Lecture 13 - Root Space Decomposition II

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1 Lecture 13 - Root Space Decomposition II October 18, Review First let us recall the situation. Let g be a simple algebra, with maximal toral subalgebra h (which we are calling a CSA, or Cartan Subalgebra). We have that h acts on g via the adjoint action, and since h has only mutually commuting, abstractly semisimple elements, we have that the action of h is simultaneously diagonalizable. Thus g decomposes into weight spaces, called in this special case root spaces: g = g α α Φ {0} (1) g α = { x g h.x = α(h) x for all h h }. We defined Φ to be the set of roots of g relative to the choice of h, or in other words, the non-zero weights for the adjoint action of h on g. We proved: i) h = C g (h) = g 0 ii) Φ spans h iii) α Φ implies α Φ iv) [g α, g β ] g α+β v) x α g α, y α g α implies [x α, y α ] = κ g (x α, y α )t α (where t α is the κ g -dual of α) vi) [g α, g α ] = F t α h vii) If x α g α then y α g α exists so {x α, y α, h α } is a standard basis for some sl(2, C) g viii) h α = 2tα κ(t α,t α) and h α = h α ix) κ g h is positive definite. 1

2 Since κ is nondegenerate, we can define an inner product on the dual space h directly by where, recall, t α (resp. t β ) is the dual of α under κ. (α, β) = κ(t α, t β ) (2) Lemma 1.1 Assume α and β are roots, and that α + cβ are all roots where c C. Then The number 2(α,β) c is an integer is an integer The direct sum of root spaces of the form g β+iα is an irreducible S α module. In particular if x α g, we have that (ad x α ) i : g α g α+iβ is an isomorphism. Pf. The vector space T = g β+cα (3) where c ranges over all numbers in C so β + cα Φ, is a finite dimensional S α -module, and each g β+iα is 1-dimensional. The weight (in the sl 2 -sense) of the space g β+cα is computed by selecting some x g α+cβ and computing (ad h α )x. We have ( ) 2 (α, β) (ad h α )x = (β + cα)(h α ) x = + 2c x (4) Since weights must be integers, we can take c = 0 to obtain the integrality of 2(α,β). Then we also have that 2c Z. Now we rule out c being half-integral. Assume c = n 2 (n odd). We can always choose n so g β+ n 2 α has weight 0 or else weight 1 (with respect to the weight operator h α ). We have ( ) h α.x β+ n 2 α = + n x β+ n 2 α (5) so 2(α,β) is n or 1 n. Case I: Assume the S α -weight of g β+ n 2 α is 0, so 2(α,β) = n. Consider the action of S β+ 1 2 α sl 2. We have h β+ n 2 α.x β = β(h β+ n 2 α ) x α = so with = 2 n (α, β) we have 2(β, β) + n(α, β) (β, β) + n(α, β) + n2 4 x α (6) h β+ 1 2 α.x β = 2 x α (7) 2

3 Therefore (ad y β+ n 2 α )(x β ) is non-zero, and lies in g n 2 α. This is impossible because n 2 α is not a root. Case II: Assume the S α -weight of g β+ n 2 α is 1, so 2(α,β) = 1 n. First note that since n is odd, the right side is even so that α β α α is an integer. Applying a destruction operator, we get that g β+ n 2 2 α is also a non-trivial weight space. Since β is a root, we have the algebra S β, and we can find the S β -weights of g β+ n 2 α, g β+ n 2 α as follows: h β.x β+ n 2 α = (β + n ) 2 α 2β β β x β+ n 2 α ( = n ) α β x β+ n 2 2 β β α. Since 2 + n α β α β α β β β is an integer, n is odd, and 2 β β is an integer, we have that β β is an integer. Now we cheat a bit and use the theorem below, which states that κ is positive definite (note that this is not cyclical: that result does not use this one). By Cauchy-Schwarz we have 2 (8) (α β) 2 (α α)(β β) 1 (9) so either α β = 0, or α and β are parallel. We assumed they are not parallel, so α β = 0, meaning the calculation above gives h β.x β+ n 2 α = 2 x β+ n 2 α. (10) Therefore we can apply a destruction operator (namely y β ) to obtain a non-trivial weight space, namely g n 2 α. Yet this is impossible because n 2 ±1. The lemma s final assertion is a direct consequence of the fact that β + iα is a root only when i Z and that each root space is 1-dimensional. The numbers are called the Cartan integers. The set of roots of the form β + iα is called the α-string through β. Proposition 1.2 Assume α, β Φ and β ±α Then a) The S α -weight of g β is 2(β,α). b) If β is a maximal weight for S α, then the S α module generated by g β is g β g β α g β 2(α,β) α (11) c) If α, β are any roots, then β α h is a root. 3

4 Pf. For (a), we compute (ad h α )(x β ) = β(h α ) x β = ( t β, ) 2 t α x β = x β. (12) For (b), (c), let β be a root. The weight of the (possibly trivial) root space g β 2(α,β) α is ( β ) α (h α ) = β(h α ) α(h α) = which is the negative of the weight of the root space of g β. Since the negative of a weight is a weight, we have that g 2(α,β) β must be non-trivial. α (13) 2 The Euclidean space E and its inner product κ Lemma 2.1 If β, γ h then (β, γ) = α Φ (α, β)(α, γ). Pf. If Φ = {α 1,..., α m } then the decomposition g = h α i Φ g αi (14) diagonalizes the adjoint action of all elements of h. In fact if h h then 0... ad h = 0 α 1 (h)... αm(h) (15) Thus (β, γ) = κ(t β, t γ ) = T r ad t β ad t γ m = α i (t β )α i (t γ ) = m (β, α i ) (γ, α i ). (16) 4

5 Lemma 2.2 Let {α 1,..., α n } Φ be a C-basis of h. Then Φ span Q {α 1,..., α n }. Pf. We have β = n c iα i for some constants c i C. Then (β, α j ) = i c ia ij where A ij = (α i, α j ). Note that A ij is invertible. Then 2(β, α j ) n (α j, α j ) = 2(α i, α j ) c i (α j, α j ) (17) Since M ij = A ij (α j, α j ) 1 is invertible and all numbers besides the c i are integers, the c i are rationals. Lemma 2.3 If β, γ Φ, then (β, γ) is rational, and (β, β) > 0. Pf. We have (β, β) = α Φ (α, β)2 so that 4 (β, β) = m ( ) 2. (18) (β, β) The numbers on the right are all integers, so (β, β) is rational. Now letting γ Φ we have (β, γ) = α Φ(α, β)(α, γ) 4(β, γ) (β, β)(γ, γ) = α Φ 2(α, γ) (β, β) (γ, γ) (19) where the right-hand side is integral, and (β, β) and (γ, γ) are rational. Therefore (β, γ) is rational. Finally with (β, β) = α Φ (α, β)2 again, we see that (β, β) is the sum of nonnegative rationals. Thus κ is positive semi-definite. Since it is non-degenerate, it is therefore positive definite and (β, β) > 0. Theorem 2.4 Setting E = span R Φ and restricting κ to E, we have that dim R E = dim C h and κ is positive definite inner product. Pf. Trivlal. 3 Root Space Axioms It is useful to put some of our conclusions into one place; the theorem that follows verifies what we will call the root space axioms. 5

6 Theorem 3.1 Let g be a semisimple Lie algebra, h any maximal toral subalgebra, Φ the set of roots associated to h, and E = span R Φ with positive definite inner product κ. Then a) Φ spans E, and 0 Φ b) If α Φ then α Φ, but cα Φ for c ±1 c) If α, β Φ, then β α Φ d) If α, β Φ then Z 6

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