# Reminders: linear functions

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1 Reminders: linear functions Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Definition A function f : U V is linear if for every u 1, u 2 U, f (u 1 + u 2 ) = f (u 1 ) + f (u 2 ), and for every u U and α F, f (αu) = αf (u).

2 Reminders: linear functions Let B = u 1,..., u n be a basis of U, let C be a basis of V. Linear function is uniquely determined by its values on a basis. Columns of the matrix [f ] B,C of the function are coordinates (w.r. to C) of f (u 1 ),..., f (u n ). [f ] B,C [u] T B = [f (u)]t C

3 Reminders: matrices of linear functions Let U, V, and W be vector spaces over the same field F, with bases B = u 1,..., u n, C, and D, respectively. Lemma For any linear f : U V and g : V W, [gf ] B,D = [g] C,D [f ] B,C.

4 Reminders: isomorphism Definition A linear function f : U V is an isomorphism if f is bijective (1-to-1 and onto). Lemma If f : U V is an isomorphism, then f 1 is an isomorphism and [f 1 ] C,B = [f ] 1 B,C.

5 Example: linear transformations of the plane Problem Let p be the line in R 2 through the origin in 30 degrees angle. To which point is (x, y) mapped by reflection across the p axis? y p x

6 Example: linear transformations of the plane Problem Let p be the line in R 2 through the origin in 30 degrees angle. To which point is (x, y) mapped by reflection across the p axis? The reflection across the p axis defines an isomorphism g : R 2 R 2. Let r be the rotation by 30 degrees. Let f be the reflection across the x axis. g = rfr 1, hence [g] = [r][f ][r] 1 with respect to the standard basis.

7 Example: linear transformations of the plane Problem Let p be the line in R 2 through the origin in 30 degrees angle. To which point is (x, y) mapped by reflection across the p axis? r: the rotation by 30 degrees. f : the reflection across the x axis. r(1, 0) = ( 3/2, 1/2) f (1, 0) = (1, 0) r(0, 1) = ( 1/2, 3/2) f (0, 1) = (0, 1) ( ) ( ) 3/2 1/2 [r] = 1 0 [f ] = 1/2 3/2 0 1

8 Example: linear transformations of the plane Problem Let p be the line in R 2 through the origin in 30 degrees angle. To which point is (x, y) mapped by reflection across the p axis? ( [g] = [r][f ][r] 1 3/2 1/2 = 1/2 ( ) 1/2 3/2 3/2 1/2 = 3/2 )( )( ) 1 3/2 1/2 1/2 3/2 Hence, g(x, y) = (x/2 + 3y/2, 3x/2 y/2).

9 Example: composition of rotations Let r α : R 2 R 2 be the rotation by angle α. r α (1, 0) = (cos α, sin α) r α (0, 1) = ( sin α, cos α) ( cos α sin α [r α ] = sin α cos α ) Note that r α+β = r α r β, and [r α+β ] = [r α ][r β ]: ( cos(α + β) sin(α + β) sin(α + β) cos(α + β) Therefore, ) ( )( ) cos α sin α cos β sin β = sin α cos α sin β cos β ( cos α cos β sin α sin β cos α sin β sin α cos β = sin α cos β + cos α sin β sin α sin β + cos α cos β ) cos(α + β) = cos α cos β sin α sin β sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + cos α sin β

10 Linear functions and independent sets Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Lemma If a linear function f : U V is 1-to-1 and {u 1,..., u k } U is an independent set, then {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is an independent set in V. Proof. Suppose that α 1 f (u 1 ) α k f (u k ) = o. Let u = α 1 u α k u k. f (u) = f (α 1 u α k u k ) = α 1 f (u 1 ) α k f (u k ) = o. Since f is 1-to-1, f (u) = o, and f (o) = o, we have u = o. Since {u 1,..., u k } is linearly independent, α 1 =... = α k = 0.

11 Linear functions and independent sets Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Lemma If a linear function f : U V is 1-to-1 and {u 1,..., u k } U is an independent set, then {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is an independent set in V. Corollary If a function f : U V is an isomorphism and u 1,..., u k is a basis of U, then f (u 1 ),..., f (u k ) is a basis of V. Proof. f (u 1 ),..., f (u k ) is independent f (u 1 ),..., f (u k ), v is not independent for any v V, since u 1,..., u k, f 1 (v) is not independent.

12 Isomorphic spaces Definition Two spaces U and V are isomorphic if there exists an isomorphism from U to V (and vice versa). Examples: P n and R n+1 are isomorphic via isomorphism mapping p = α 0 + α 1 x α n x n to (α 0, α 1,..., α n ). P n and R n+1 are also isomorphic via isomorphism mapping p to (p(0), p(1),..., p(n)). Corollary Any two isomorphic spaces have the same dimension.

13 Isomorphism and coordinates Let V be a vector space over the field F. Let B be a basis of V. Let coord B : V F dim V be defined by coord B (v) = [v] B. Lemma coord B is an isomorphism from V to F dim V Corollary Vector spaces over the same field are isomorphic if and only if they have the same dimension.

14 Spaces associated with linear functions Let f : U V be a linear function. Definition Image of f consists of all elements of V to that f maps something. Im(f ) = {f (u) : u U} Kernel of f consists of all elements of U that f maps to o. Ker(f ) = {u U : f (u) = o}

15 Example Let f : R 3 R 2, f (x, y, z) = (x, x). Im(f ) = {(x, x) : x R} = span{(1, 1)} Ker(f ) = {(0, y, z) : y, z R} = span{(0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1)}

16 Image and kernel are subspaces Let U and V be vector spaces over a field F. Lemma For any linear function f : U V, both Im(f ) and Ker(f ) are vector spaces. Proof. If v 1, v 2 Im(f ), then v 1 = f (u 1 ) and v 2 = f (u 2 ) for some u 1, u 2 U. v 1 + v 2 = f (u 1 ) + f (u 2 ) = f (u 1 + u 2 ) Im(f ) αv 1 = αf (u 1 ) = f (αu 1 ) Im(f ) o = f (o) Im(f )

17 Image and kernel are subspaces Let U and V be vector spaces over a field F. Lemma For any linear function f : U V, both Im(f ) and Ker(f ) are vector spaces. Proof. If u 1, u 2 Ker(f ), then f (u 1 ) = f (u 2 ) = o. f (u 1 + u 2 ) = f (u 1 ) + f (u 2 ) = o + o = o f (αu 1 ) = αf (u 1 ) = αo = o f (o) = o

18 Related matrix spaces Let F be a field. Definition For an n m matrix A with entries from F, let Im(A) = {Ax : x F m } and Ker(A) = {x F m : Ax = 0} Note: Im(A) = span(a,1, A,2,..., A,m } = Col(A) Ker(A) is the set of solutions of the system of linear equations Ax = 0. For f : F m F n, f (x) = Ax, we have Ker(A) = Ker(f ) Im(A) = Im(f ), hence Ker(A), Im(A) are vector spaces.

19 Kernel and image of a matrix vs function Lemma Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Let B be a basis of U, let C be a basis of V. Let coord B : U F dim U be defined by coord B (u) = [u] T B. Let coord C : V F dim V be defined by coord C (v) = [v] T C. Im([f ] B,C ) consists of coordinates (with respect to C) of Im(f ); i.e., coord C is an isomorphism from Im(f ) to Im([f ] B,C ). Ker([f ] B,C ) consists of coordinates (with respect to B) of Ker(f ); i.e., coord B is an isomorphism from Ker(f ) to Ker([f ] B,C ).

20 Example(1) Problem Let f : R 3 R 3 be defined by f (x, y, z) = (x y, y z, z x). Determine Im(f ) and Ker(f ). With respect to the standard bases, [f ] = 0 1 1, RREF([f ]) = {v T : v Im(f )} = {[v] T : v Im(f )} = Im([f ]) = Col([f ]) Basis column indices are 1, 2, hence the 1st and 2nd column of [f ] form a basis of Col([f ]). Im(f ) = span({(1, 0, 1), ( 1, 1, 0)}).

21 Example(1) Problem Let f : R 3 R 3 be defined by f (x, y, z) = (x y, y z, z x). Determine Im(f ) and Ker(f ). With respect to the standard bases, [f ] = 0 1 1, RREF([f ]) = {u T : u Ker(f )} = {[u] T : u Ker(f )} = Ker([f ]). Ker([f ]) is the set of solutions of [f ]x = 0 the same as the set of solutions of RREF([f ])x = 0 Ker(f ) = span({(1, 1, 1)})

22 Example(2) Problem Let f : P 2 R 2 be defined by f (p) = (p(0), p(2)). Determine Im(f ) and Ker(f ). Let B = 1, x, x 2 be a basis of P 2, let C = (1, 0), (0, 1). [f ] B,C = ( ) ( 1 0 0, RREF([f ] B,C ) = Im([f ] B,C ) = span({(1, 1) T, (0, 2) T }) ) hence Im(f ) = span({(1, 1), (0, 2)}) = R 2.

23 Example(2) Problem Let f : P 2 R 2 be defined by f (p) = (p(0), p(2)). Determine Im(f ) and Ker(f ). Let B = 1, x, x 2 be a basis of P 2, let C = (1, 0), (0, 1). [f ] B,C = ( ) ( 1 0 0, RREF([f ] B,C ) = The set of solutions to [f ] B,C x = 0 is span({(0, 2, 1) T }). (0, 2, 1) = [x 2 2x] B Ker(f ) = span({x 2 2x}) )

24 Dimensions of kernel and image Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Lemma For any linear function f : U V, dim Im(f ) + dim Ker(f ) = dim U Proof. Let B be a basis of U, let C be a basis of V. It suffices to prove dim Im([f ] B,C ) + dim Ker([f ] B,C ) = B. dim Im([f ] B,C ) = dim Col([f ] B,C ) = rank([f ] B,C ) number of basis columns of RREF([f ] B,C ) dim Ker([f ] B,C ) is the dimension of the space of solutions of [f ] B,C x = 0 number of non-basis columns of RREF([f ] B,C )

25 Kernel, image and 1-to-1 functions Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Lemma For a linear function f : U V, the following are equivalent: 1 Ker(f ) = {o} 2 f is 1-to-1 3 For every independent set {u 1,..., u k } in U, the set {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is independent in V. 4 For a basis B = {u 1,..., u k } of U, the set {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is independent in V. Proof. 1 2 If f (x) = f (y), then o = f (x) f (y) = f (x y), and thus x y Ker(f ). Hence, x y = o and x = y.

26 Kernel, image and 1-to-1 functions Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Lemma For a linear function f : U V, the following are equivalent: 1 Ker(f ) = {o} 2 f is 1-to-1 3 For every independent set {u 1,..., u k } in U, the set {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is independent in V. 4 For a basis B = {u 1,..., u k } of U, the set {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is independent in V. Proof. 2 3 Proved before.

27 Kernel, image and 1-to-1 functions Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Lemma For a linear function f : U V, the following are equivalent: 1 Ker(f ) = {o} 2 f is 1-to-1 3 For every independent set {u 1,..., u k } in U, the set {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is independent in V. 4 For a basis B = {u 1,..., u k } of U, the set {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is independent in V. Proof. 3 4 Trivial.

28 Kernel, image and 1-to-1 functions Let U and V be vector spaces over the same field F. Lemma For a linear function f : U V, the following are equivalent: 1 Ker(f ) = {o} 2 f is 1-to-1 3 For every independent set {u 1,..., u k } in U, the set {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is independent in V. 4 For a basis B = {u 1,..., u k } of U, the set {f (u 1 ),..., f (u k )} is independent in V. Proof. 4 1 Since f (u 1 ),..., f (u k ) is independent, dim Im(f ) k, and dim Ker(f ) 0.

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