1 Μάθημα 3 οἱ ἀριθμοί (The Numbers) Double sigma Older Attic dialects often use a double tau instead of a double sigma. 3.1 Introduction to Numbers There is more to numbers than you first might expect. There are digits (e.g., 1, 2, 3 etc.) cardinals (e.g. one, two, three etc.), ordinals (e.g., first, second, third etc.), adverbs (e.g., once, twice, thrice), dual forms (e.g., twain), and prefixes (mono-, bi-, tri-). This lesson will acquaint you with the basics of counting (cardinals). There are a few variations of the spellings of a handful of numbers could be confusing at this point. So those will be covered at a later point. With the numbers in this chapter, you can speak more Greek by referring to page numbers and exercise numbers in Greek. In ancient times the Greeks used letters for the digits. These are presented as extra information and you are not expected to memorize them. Arabic Greek Greek Cardinal Symbol Symbol 1 α ἕν (hendiadys, hyphen) 2 β δύο (hendiadys, duet) 3 γ τρία (triad, triangle) 4 δ τέσσαρα or τέτταρα (tetrahedron) 5 ε πέντε (pentagon)
2 The Greek Markings 39 6 ς or ἕξ (hexameter, hexcode) Ϝ 7 ζ ἑπτά (heptameter) 8 η ὀκτώ (octopus) 9 θ ἐννέα (ennead) 10 ι δέκα (decade) 11 ια ἑνδέκα 12 ιβ δώδεκα (dodecahedron) Teens To form Greek teens simply start with δεκα and add a number to the end of the word. The teens may also be rendered by as individual words separated by καὶ (and). δέκα καὶ τρία or τρία καὶ δέκα or τρεισκαίδεκα 13 ιγ δεκατρία 1 14 ιδ δεκατέσσαρα 2 15 ιε δεκαπέντε 20 κ εἴκοσι(ν) 3 30 λ τριάκοντα 40 μ τεσσαράκοντα 50 ν πεντήκοντα 60 ξ ἑξήκοντα 70 ο ἑβδομήκοντα 80 π ὀγδοήκοντα 90 Ϟ ἐνενήκοντα 100 ρ ἑκατόν 200 σ διακόσια Tens and Hundreds -κοντα indicate tens like the ty in English (from thirty to ninety). 20 has a dual ending that looks different from the other tens. -κοσια represents the hundreds from Thirty Something Number like thirty-three are formed by using separate words. πεντήκοντα τρία or τρία καὶ πεντήκοντα or πεντήκοντα καὶ τρία 300 τ τριακόσια 400 υ τετρακόσια 500 φ πεντακόσια 600 χ ἑξακόσια 700 ψ ἑπτακόσια 800 ω ὀκτακόσια Tics The tic marks next Greek symbols let us know to understand them as a number rather than a letter. 900 Ϡ ἐνακόσια 1000 α χίλια 2000 β δισχίλια
3 40 Reviving Historical Greek Ἀι Μελέται (The Exercises) ἀι μελέται τῆς γραμματικής (Grammatical Exercises) 1) Practice writing from 1-10 (writing out each Greek cardinal number.) at least five times. 2) Practice writing from (writing out each Greek cardinal number.) at least five times. 3) Practice writing from by tens (writing out each Greek cardinal number.) at least five times. 4) In Revelation 13:18 5) Now sharpen your knowledge of Greek numbers by solving these addition problems. Be sure to write your answer in Greek and say every Greek word out loud. τρία καὶ πέντα = ἐννέα καὶ δύο = δέκα καὶ ὀκτώ = δώδεκα καὶ τρία = δύο καὶ δύο = ἑξ καὶ δεκατρείς καὶ ἑν = εἴκοσι καὶ τριάκοντα καὶ ἑπτά = δέκα καὶ δὲκα καὶ τέσσαρα = τεσσαράκοντα καὶ ἑξήκοντα = ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι καὶ τρία = ἀι μελέται τοῦ διαλόγου (Conversational Exercises)
4 The Greek Markings 41 1) Practice speaking Greek addition problems to each other. Here are a few examples to get you started. The general format is What (τί) are (εἰσίν) and (καὶ)? Question Answer τί εἰσιν ἕν καὶ πέντα; ἕν καὶ πέντα εἰσίν ἕξ. τί εἰσιν εἴκοσι καὶ δύο καὶ ἕνδεκα; εἴκοσι καὶ δύο καὶ ἕνδεκά εἰσιν τριάκοντα και τρία. τί εἰσιν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἑπτα καὶ εἴκοσι καὶ δύο; εἰσὶν ὀγδοήκοντα καὶ ἐννέα.
5 42 Reviving Historical Greek ἀι μελέται τοῦ ἀναγνώσκειν (Reading Exercises) Tip Derivative Search If an English derivative doesn t pop out at you, use the transliteration chart to convert the Greek into English characters and then use a dictionary to look for a similar English word. Background Mileage A Roman mile was literally a thousand paces (derivative: millennium), which was a little shorter than an American mile (4,850ft. vs. 5,820 ft.) or 1 ½ kilometers. Tip Difficult Derivatives Sometimes you must use the square of stops to allow for other English characters. For example if we transliterate γραψον we end up with grapson. grap leads us in the wrong direction. But we can broaden our search to include similar types of letters. p is a bilabial the other bilabials are ph, b, and v. So now we can consider grap, graph, grab and grav. The second one make the most since in the context of #4. In these exercises I have translated unfamiliar words and have left the numbers and words that you should be able to figure out by context or that have English derivatives. You simply need to translate the remaining Greek words. If you get stuck on the Greek words that are not numbers take a look at your English Bible. 1) Matthew 5:41 And if anyone forces you to go ἕν μίλιον, go with him δύο. 2) Matthew 13:8 And it bore fruit, one ἑκατόν fruits, one ἑξήκοντα fruits, and one τριάκοντα fruits. 3) Matthew 19:28 You will sit down on δώδεκα θρόνους judging the δώδεκα tribes of Ἰσραήλ. 4) Revelation 1:11 γράψον what you see in a βιβλίον, καὶ send it to the ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις ἐν Ἀσίᾳ 5) Revelation 4:4 καὶ around the θρόνου were θρόνοι εἴκοσι καὶ τέσσαρες καὶ on the θρόνους I saw the εἴκοσι καὶ τέσσαρας πρεσβυτέρους sitting. 6) Revelation 11:2 καὶ they will trample the holy city for τεσσεράκοντα δύο months. 7) Acts 7:14
6 The Greek Markings 43 Ἰωσὴφ summoned his πατέρα, Ἰακὼβ, καὶ all of his kindred, ἑβδομήκοντα πέντε persons. 8) Acts 13:20 καὶ this took about τετρακοσίοις καὶ πεντήκοντα years 9) Luke 17:17 And Ἰησοῦς answered, Were not δέκα healed? Where are the ἐννέα? 10) Luke 24:13 They were going to a village σταδίους ἑξήκοντα from Ἰερουσαλήμ, of which the ὄνομα is Ἐμμαοῦς. Background Stadia A stadion was a little more than a tenth of a mile (607 feet.) So 10 stadia = a little more than a mile. 60 stadia would equal 7 miles. There were 8 stadia to one Roman mile. Synonyms: sade, stadium, stadion For the following exercises, read (pronounce through) each Greek line. Find all of the numbers. Circle and translate every number in each verse. Then look the verse up in your English Bible to see if your translations of the number match. In addition to the numbers you should be able to correlate the boxed words to English derivatives in your text. 1) Matthew 25:15 καὶ ᾧ μὲν ἔδωκε πέντε τάλαντα, ᾧ δὲ δύο, ᾧ δὲ ἕν 2) Matthew 4:2 καὶ νηστεύσας ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα καὶ νύκτας τεσσεράκοντα 3) Revelation 1:1 Ἰωάννης ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις ταῖς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ 4) Revelation 11:3 καὶ προφητεύσουσιν ἡμέρας χιλίας διακοσίας ἑξήκοντα 5) Luke 13:16
7 44 Reviving Historical Greek θυγατέρα Ἀβραὰμ οὖσαν, ἣν ἔδησεν ὁ Σατανᾶς, ἰδοὺ, δέκα καὶ ὀκτὼ ἔτη, 6) Revelation 13:18 καὶ ὁ ἀριθμὸς αὐτοῦ ἑξακόσιοι ἑξήκοντα ἕξ Some manuscripts have this καὶ ὁ ἀριθμὸς αὐτοῦ χξς 1 Liddel and Scott Liddel and Scott A.T. Robertson pg. 283