COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION E α,β (z) AND ITS DERIVATIVE. Abstract

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1 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION E α,β (z) AND ITS DERIVATIVE Rudolf Gorenflo 1, JouliaLoutchko 1 & Yuri Luchko 2 Dedicated to Francesco Mainardi, Professor at the University of Bologna, on the occasion of his 60-th birthday Abstract In this paper algorithms for numerical evaluation of the Mittag-Leffler function E α,β (z) = k=0 z k, α > 0, β R, z C Γ(β + αk) and its derivative for all values of the parameters α > 0, β R and all values of the argument z C are presented. For different parts of the complex plane different numerical techniques are used. In every case we provide estimates for accuracy of the computation; numerous pictures showing the behaviour of the Mittag- Leffler function for different values of the parameters and on different lines in the complex plane are included. The ideas und techniques employed in the paper can be used for numerical evaluation of other functions of the hypergeometric type. In particular, the same method with some small modifications can be applied for the Wright function which plays a very important role in the theory of partial differential equations of fractional order. Mathematics Subject Classification: 33E12, 65D20, 33F05, 30E15 Key Words and Phrases: Mittag-Leffler function, integral representations of special functions, numerical computation of special functions, Mathematica programs

2 2 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko The function E α (z) = 1. Introduction k=0 z k,α>0, z C, (1) Γ(1 + αk) was introduced by Mittag-Leffler in 1902 in connection with his method of summing divergent series. It is suited to serve as a very simple example of an entire function of a specified order 1/α and of normal type. Further investigations of properties of this function and its applications to various questions of mathematical analysis have been carried out by Wiman [33]-[34] and Buhl [7]. An important generalization, E α,β (z) = k=0 z k, α > 0, β C, z C, (2) Γ(β + αk) was introduced by Humbert [22], Agarwal [1], Humbert and Agarwal [23], Cleota and Hughes [9]. In recent years the interest in functions of Mittag-Leffler type among scientists, engineers and applications-oriented mathematicians has deepened. This interest is caused by the close connection of these functions to differential equations of fractional (meaning: non-integer) order and integral equations of Abel type, such equations becoming more and more popular in modelling natural and technical processes and situations (Babenko [2], Bagley and Torvik [3], Blair [4]-[5], Caputo and Mainardi [8], El-Sayed [12], Gorenflo et al. [16], Gorenflo and Mainardi [17]- [19], Gorenflo and Rutman [20], Gorenflo and Vessella [21], Luchko [24], Luchko and Srivastava [27], Mainardi [28], Schneider and Wyss [30], Slonimski [31], Westerlund and Ekstam [32]). Although there already exists a rich literature on analytical methods for solving differential equations of fractional order, it is to be remarked that solutions in closed form have been found only for such equations with constant coefficients and for a rather small class of equations with particular variable coefficients. In general, numerical solution techniques are required. In connection with the basic role of Mittag-Leffler type functions for the solution of fractional differential equations and integral equations of Abel type it seems important as a first step to develop their theory and stable methods for their numerical computation. The most simple function of Mittag-Leffler type, E α (z), depends on two variables: the complex argument z and the real parameter α. The generalizations need at least one more argument, and α may be allowed to be complex. Experience in the computation of special functions of mathematical physics teach us that in distinct parts of the complex plane different numerical techniques should be used. The aim of this paper is the development of some

3 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION... 3 methods for computing the Mittag-Leffler function (2) and its derivative as well as the assessment of the range of their applicability and accuracy. We propose Taylor series in the case 0 <α 1 for small z, asymptotic representations for z of large magnitude, and special integral representations for intermediate values of the argument z. By aid of a recursion formula we reduce the case 1 <αto the case 0 <α 1. We devise the needed algorithms in the system MATHEMATICA. 2. Integral representations of the Mittag-Leffler function Integral representations play a prominent role in the analysis of entire functions. For the Mittag-Leffler function (2) such representations in form of an improper integral along the Hankel loop have been treated in the case β =1and in the general case with arbitrary β by Erdélyi et al. [13] and Dzherbashyan [10], [11]. They considered E α,β (z) = 1 e ζ1/α ζ (1 β)/α dζ, z G ( ) (ɛ; δ), (3) 2πiα γ(ɛ;δ) ζ z E α,β (z) = 1 α z(1 β)/α e z1/α + 1 e ζ1/α ζ (1 β)/α dζ, z G (+) (ɛ; δ), (4) 2πiα γ(ɛ;δ) ζ z under the conditions 0 <α<2, πα 2 <δ min{π, πα}. (5) The contour γ(ɛ; δ) can be seen in Figure 1. It consists of two rays S δ and S δ (arg ζ = δ, ζ ɛ and arg ζ = δ, ζ ɛ) and a circular arc C δ (0; ɛ) ( ζ = ɛ, δ arg ζ δ). On its left side there is a region G ( ) (ɛ, δ), on its right side a region G (+) (ɛ; δ). Using the integral representations in (3), (4) it is not difficult to get asymptotic expansions for the Mittag-Leffler function in the complex plane. Let 0 <α<2, β be an arbitrary number, and δ be chosen to satisfy the condition (5). Then we have, for any p N and z : Whenever arg z δ, E α,β (z) = z (1 β) α e z1/α α Whenever δ arg z π, E α,β (z) = p k=1 p k=1 z k Γ(β αk) + O( z 1 p ). (6) z k Γ(β αk) + O( z 1 p ). (7)

4 4 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko These formulas are also used in our numerical algorithm. In what follows we restrict our attention to the case β R, the most important in the applications. For the purpose of numerical computation we look for integral representations better suited than (3) und (4). With eζ1/α ζ (1 β)/α φ(ζ,z)= ζ z we then have I = 1 φ(ζ,z) dζ = 1 φ(ζ,z) dζ (8) 2πiα γ(ɛ;δ) 2πiα S δ + 1 φ(ζ,z) dζ + 1 φ(ζ,z) dζ = I 1 + I 2 + I 3. 2πiα C δ (0;ɛ) 2πiα S δ Now we transform the integrals I 1,I 2 and I 3.ForI 1 we take ζ = re iδ,ɛ r< and get I 1 = 1 φ(ζ,z) dζ = 1 ɛ e (re iδ ) 1/α (re iδ ) (1 β)/α 2πiα S δ 2πiα + re iδ e iδ dr. (9) z Analogously for (with ζ = re iδ,ɛ r< ) I 3 = 1 φ(ζ,z) dζ = 1 + e (reiδ ) 1/α (re iδ ) (1 β)/α 2πiα S δ 2πiα ɛ re iδ e iδ dr. (10) z S δ C δ (0; ɛ) G (+) (ɛ; δ) G ( ) (ɛ; δ) δ ɛ γ(ɛ; δ) S δ Figure 1: The contour γ(ɛ; δ)

5 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION... 5 For I 2 we have ζ = ɛe iϕ, δ ϕ δ and with I 2 = 1 φ(ζ,z) dζ = 1 δ e (ɛeiϕ ) 1/α (ɛe iϕ ) (1 β)/α 2πiα C δ (0;ɛ) 2πiα δ ɛe iϕ ɛie iϕ dϕ (11) z = ɛ1+(1 β)/α 2πα δ δ e ɛ1/α e iϕ/α e iϕ((1 β)/α+1) ɛe iϕ dϕ = z P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] = ɛ1+(1 β)/α 2πα We rewrite the sum I 1 + I 3 as with δ δ P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ, e ɛ1/α cos(ϕ/α) (cos(ω)+isin(ω)) ɛe iϕ, (12) z ω = ɛ 1/α sin(ϕ/α)+ϕ(1 + (1 β)/α). I 1 + I 3 = 1 2πiα + ɛ { e (re iδ ) 1/α (re iδ ) (1 β)/α re iδ z e(re iδ ) 1/α (re iδ ) (1 β)/α re iδ e iδ} dr z = 1 + { r (1 β)/α e r1/α cos(δ/α) e i(r1/α sin(δ/α)+δ(1+(1 β)/α)) 2πiα ɛ re iδ z e i(r1/α sin(δ/α)+δ(1+(1 β)/α)) } + re iδ dr = K[α, β, δ, r, z] dr, z K[α, β, δ, r, z] = 1 πα r(1 β)/α e r1/α cos(δ/α) r sin(ψ δ) z sin(ψ) r 2 2rz cos(δ)+z 2, (13) ψ = r 1/α sin(δ/α)+δ(1 + (1 β)/α). By aid of (8)-(13) we can rewrite the formulas (3) and (4) as + δ E α,β (z) = K[α, β, δ, r, z] dr + P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ, z G ( ) (ɛ; δ), (14) ɛ δ + δ E α,β (z) = K[α, β, δ, r, z] dr + P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ (15) ɛ δ + 1 α z(1 β)/α e z1/α, z G (+) (ɛ; δ). Let us now consider the case 0 <α 1, z 0. By condition (5) we can choose δ =min{π, πα} = πα. Then the kernel function (13) looks simpler: ɛ K[α,β,πα,r,z]= K[α, β, r, z] (16) e iδ

6 6 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko = 1 r sin(π(1 β)) z sin(π(1 β + α)) πα r(1 β)/α e r1/α r 2 2rz cos(πα)+z 2. In the formulas (14)-(16) for computation of the function E α,β (z) atthearbitrary point z C, z 0 we will distinguish three possibilities for arg z, namely A) arg z >πα, B) arg z = πα, C) arg z <πα. First we conside the case A): arg z >πα. G ( ) (ɛ; πα) G (+) (ɛ; πα) z πα ɛ γ(ɛ; πα) Figure 2: The case arg z >πα In this case z always (for arbitrary ɛ) lies in the region G ( ) (ɛ; δ) (seefigure 2) and we arrive at Theorem 2.1. Under the conditions 0 <α 1, β R, arg z >πα, z 0 the function E α,β (z) has the representations E α,β (z) = ɛ πα K[α, β, r, z] dr + P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ, ɛ > 0, β R, (17) πα E α,β (z) = 0 K[α, β, r, z] dr, if β<1+α, (18)

7 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION... 7 E α,β (z) = sin(πα) πα with 0 e r1/α r 2 2rz cos(πα)+z 2 dr 1, if β =1+α (19) z K[α, β, r, z] = 1 πα r(1 β)/α e r1/α r sin(π(1 β)) z sin(π(1 β + α)) r 2 2rz cos(πα)+z 2, P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] = ɛ1+(1 β)/α 2πα e ɛ1/α cos(ϕ/α) (cos(ω)+isin(ω)) ɛe iϕ, z ω = ɛ 1/α sin(ϕ/α)+ϕ(1 + (1 β)/α). P r o o f. The representation (17) follows immediately from (14) with δ = πα and (16) and holds for arbitrary β R. Let us now consider (17) for β<1+α. In this case we have P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] Cɛ 1+(1 β)/α, πα ϕ πα, 0 <ɛ<1 with a constant C not depending on ϕ. Consequently, πα P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ 0 if ɛ 0. (20) Further we have πα This means: If β < 1 + α the integral K[α, β, r, z] =O(r (1 β)/α ), r 0. 0 K[α, β, r, z] dr is a convergent improper integral with singularity at r = 0, but it is there not singular if β 1. Using (20), we can calculate a limit for ɛ 0 in the representation (17) and so arrive at the representation (18). Finally, in the case β =1+α we have the formulas P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] = 1 e ɛ1/α cos(ϕ/α) (cos(ɛ 1/α sin(ϕ/α)) + i sin(ɛ 1/α sin(ϕ/α))) 2πα ɛe iϕ, z πα πα lim P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ = lim P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ (21) ɛ 0 πα πα ɛ 0 πα ( = 1 ) dϕ = 1 πα 2παz z, the corresponding integral converging uniformly with respect to ɛ. Hence for β =1+α there holds the formula K[α, β, r, z] = sin(πα) πα e r1/α r 2 2rz cos(πα)+z 2 (22)

8 8 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko and the integral 0 K[α, β, r, z] dr is non-singular in the point r = 0. The representation (19) now follows from (17), (21) und (22). Example: Letβ =1,0<α<1, z = t α < 0. Theorem 2.1 then yields the representation E α,1 ( t α )= 1 e r1/α 0 πα which by insertion of r = x α t α can be transformed to E α,1 ( t α )= 1 0 π e xt t α sin(πα) r 2 +2rt α dr, cos(πα)+t2α x α 1 sin(πα) x 2α +2x α dx. (23) cos(πα)+1 For the representation (23) which can be obtained by the Laplace transform method see Gorenflo and Mainardi [17]. ThenextcaseweconsideristhecaseB): arg z = πα. G ( ) (ɛ; πα) G (+) (ɛ; πα) z πα ɛ γ(ɛ; πα) Figure 3: The case arg z = πα In this case we are not allowed to make ɛ arbitrarily small in our contour γ(ɛ; δ), because z is directly lying on this contour if ɛ< z (see Figure 3).

9 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION... 9 Theorem 2.2. Under the conditions 0 <α 1, β R, arg z = πα, z 0 the function E α,β (z) has the representation E α,β (z) = ɛ πα K[α, β, r, z] dr + P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ, ɛ > z, (24) πα with K[α, β, r, z] = 1 πα r(1 β)/α e r1/α r sin(π(1 β)) z sin(π(1 β + α)) r 2 2rz cos(πα)+z 2, P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] = ɛ1+(1 β)/α 2πα e ɛ1/α cos(ϕ/α) (cos(ω)+isin(ω)) ɛe iϕ, z ω = ɛ 1/α sin(ϕ/α)+ϕ(1 + (1 β)/α). Proof. Ifɛ> z then z is lying in the region G ( ) (ɛ; δ)andtherepresentation (24) follows from (14) with δ = πα and (16). Finally let us discuss the case C): arg z <πα. G ( ) (ɛ; πα) z G (+) (ɛ; πα) πα ɛ γ(ɛ; πα) Figure 4: The case arg z <πα In this case, if 0 <ɛ< z, thenz is in the region G (+) (ɛ; δ), and we have

10 10 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko Theorem 2.3. Under the conditions 0 <α 1, β R, arg z <πα, z 0 the function E α,β (z) possesses the representations E α,β (z) = ɛ K[α, β, r, z] dr + πα πα P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ (25) E α,β (z) = α z(1 β)/α e z1/α, 0 <ɛ< z, β R, K[α, β, r, z] dr + 1 α z(1 β)/α e z1/α, if β<1+α, (26) E α,β (z) = sin(πα) πα 0 e r1/α r 2 dr (27) 2rz cos(πα)+z2 1 z + 1 αz ez1/α, if β =1+α with K[α, β, r, z] = 1 πα r(1 β)/α e r1/α r sin(π(1 β)) z sin(π(1 β + α)) r 2 2rz cos(πα)+z 2, P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] = ɛ1+(1 β)/α 2πα e ɛ1/α cos(ϕ/α) (cos(ω)+isin(ω)) ɛe iϕ, z ω = ɛ 1/α sin(ϕ/α)+ϕ(1 + (1 β)/α). P r o o f. Similar to the proof of Theorem 2.1; use (15) instead of (14). 3. Computation of the Mittag-Leffler function E α,β (z) We have proved that for arbitrary z 0and0<α 1 the Mittag- Leffler function E α,β (z) can be represented by one of the formulas (17)- (19), (24)-(26). We intend to use these formulas for numerical computation if q< z, 0 <q<1 and 0 <α 1. In the case z q, 0 <q<1 we compute E α,β (z) for arbitrary α>0 by aid of the power series (2). The case 1 <αcan be reduced to the case 0 <α 1 by aid of a recursion formula. For computation of the function E α,β (z) for arbitrary z C with arbitrary indices α>0, β R, we will distinguish three possibilities: A) z q, 0 <q<1(q is a fixed number), 0 <α, B) z >q, 0 <α 1and C) z >q, 1 <α. In each case we compute the Mittag-Leffler function with the prescribed accuracy ρ>0. First we consider the case A): z q, 0 <q<1.

11 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION Theorem 3.1. In the case z q, 0 <q<1, 0 <αthe Mittag-Leffler function can be computed with the prescribed accuracy ρ > 0 by use of the formula E α,β (z) = k 0 k=0 z k + µ(z), µ(z) ρ, (28) Γ(β + αk) k 0 =max{[(1 β)/α]+1, [ln(ρ(1 z ))/ ln( z )]}. P r o o f. We transcribe the definition (2) into the form E α,β (z) = m k=0 z k + µ(z,m), µ(z,m) = Γ(β + αk) For all k k 0 [(1 β)/α] + 1 we have the inequality Γ(β + αk) 1 and thus the estimate (m +1 k 0 ) µ(z,m) = z k Γ(β + αk) k=m+1 k=m+1 k=m+1 z k Γ(β + αk). z k = z m z. The estimate µ(z) := µ(z,k 0 ) <ρfollows from the inequality k 0 [ln(ρ(1 z ))/ ln( z )]. Remark 3.1. For computation of the function E α,β (z) in case A) it is recommendable to choose in Theorem 3.1 a number q not very close to 1 (in order to have not a large number of terms in the sum of formula (28)). In our computer programs we have taken q =0.9. We proceed with the case B): q< z, 0 <α 1. In this case we use the integral representations (17)-(19), (24)-(26). We then must compute numerically either the improper integral I = a K[α, β, r, z] dr, a {0,ɛ}, K[α, β, r, z] = 1 r sin(π(1 β)) z sin(π(1 β + α)) πα r(1 β)/α e r1/α r 2 2rz cos(πα)+z 2, or even the integral J = πα πα P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] = ɛ1+(1 β)/α 2πα P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] dϕ, ɛ > 0, e ɛ1/α cos(ϕ/α) (cos(ω)+isin(ω)) ɛe iϕ, z

12 12 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko ω = ɛ 1/α sin(ϕ/α)+ϕ(1 + (1 β)/α). The second integral J (the integrand P [α, β, ɛ, ϕ, z] being bounded and the limits of integration being finite) can be calculated with prescribed accuracy ρ>0by one of many product quadrature methods. For calculating the first (improper) integral I over the bounded function K[α, β, r, z] weuse I = Theorem 3.2. The representation a K[α, β, r, z] dr = is valid under the conditions r0 a K[α, β, r, z] dr + µ(z), µ(z) ρ, a {0,ɛ} (29) 0 <α 1, 0 <q< z, { max{1, 2 z, ( ln(πρ/6)) α }, if β 0, r 0 = max{( β +1) α, 2 z, ( 2ln(πρ/(6( β + 2)(2 β ) β )) α }, if β<0. P r o o f. We try to estimate the absolute value of in the expression µ(z,r) = R K[α, β, r, z] dr I = R a K[α, β, r, z] dr + µ(z,r), a {0,ɛ}. We first consider an estimate of the function K[α, β, r, z]. Let z 0 = e iπα and r 2 z. Wethenhave 1 r 2 2rz cos(πα)+z 2 = 1 r 2 z r z z 0 r z 0 1 r 2 ( z z 0 )( z z 0 ) = 1 r 2 ( 1 z ) 2 4 r 2 r and hence also K[α, β, r, z] 1 r + z πα r(1 β)/α e r1/α r 2 2rz cos(πα)+z 2 1 6r πα r(1 β)/α e r1/α r 2 = 6 πα r(1 β)/α 1 e r1/α. Hencewehave,forR 2 z, the estimate r µ(z,r) R r K[α, β, r, z] dr (30)

13 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION R πα r(1 β)/α 1 e r1/α dr = 6 t β e t dt = 6 π R 1/α π Γ(1 β,r1/α ), with the incomplete gamma function (see Erdélyi et al. [13]) Γ(α, x) = More estimates can be obtained by aid of x e t t α 1 dt, x > 0 Lemma 3.1. For the incomplete gamma function Γ(1 β,x) the following estimates hold: Γ(1 β,x) e x,x 1, β 0, (31) Γ(1 β),x) ( β +2)x β e x, x β +1, β < 0. (32) Proof. Fort x 1andβ 0 we have the inequality t β e t e t and hence also (31) from Γ(1 β,x) x e t dt = e x. If β<0 we determine n N such that (n +1) β< n and treat the integral Γ(1 β,x) by n-fold partial integration: Γ(1 β,x) =x β e x βx β 1 e x + β(β +1)x β 2 e x (33) n ( 1) n (β + j)x β n e x +( 1) n+1 j=0 x n (β + j)t β n 1 e t dt. j=0 Now β + n +1 0andx β +1 1 in the last integral, and we can use the inequality (31): t β n 1 e t dt e x. For x β +1and (n +1) β< n we have x x β > βx β 1 > β(β +1)x β 2 >...> β(β +1)...(β + n). The latter inequalities together with the representation(33) yield the estimate Γ(1 β,x) (n +2)x β e x ( β +2)x β e x, x β +1, and thus Lemma 3.1 is proved. Let us return to the proof of Theorem 3.2. estimate (30) and Lemma 3.1 yield the { 6 µ(z,r) π e R1/α, β 0, R 1 6 π ( β +2)R β/α e R1/α, β < 0, R 1/α β +1. (34)

14 14 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko For β 0wehave µ(z) := µ(z,r 0 ) <ρ,ifr 0 =max{1, 2 z, ( ln(πρ/6)) α }, and for β<0 we should find an r 0 such that the inequality is fulfilled. We solve this exercise by aid of 6 ( β +2)r β/α 0 e r1/α 0 ρ (35) π Lemma 3.2. For arbitrary x, y, q > 0 there holds the inequality x y (qy) y e x/q. (36) Proof.Withx = ay, a > 0, the inequality (36) can be rewritten in the form (ay) y (qy) y e ay/q which is equivalent to a y q y e ay/q and hence also to ( a q ) y ( e a/q) y. Thelatterinequalityistruebecauseof Hence Lemma 3.2 is proved. e a/q max{a/q, 1}, a,q > 0. Denoting r 1/α 0 by x, β by y, and taking q = 2 we rewrite the inequality (35) by aid of (36) in the form 6 ( β +2)r β/α 0 e r1/α 0 = 6 π π ( β +2)xy e x 6 π ( β + 2)(2y)y e x/2 e x = 6 π ( β + 2)(2 β ) β e r1/α 0 /2 <ρ. Solving for r 0 we find µ(z) := µ(z,r 0 ) ρ for β<0andr 0 =max{( β + 1) α, 2 z, ( 2ln(πρ/(6( β + 2)(2 β ) β )) α }. ThelastcasewehavetodiscussisthecaseC):q< z, 1 <α. Here we use the recursion formula (see Dzherbashyan [11]) E α,β (z) = 1 m m 1 h=0 E α/m,β (z 1/m e i2πh/m )(m 1). (37) In order to reduce case C) to the cases B) and A) we take m = α +1 in formula (37). Then 0 <α/m 1, and we calculate the functions E α/m,β (z 1/m e 2πih/m )as in case A) if z 1/m q<1, and as in case B) if z 1/m >q.

15 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION Remark 3.2. The ideas und techniques employed for the Mittag-Leffler function can be used for numerical calculation of other functions of the hypergeometric type. In particular, the same method with some small modifications can be applied for the Wright function playing a very important role in the theory of partial differential equations of fractional order (see for example Buckwar and Luchko [6], Gorenflo et al. [15], Luchko [25], Luchko and Gorenflo [26], Mainardi et al. [29]). To this end, the following representations (see Gorenflo et al. [14]) can be used instead of the representations (2), (3), and (4): φ(ρ, β; z) = φ(ρ, β; z) = 1 2πi k=0 Ha z k, ρ > 1, β C, k!γ(ρk + β) e ζ+zζ ρ ζ β dζ, ρ > 1, β C, where Ha denotes the Hankel path in the ζ-plane with a cut along the negative real semi-axis arg ζ = π. 4. Computation of the derivative of the function E α,β (z) In many questions of analysis the derivative of a function plays an important role. The derivative of the Mittag-Leffler function can be used for example in iterative methods for determination of its zeros in the complex plane. The function E α,β (z) being an entire function, we find by term-wise differentiation of its power series (2) the representation E α,β(z) = k=1 kz k 1 Γ(β + αk) = (k +1)z k Γ(α + β + αk). (38) For numerical calculation of the function E α,β (z) with prescribed accuracy ρ we distinguish two cases: A) z q<1(q isafixednumber)andb) z >q. We start with the case A): z q<1. Theorem 4.1. In the case z q<1 the derivative (38) of the Mittag-Leffler function can be calculated by aid of the formula E α,β(z) = k 0 k=0 k=0 (k +1)z k + µ(z), µ(z) ρ, (39) Γ(α + β + αk) k 0 =max{k 1, [ln(ρ(1 z ))/ ln( z )]}, [(2 α β)/(α 1)] + 1, α > 1, k 1 = [(3 [ α β)/α]+1, ] [ 0 <α 1, D 0, ] max{ 3 α β α +1, 1 2ωα+ D 2α +1}, 0 <α 1, D > 0, 2 (40)

16 16 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko with prescribed accuracy ρ>0. with ω = α + β 3 2,D= α2 4αβ +6α +1 P r o o f. By formula (38) we have E α,β (z) = m k=0 µ(z,m) = (k +1)z k Γ(α + β + αk) + µ(z,m) k=m+1 (k +1)z k Γ(α + β + αk) and can estimate the absolute value of µ(z,m). Now Γ(x) 1forx 1. So, we have the inequalities if if Γ(α + β + αk) =(α + β + αk 1)Γ(α + β + αk 1) α + β + αk 1 k + 1 (41) α>1, k k 1 =[(2 α β)/(α 1)] = 1, Γ(α + β + αk) =(α + β + αk 1)(α + β + αk 2)Γ(α + β + αk 2) (42) (α + β + αk 1)(α + β + αk 2) k +1 0 <α 1, k k 1, with the natural number k 1 given by (40). From (41), (42) follows the estimate µ(z,m) and we finally get k=m+1 (k +1)z k Γ(α + β + αk) k=m+1 z k = z m+1 1 z, m+1 k 1, µ(z) := µ(z,k 0 ) ρ, k 0 =max{k 1, [ln(ρ(1 z ))/ ln( z )]}. Now we consider the case B): z >q. In this case we use the formula (see Dzherbashyan [11]) E α,β (z) =E α,β 1(z) (β 1)E α,β (z), (43) αz which reduces the calculation of the derivative of the Mittag-Leffler function to that of the function E α,β (z), already worked out.

17 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION Numerical Algorithm The numerical scheme for computation of the Mittag-Leffler function given in pseudocode notation by the algorithm below is based on the results presented in Section 3. The algorithm uses the defining series (2) for arguments z of small magnitude, its asymptotic representations (6), (7) for arguments z of large magnitude, and special integral representations for intermediate values of the argument that include a monotonic part K(α, β, χ, z) dχ and an oscillatory part P (α, β, ɛ, φ, z) dφ, which can be evaluated using standard techniques. GIVEN α>0, β R, z C, ρ>0then IF1 <αthen k 0 = α +1 E α,β (z) = 1 k0 1 k 0 k=0 E α/k 0,β(z 1 k 0 exp( 2πik k 0 )) ELSIF z =0THEN E α,β (z) = 1 Γ(β) ELSIF z < 1THEN k 0 =max{ (1 β) α E α,β (z) = k 0 k=0 ELSIF z > α THEN, ln[ρ(1 z )]/ ln( z ) } z k Γ(β+αk) k 0 = ln(ρ)/ ln( z ) IF arg z < απ min{π, απ} THEN E α,β (z) = 1 α z (1 β) α e z1/α k 0 z k k=1 Γ(β αk) ELSE E α,β (z) = k 0 z k k=1 Γ(β αk) ELSE { max{1, 2 z, ( ln( πρ 6 χ 0 = ))α }, β 0 max{( β +1) α πρ, 2 z, ( 2ln( [6( β +2)(2 β ) β ] ))α }, β < 0 K(α, β, χ, z) = 1 απ χ (1 β) α exp( χ 1 α ) χ sin[π(1 β)] z sin[π(1 β+α)] χ 2 2χz cos(απ)+z 2 P (α, β, ɛ, φ, z) = 1 (1 β) 2απ ɛ1+ α exp(ɛ 1 α cos( φ cos(ω)+i sin(ω) α )) ɛ exp(iφ) z ω = φ(1 + (1 β) α )+ɛ 1 α sin( φ α ) IF arg z >απthen IF β 1THEN E α,β (z) = χ 0 0 K(α, β, χ, z) dχ ELSE E α,β (z) = χ 0 1 K(α, β, χ, z) dχ + απ απ ELSIF arg z <απthen IF β 1THEN E α,β (z) = χ 0 0 K(α, β, χ, z) dχ + 1 α z (1 β) α ELSE P (α, β, 1,φ,z) dφ e z1/α

18 18 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko E α,β (z) = χ 0 z K(α, β, χ, z) dχ + απ z απ P (α, β, 2,φ,z) dφ + 1 α z (1 β) α 2 ELSE E α,β (z) = χ 0 ( z +1) K(α, β, χ, z) dχ + απ ( z +1) απ P (α, β, 2,φ,z) dφ 2 END e z1/α Remark 5.1. The formulas for E α,β (z) in this algorithm are in error at most by ρ. It is advisable to take ρ = ε m = machine precision. 6. Figures In this section, some figures generated by aid of the methods described in the paper are presented. We have produced them by using the programming system MATHEMATICA Figure 5: The function E α,β ( t) forα =0.25, β = 1 and its derivative. Black line: E α,β ( t), grey line: d dt (E α,β( t))

19 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION Figure 6: The function E α,β ( t) forα =1.75, β = 1 and its derivative. Black line: E α,β ( t), grey line: d dt (E α,β( t)) Figure 7: The function E α,β ( t) forα =2.25, β = 1 and its derivative. Black line: E α,β ( t), grey line: d dt (E α,β( t))

20 20 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko Figure 8: E α,β (z) for α =0.75, β =1, arg(z) = απ Figure 9: E α,β (z) 1 α for α =0.75, β =1, arg(z) = απ 2

21 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION Figure 10: E α,β (z) 0forα =0.75, β =1, arg(z) = 3απ Figure 11: E α,β (z) forα =0.75, β =1, arg(z) =π

22 22 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko Figure 12: E α,β (z) for α =1.25, β =1, arg(z) = απ Figure 13: E α,β (z) 1 α for α =1.25, β =1, arg(z) = απ 2

23 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION Figure 14: E α,β (z) 0forα =1.25, β =1, arg(z) = 3απ Figure 15: E α,β (z) forα =1.25, β =1, arg(z) =π

24 24 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko References [1] R.P. A g a r w a l, A propos d une note de M. Pierre Humbert, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 236(1953), [2] Yu.I. B a b e n k o, Heat and Mass Transfer, Leningrad, Khimiya, 1986 (in Russian). [3] R.L. B a g l e y and P.J. T o r v i k, On the appearance of the fractional derivative in the behaviour of real materials, J. Appl. Mech. 51(1984), [4] G.W.S. B l a i r, Psychorheology: links between the past and the present, Journal of Texture Studies, 5(1974), [5] G.W.S. B l a i r, The role of psychophysics in rheology, J. of Colloid Sciences, 1947, [6] E. B u c k w a r and Yu. L u c h k o, Invariance of a partial differential equation of fractional order under the Lie group of scaling transformations, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 227(1998), [7] A. B u h l, Séries analytiques. Sommabilité, Mem. Sci. Math. Fasc. 7, Gauthier-Villars, Paris. [8] M. C a p u t o and F. M a i n a r d i, Linear models of dissipation in anelastic solids, Riv. Nuovo Cimento, SerII, 1(1971), [9] C l e o t a and H u g h e s, Asymptotic developments of certain integral functions, Duke Math. J., 9(1942), [10] M.M. D z h e r b a s h y a n, About integral representation of functions continuous on some rays (generalization of Fourier integral), Izv. Akad. Nauk Armyan. SSR, Ser. Mat., 18(1954), (In Russian). [11] M.M. D z h e r b a s h y a n, Integral Transforms and Representations of Functions in the Complex Plane, Nauka, Moscow, 1966 (in Russian). [12] A.M.A. E l - S a y e d, Fractional order diffusion-wave equation, J. of Theoretical Physics 35, No 2 (1996), [13] A. E r d élyi,w.magnus,f.oberhettingerandf.g.trico mi,higher Transcendental Functions, Vol.3,NewYork,McGraw-HillBook Co., 1954.

25 COMPUTATION OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION [14] R. G o r e n f l o, Yu. L u c h k o and F. M a i n a r d i, Analytical properties and applications of the Wright function, Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis 2(1999), [15]R.Gorenflo,Yu.LuchkoandF.Mainardi,Wrightfunctions as scale-invariant solutions of the diffusion-wave equation, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 118(2000), [16] R. G o r e n f l o, Yu. L u c h k o and P.P. Z a b r e j k o, On solvability of linear fractional differential equations in Banach spaces, Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis 2(1999), [17] R. G o r e n f l o and F. M a i n a r d i, Fractional oscillations and Mittag- Leffler functions, Preprint No. A-14/96, Free University of Berlin, Berlin, [18] R. G o r e n f l o and F. M a i n a r d i, The Mittag-Leffler function in the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus, In: Kilbas A.A. (eds.) Boundary value problems, special functions and fractional calculus, Minsk, 1996, [19] R. G o r e n f l o and F. M a i n a r d i, Fractional Calculus: Introduction to Integral and Differential Equations of Fractional Order, in: Fractals and Fractional Calculus in Continuum Mechanics (Ed. A. Carpinteri and F. Mainardi), Springer Verlag, Wien, [20] R. G o r e n f l o and R. R u t m a n, On ultraslow and intermediate processes, In: RusevP.,DimovskiI.andKiryakovaV.(eds.)Transform Methods and Special Functions, Sofia, 1994, [21] R. G o r e n f l o and S. V e s s e l l a, Abel Integral Equations: Analysis and Applications, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1461, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, [22] P. H u m b e r t, Quelques resultats relatifs a la fonction de Mittag-Leffler, C. r. Acad. sci. Paris, 236(1953), [23] P. H u m b e r t and R.P. A g a r w a l, Sur la fonction de Mittag-Leffler et quelques-unes de ses généralisations, Bull.sci.math.(2), 77(1953), [24] Yu. L u c h k o, Operational method in fractional calculus, Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis 2(1999), [25] Yu. L u c h k o, Asymptotics of zeros of the Wright function, Journal for Analysis and its Applications 19(2000),

26 26 R. Gorenflo, J. Loutchko and Yu. Luchko [26] Yu. L u c h k o and R. G o r e n f l o, Scale-invariant solutions of a partial differential equation of fractional order, Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis, 1(1998), [27] Yu. L u c h k o and H.M. S r i v a s t a v a, The exact solution of certain differential equations of fractional order by using operational calculus, Computers Math. Appl. 29(1995), [28] F. M a i n a r d i, Fractional Calculus: Some Basic Problems in Continuum and Statistical Mechanics, in: Fractals and Fractional Calculus in Continuum Mechanics (Ed. A. Carpinteri and F. Mainardi), Springer Verlag, Wien, [29] F. M a i n a r d i, Yu. L u c h k o and G. P a g n i n i, The fundamental solution of the space-time fractional diffusion equation, Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis 4(2001), [30] W.R. S c h n e i d e r and W. W y s s, Fractional diffusion and wave equations, J. Math. Phys. 30(1989), [31] G.L. S l o n i m s k i, About a law of deformation of polymers, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (Physic), 140(1961), No 2, [32] S. W e s t e r l u n d and L. E k s t a m, Capacitor theory, IEEE Trans. on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 1(1994), [33] A. W i m a n, Über den Fundamentalsatz in der Theorie der Funktionen E α (x), Acta Math., 29(1905), [34] A. W i m a n, Über die Nullstellen der Funktionen E α (x), Acta Math., 29(1905), ) Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Received: Free University of Berlin Arnimallee 3 D Berlin GERMANY 2 ) Department of Business Informatics European University Frankfurt(Oder) POB 1786 D Frankfurt (Oder) GERMANY

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