stem στελ, consonantal iota (ι) is added, ending (together with the personal ending) with στελ/ι/ω. With the consonantal iota effecting the doubling of the λ, the present tense stem becomes στελλω. Note the single λ in the future but double λ (λλ) in the present of other verbs like ἀναγγελλω and ἀπαγγελλω in appendix one (lesson twenty nine) 3

4 As a summary, and in all cases assuming they are placed between two vowels: κ and χ + the y sound (ι) = σσ δ + ι = ζ γ + ι = ζ λ + ι = λλ e. For the verbs that have stem ending in ρ, the effect of the consonantal iota is the lengthening of the vowel of the stem. Beginning with verb stem αρ, we add the consonantal iota and personal ending to get αρ/ι/ω. The effect of the consonantal iota is the lengthening of vowel α of the stem to αι. Thus, αἰρω as present tense. 3. Addition of a τ to the verbal stem, usually ending in a labial (π, β, φ). For example, the future of καλυπτω is καλυψω (from καλυπ plus σ ω) since the τ is an addition to form the present tense stem. 4. Addition of ν, αν, νε, νυ, νι to the verbal stem. For example, future of τινω ( is τισω (showing that the future adds the σ to τι, not to τιν) and aorist of ἁµαρτανω is ἡµαρτον (showing addition of αν to the verb stem αµαρτ ). 5. Addition of σκ, ισκ. For example, the future of ἀρεσκω is ἀρεσω. Some of them may have reduplication also. For example, γινωσκω from γι γνω σκω. That is why we have the perfect as εγνωκα. Exercise 20: Do a translation of 1 John 1:5-10, paying close attention to all that has been learned so far. 1:5 Καὶ ἔστιν αὕτη ἡ ἀγγελία ἣν ἀκηκόαµεν ἀπ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀναγγέλλοµεν ὑµῖν, ὅτι ὁ θεὸς φῶς ἐστιν καὶ σκοτία ἐν αὐτῷ οὐκ ἔστιν οὐδεµία. 6 Ἐὰν εἴπωµεν ὅτι κοινωνίαν ἔχοµεν µετ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ σκότει περιπατῶµεν, ψευδόµεθα καὶ οὐ ποιοῦµεν τὴν ἀλήθειαν 7 ἐὰν δὲ ἐν τῷ φωτὶ περιπατῶµεν ὡς αὐτός ἐστιν ἐν τῷ φωτί, κοινωνίαν ἔχοµεν µετ ἀλλήλων καὶ τὸ αἷµα Ἰησοῦ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ καθαρίζει ἡµᾶς ἀπὸ πάσης ἁµαρτίας. 8 ἐὰν εἴπωµεν ὅτι ἁµαρτίαν οὐκ ἔχοµεν, ἑαυτοὺς πλανῶµεν καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν ἡµῖν. 9 ἐὰν ὁµολογῶµεν τὰς ἁµαρτίας ἡµῶν, πιστός ἐστιν καὶ δίκαιος ἵνα ἀφῇ ἡµῖν τὰς ἁµαρτίας καὶ καθαρίσῃ ἡµᾶς ἀπὸ πάσης ἀδικίας. 10 ἐὰν εἴπωµεν ὅτι οὐχ ἡµαρτήκαµεν, ψεύστην ποιοῦµεν αὐτὸν καὶ ὁ λόγος αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν ἡµῖν. Some further help 1. ἀγγελια - message 2. ἣν - form of ἣ 4

5 3. ἀναγγελλοµεν - form of αναγγελλω (proclaim, report) (cf. λυοµεν) 4. ὅτι - that (for three usages of ὃτι, see miscellaneous) 5. φως - light (3 rd declension) 6. ἐστιν - form of ειµι 7. σκοτια - darkness 8. οὐδεµια - not at all (ου - not, δε - even, µια - one [fem]) 9. εἴπωµεν - form of λεγω. 2 nd aorist indicative is ειπον 10. σκοτει - form of σκοτος ( darkness 3 rd declension 11. περιπατωµεν - form of περιπατεω (I walk, go about) 12. ψευδοµεθα - form of ψευδοµαι (I lie, tell falsehood) 13. ποιουµεν - form of ποιεω (I do, make) 14. ἀληθειαν - form of αληθεια (truth) 15. ἀλληλων - genitive of αλληλους (accusative one another) 16. αἳµα - blood (3 rd declension) 17. καθαριζει - form of καθαριζω (I make clean, cleanse, purify) 18. πασης - genitive of πας ( all ) 19. ἁµαρτιας - form of αµαρτια ( sin, agrees with the article τας) 20. ἑαυτους - plural of εαυτον (accusative singular reflexive pronoun [himself]) 21. πλανωµεν - form of πλαναω (I deceive) 22. ὁµολογωµεν - formed from οµολογεω (I confess) 23. πιστος - faithful 24. δικαιος - righteous 25. ἀφῃ - subjunctive from αφιηµι ( I forgive ) 26. ἀδικιας - form of αδικια. Agrees with adjective πασης 27. ηµαρτηκαµεν - form of αµαρτανω (I sin) 28. ψευστην - from of ψευστης (liar) Samuel M. Ngewa Africa International University 5

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