THE GREEKS WERE THE ORIGINATORS OF MATHEMATICS


 Ἀντιόπη Ράγκος
 1 χρόνια πριν
 Προβολές:
Transcript
1 THE GREEKS WERE THE ORIGINATORS OF MATHEMATICS (The Falsehood of Mesopotamian & Ægyptian Mathematics) by Evangelos Spandagos, professor of Mathematics During the 1930s Otto Neugebauer, the Austrian historian of mathematics and a known adversary of the ancient Greek spirit, created the tale (1) that the Mesopotamian and Ægyptian mathematics were supposedly advanced and that the Greeks took their mathematical knowledge from the people of Mesopotamia (Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians) and the Ægyptians. Unfortunately, this unfounded story was not contradicted when it was first introduced in Greece through a strong and continuous scientific and historical confrontation (2) by the socalled spiritual leadership of the country, and therefore it continued to prevail, under different variations, during the 1950s,1960s and 1980s, through the works of George James (3), A. Seindenberg (4) and Van der Waerden (5). Even today this story continues, though under a childish form that lacks any scientific background, reaching and exceeding the boundaries of ridicule. Individuals with no historical knowledge and pseudoreserchers continue to support the unsubstantiated theories of Afrocentrism (6) through a series of publications in all sorts of magazines, books (7) and information abundant on the internet, that focus on a perpetual degradation of the ancient Greek spirit (8). In particular those historical researchers argue : The ancient Greek mathematicians took their knowledge from the Ægyptians and the Mesopotamians. The term Greek Philosophy is nonexistent. There was never a Greek Philosophy and Philosophy was born in Ægypt. Many Greek savants were of African origin. The socalled Greek mathematicians studied in Ægypt and Babylon at the allwise priesthood of those countries. Trigonometry, number theory, geometry and astronomy were invented either in Africa or in Asia. Τhe founder of geometry, Thales of Miletus, was African and studied along with Pythagoras of Samos in Ægypt and Babylon. They have stolen the principles of Geometry from these countries. Plato, Socrates, Eudoxus, Aristotle and other Greek scholars were initiated inτο a mystical philosophical school, where the priests of Ægypt taught them the secret knowledge.
2 Τhe savant priests of Ægypt were the first founders of the positive sciences, i.e. mathematics (trigonometry, geometry, number theory), astronomy and natural philosophy, a task easily achieved since the priests and the diviners had plenty of free time to get involved with meditation and research. Τhe Greek philosophers and mathematicians tried to cover up their Ægyptian origin. Τhe western civilization must detect its roots in Africa, etc. The sound and solid arguments that disprove all the aforementioned arguments are the following: 1. The assertion that Geometry has its roots in ancient Ægypt is false and the fruit of deception. The Ægyptians themselves admitted to Solon, around 580 B.C. that they took their civilization from the Athenians, before the Deluge of Deucalion, who is placed in time 7 or 10 thousand years B.C. (Plato, Timeo [Τίµαιος] 2325d). Russian researches on a mission proved that indeed Atlantis, which is located west of the Strait of Gibraltar, was sunk during the Flood of Deucalion and therefore all that is mentioned by Plato in Timeo is not a myth. Moreover the Greek Mythology supports the idea that Mathematics were brought to ancient Ægypt by the Greeks. According to a certain version of the Greek Mythology, Saturn did send Hermes to Ægypt and civilized the Ægyptians. Cyrillus of Alexandria writes (9): Ὁ Ἑρµῆς ἀκούει τὴν τε Αἴγυπτον εἰς λῆξιν... καὶ πρόσγε ἀριθµοὺς καὶ λογισµοὺς καὶ γεωµετρίαν εὑρόντα, παραδοῦναι καὶ κατάλογον τῆς τῶν ἄστρων ἐπιτολῆς» (Ηermes hears that Ægypt was brought to an end... and, having found,... the numbers and calculus and geometry and a catalog of stars rising... he handed them over [to the Ægyptians]). 2. Thales of Miletus (10) went to Ægypt as a traveler and not for studies. A proof of this is that he taught the theory of similar triangles to the Ægyptians priests, calculating the height of the great Pyramid by its shadow and the shadow of a stick (Plutarchus, Ethics [Ἠθικά] 147A). Pythagoras of Samos also went there as a traveler and gave lectures to the priests of Ægypt and Babylon on number theory and arithmosophy (a kind of numerology), as testified by Iamblichus. Eudoxus was praised by the Ægyptian priesthood for his vast knowledge on mathematics knowledge that was totally unfamiliar to them, since he referred to asymmetry and proportions, as witnessed by Eutokius. To summarize, the ancient Greek philosophers were visiting Ægypt, Phoenicia and Babylon to teach and not to be taught. 3. While there is information provided by Herodotus, Eudemus of Rhodes (the disciple of Aristotle), Heron of Alexandria and other ancient writers that
3 geometry is a creation of the Ægyptians, this information has been misinterpreted. Τheir term geometry however does not mean the known branch of the science of mathematics, but a kind of practical topography. As for the assertion of Herodotus ( δοκέει δέ µοι ἐντεῦθεν γεωµετρίῃ εὑρεθεῖσα εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἐπανελθεῖν ), {=its seems to me that from here [Ægypt] geometry (... ) was retransferred to Greece}, Evangelos Stamatis (11) proclaims that by the word ἐπανελθεῖν (coming back) is meant that Geometry was transferred from Greece to Ægypt, according to Plato s Timeo (where it is clearly stated that the Ægyptians priests announced to Solon that they took their civilization from the Athenians, a long time before the Flood of Deucalion) and after the Deluge it came back from Ægypt to Greece. In any case, by geometry is meant the practical geometry and not the theoretical and scientific one that was founded by Thales of Miletus. 4. There is no evidence that the ancient Greeks were in touch culturally before 700 B.C. with the Sumerians, the Babylonians and the Assyrians. 5. At the excavations held in modern Iraq, many thousands of Babylonian inscriptions (boards) were found, all made of unbaked clay. A single intact board bears the size of the palm. Out of those boards 400 (intact or in pieces) have a mathematical content. They date from 1700 B.C. to 300 B.C., while their content refers to elementary geometrical notions given in a practical way. Among them there is the board 322 that belongs to the archeological collection of the University of Columbia in New York and refers to the triad of numbers 3, 4, 5 that verifies the relation of the Pythagorean Theorem (i.e. we have a practical application). The ever memorable Evangelos Stamatis in his work Greek Science (Ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ Ἐπιστήµη, Athens 1968) writes relevantly (12): «What is said by few, that the Babylonian Semites knew the Pythagorean Theorem in 1800 B.C., brings out laughter. Because the boards found last century in Mesopotamia, that comprise mathematical propositions in which the Pythagorean Theorem is probably stated, came to light in most cases from smugglers and therefore it is not possible to date the time in which they were written. This is verified as early as 1959 by Kurt Vogel, professor of History of Mathematics at the University of Munich in his book under the title Vorgriechische Mathematik (13). The examination of the mathematical content of those boards leads to the conclusion that their content derives from Greek knowledge that arrived in Mesopotamia during the time of the Seleukides emperors, i.e. after the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 B.C.».
4 As far as the assertion of Neugebauer that the Babylonians knew about a certain kind of proof in mathematics, we have to say that this assertion proves clearly the repulsion of Neugebauer for the ancient Greek spirit, because the Babylonians either had proof in mathematics or not. In this case there is no place for middle ground, nor a kind of proof. All these are written by the Austrian historian, because the invention of proof in Mathematics, which is a sublime creation of the human mind, is owed to Thales of Miletus and not to the Semites nor the Babylonians, who Neugebauer admired for reasons unknown. 6. Our knowledge about the Ægyptian mathematics is owed mainly to 2 papyruses. One of these, which is located at the London Museum, was written around 1800 B.C. by Ahmes and bears the name Papyrus of Rhind (14). Its length is 5½ m. and its width is 32 cm. The papyrus of Rhind, that was deciphered by A. Eisenlohr in 1880, contains 85 elementary topics of practical arithmetic and practical geometry. The other papyrus is housed in the Moscow Museum and has the same length as the papyrus of Ahmes, but its width is 8 cm. This papyrus which goes back to the 17 th century B.C., was deciphered by W. Struve, and contains 25 topics of elementary and practical mathematics. Besides those 2 papyruses, there are also a few small fragments of papyruses housed in the Museums of Berlin, Cairo and London, bearing insignificant content. In short, the papyruses found show practical mathematics and not scientific methodology, which requires the use of logical proof. 7. The assertion that trigonometry was created by the Babylonians and the Ægyptians has no base whatsoever. Trigonometry was founded by Aristarchus of Samos ( B.C.), the great Archimedes ( B.C.) and Hipparchus (2 nd century B.C.). Aristarchus, for the first time in the history of mathematics used trigonometrical relations to calculate the distance of the Sun from Earth. Archimides used trigonometry in his work Κύκλου µέτρησις (Measurement of a Cycle) and Hipparchus, who is the main founder of Trigonometry, devised the trigonometrical tables. There is not even one Ægyptian or Babylonian work that contains even a hint of a trigonometrical definition or a trigonometrical relation. 8. Not even one Ægyptian or Babylonian manuscript or board was ever found bearing even one geometrical or arithmetical proposition along with its proof. The word proof (ἀπόδειξις) occurs only in the works of the ancient Greek mathematicians and other scientists. 9. The allegations of certain writers that the founder of theoretical geometry was of Phoenician origin are inventions and misinformation. The family of Thales of Miletus, according to the ancient writer Douris (15), belonged to the noble
5 gender of Thelides who claimed their origin from Thebes (Greece) and were descendants of Cadmus and Agenor. 10. Today 58 works of ancient Greek mathematicians and 32 works of ancient Greek physicists and natural scientists have been preserved, all of which are more than enough to prove the unrepeatable greatness of the Ancient Greek Spirit (16 & 17). If the so called researchers bothered to read even one of these works, they wouldn t dare to write so many childish inaccuracies, distorting History and Truth. 11. The Italian historian of Mathematics Gino Loria, in his book History of Mathematics, published in Greek by the Greek Mathematical Society (Athens 1971), writes: The influence of the eastern peoples upon the Greek spirit must not be overestimated for also another reason. The ancient Greeks had deficient knowledge of foreign languages, which prevented them to go deep down to the depths of thoughts of people with whom they had commercial relations. 12. It cannot be questioned that Mathematics in Ancient Greece were infinitely much closer to Philosophy itself and were far away from the various practical matters. In conclusion we state that : During the end of the 7 th century B.C. there was a great turn in the evolution of the human mind, which gave meaning to the term science. This turn is owed to the invention of one man, Thales of Miletus, one of the great 7 savants of ancient Greece, to whom the invention of proof in mathematics is attributed. This invention is the basis upon which the Science of Mathematics is founded. It is an unshakable fact, worldwide accepted, that Mathematics were initiated, founded and promoted in Ancient Greece. A quote from a paper of professor Nicolaos Artemiades, member of the Athens Academy, is appropriate (18): Unanimously all the historians of mathematics attribute their growth to the Greeks of those days; Thales of Miletus, one of the 7 savants of antiquity, being the pioneer. (...) In the History of Mathematics, Thales is the first and only individual that is referred to by his very name, for bringing forward the method of proof in geometry, an achievement that represents a great moment in the History of Mathematics. At this point, a question is raised. Why is it that out of all the ancient civilizations the Greeks were the only ones that figured that all geometrical results must be verified through logical proof and that practical verification is not sufficient?
6 The answer to the above question composes and encompasses the so called Greek Mystery. The common answer to this question is that it is owed to the sui generis structural genius of the Greeks as to the philosophical research. In philosophy, it is of major importance to proceed with certainty into accurate and precise results, deriving from certain hypotheses. The empirical method provides only a certain amount of probability as to the correctness of a given result. Because the logic of proof was an essential instrument for the philosopher, it was natural for the Greeks to indulge into the logic of proof while studying Geometry as well. Another answer to the Greek Mystery bears its roots to the worship of the beautiful that characterizes the Greek spirit, something that is evident in Art, Literature, Sculpture, Architecture... The aforementioned Gino Loria, in his work History of Mathematics writes: Moreover, what we know now from the scientific work of Ancient Greece (19) proves that even if the Greeks took certain elements of knowledge from others, they managed to transform them so deeply and to evolve them in such original ways, so that we can not deny that their whole scientific creation constitutes their sole and inalienable spiritual property, since there is not a special characteristic or fact in the ancient Greek spirit that is not in accordance with everything else that we know about the ingenuity of this privileged race NOTES (1) Neugebauer O., Studien zur Geschichte der Antiken Algebra III, Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik, B, 3 (1936). (2) The Greek historians Κωνσταντῖνος Γεωργούλης (Constantinos Georgoulis) and Εὐάγγελος Σταµάτης (Evangelos Stamatis) tried to shutter the allegations of Otto Neugebauer through a series of sound arguments, but unfortunately their attempt was not followed by others and they themselves were strongly opposed. (3) James George, Stolen Legacy, Arkansas, USA 1954 (4) Seidenberg A., The ritual origin of geometry, Archive for His. Exact Sci., Vol. 1, No 5, (5) Waerden V.L.v.d., Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations, Springer, Berlin 1983.
7 (6) Bernal Martin, Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, New York (7) Poe Richard, Black Spark, White Fire, New York 1999 and Zaks Edgar, Mathematics were born in Babylon, New York (8) Fortunately, Mary R. Lefkowitz, professor of Classical Studies at Wellesley College, pulverized all the antiscientific theories of Afrocentrism, through her book Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History, (9) Scott H., Cyrillus of Alexandria, IV, p and Λεγάκης Γιῶργος, Προµηθέας: Ἕνας Χριστὸς π.χ. (Legakis George, Prometheus, a Christ B.C., article in Ἑλληνικὴ Ἀγωγή [Elliniki Agogi], October 1999). Caria. (10) Miletus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, in ancient (11) Εὐάγγελος Σταµάτης, Ἱστορία τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν Μαθηµατικῶν (Stamatis Evangelos, History of Greek Mathematics), Athens 1971, p (12) Εὐάγγελος Σταµάτης, Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάµιος (Stamatis Evangelos, Pythagoras of Samos), Athens 1981, p. 52. (13) Vogel Kurt, Vorgriechische Mathematik, SchroedelSchöningh Verlag, Münich (14) Its name comes from the British Alexander Henry Rhind who bought it in Ægypt in (15) Douris ( B.C.): historian of Samos. (16) Here is a list of some of the works written by ancient Greek scientists and their commentators published in Greek [editions AETHRA, Athens, Greece] by Evangelos Spandagos: The Lost Treatises of Euclid (190 p.) ["Οἱ Χαµένες Πραγµατεῖες τοῦ Εὐκλείδου"]. Optics and Catoptrics by Euclid (360 p.) ["Τὰ Ὀπτικὰ καὶ τὰ Κατοπτρικὰ τοῦ Εὐκλείδου"]. Phaenomena by Euclid (216 p.) ["Τὰ Φαινόµενα τοῦ Εὐκλείδου"]. Sphaerics by Theodosius (288 p.) ["Τὰ Σφαιρικὰ τοῦ Θεοδοσίου"]. On the Section of a Cylinder and On the Section of a Cone by Serenus (352 p.) ["Τὰ Περὶ Κυλίνδρου Τοµῆς καὶ Περὶ Κώνου Τοµῆς τοῦ Σερήνου"].
8 On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon by Aristarchus of Samos (152 p.) ["Τὸ Περὶ µεγεθῶν καὶ ἀποστηµάτων Ἡλίου καὶ Σελήνης τοῦ Ἀριστάρχου"]. Synagoge or Collection by Pappus of Alexandria, vol. I (500 p.), vol. II (406 p.), vol. III (432 p.) & vol. IV (152 p.) ["Ἡ Συναγωγὴ τοῦ Πάππου τοῦ Ἀλεξανδρέως" (τόµοι Α,Β,Γ, )]. Introduction to Arithmetic by Nicomachus of Gerasa (312 p.) ["Ἡ Ἀριθµητικὴ Εἰσαγωγὴ τοῦ Νικοµάχου τοῦ Γερασηνοῦ"]. A Commentary on the First Book of Euclid's Elements by Proclus vol. I (392 p.), vol. II (384 p.) ["Ὑπόµνηµα εἰς τὸ πρῶτον τῶν Εὐκλείδου Στοιχείων τοῦ Πρόκλου"]. Introduction to Phaenomena by Geminus of Rhodes (320 p.) ["Εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τὴν σπουδὴν τῶν οὐρανίων φαινοµένων τοῦ Γεµίνου τοῦ Ροδίου"]. Constellations by Eratosthenes of Cyrene (160 p.) ["Οἱ Καταστερισµοὶ τοῦ Ἐρατοσθένους"]. Phaenomena and Diosemeia by Aratus of Soli (160 p.) ["Tὰ Φαινόµενα καὶ ιοσηµεῖα τοῦ Ἀράτου]. The 14 th and 15 th books of Elements of Euclid (144 p.) ["Τὸ 14 ο καὶ τὸ 15 ο βιβλία τῶν «Στοιχείων»"]. Commentary on the Phaenomena of Eudoxus and Aratus by Hipparchus (400 p.) ["Τῶν Ἀράτου καὶ Εὐδόξου Φαινοµένων ἐξηγήσεως τοῦ Ἱππάρχου"]. On the Moving Sphere and On Risings and Settings (of celestial bodies) by Autolycus of Pitane (192 p.) ["Τα έργα του Αυτολύκου του Πιτανέως "Περὶ κινουµένης σφαίρας" και "Περὶ ἐπιτολῶν καὶ δύσεων"]. On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies by Cleomedes (256 p.) ["Το έργο του Κλεοµήδους "Κυκλική Θεωρία Μετεώρων"]. Data by Euclid (272 p.) ["Το έργο του Ευκλείδου " εδοµένα"]. Mathematical Syntaxis vol. I, by Ptolemaeus (416 p.) ["«Ἡ Μαθηµατικὴ Σύνταξις» του Πτολεµαίου" (τόµος Α )]. On Mathematics Useful for the Understanding of Plato, by Theon of Smyrna (384 p.) ["«Τῶν κατὰ τὸ µαθηµατικὸν χρησίµων εἰς τὴν Πλάτωνος ἀνάγνωσιν» του Θέωνος του Σµυρναίου"]. Metaphysics by Theophrastus (128 p.) ["Τῶν τὰ µετὰ τὰ φυσικὰ τοῦ Θεοφράστου"]. On Ascensions by Hypsicles of Alexandria ["Ὑψικλέους: Ἀναφο ρικός"]. On the Phaenomena of Aratus by Eratosthenes of Cyrene ["Ἐρατοσθένους: Εἰς τὰ Ἀράτου Φαινόµενα"]. On everything about the Phaenomena of Aratus by Achilles Tatius of Alexandria ["Ἀχιλλέως Τατίου: Περὶ τοῦ Παντὸς (τῶν Ἀράτου Φαινοµένων πρὸς εἰσαγωγήν)"].
9 On Movement by Proclus (160 p.) ["Το «Περὶ Κινήσεως» έργο του Πρόκλου"]. On Polygonal Numbers by Diophantus of Alexandria (144 p.) ["Το «Περὶ Πολυγώνων Ἀριθµῶν» έργο του ιοφάντου"]. (17) Here is another list of works written by ancient Greek mathematicians and other positive scientists, either published or meant to be published in Greek : Elements by Euclid, vol. 14 [ Στοιχεῖα Eὐκλείδου τοῦ Εὐαγγέλου Σταµάτη (τόµοι 14)]. Complete Works of Archimedes vol. 14 [ Ἀρχιµήδους Ἅπαντα τοῦ Εὐαγγέλου Σταµάτη (τόµοι 14)]. Arithmetics by Diophantus, [ ιοφάντου Ἀριθµητικά τοῦ Εὐαγγέλου Σταµάτη]. Conics by Apollonius of Perga [ Ἀπολλωνίου Κωνικά τοῦ Εὐαγγέλου Σταµάτη]. Geometrics by Heron of Alexandria, [«Γεωµετρικά τοῦ Ἥρωνος τοῦ Ἀλεξανδρέως» τοῦ Χρήστου Κηπουροῦ]. On Dioptra by Heron of Alexandria, [«Περὶ ιόπτρας τοῦ Ἥρωνος τοῦ Ἀλεξανδρέως» τοῦ Χρήστου Κηπουροῦ]. Manual of Introductory Arithmetic, by Domninus of Larissa (Syria) [ οµνίνου: "Ἐγχειρίδιο Ἀριθµητικῆς εἰσαγωγῆς"]. On a Sphere by Proclus [Πρόκλου: "Περὶ σφαίρας"]. Chapters of Optical Hypotheses by Damianus [ αµιανοῦ: "Κεφάλαια τῶν ὀπτικῶν ὑποθέσεων"]. Sphaerics by Menelaus [Μενελάου: "Σφαιρικά"]. Small Works, by Ptolemaeus [Πτολεµαίου: Μικρὰ ἔργα]. Exposition of Astronomical Hypotheses by Proclus [Πρόκλου: "Ὑποτύ πωσις ἀστρονοµικῶν ὑποθέσεων"]. Theology of Mathematics by Iamblichus [Ἰαµβλίχου: "Θεολογούµενα τῆς ἀριθµητικῆς"]. On Common Mathematical Science by Iamblichus [Ἰαµβλίχου: "Περὶ τῆς κοινῆς Μαθηµατικῆς Ἐπιστήµης"]. On Burning Mirrors or Pyria by Diocles [ ιοκλέους: "Πυρία"]. Complete preserved Works by Apollonius of Perga [Ἀπολλωνίου: "Ἅπαντα τὰ σῳζόµενα"]. Comments on Ptolemaeus Mathematical Syntaxis by Theon of Alexandria [Θέωνος τοῦ Ἀλεξανδρέως: "Σχόλια εἰς τὴν τοῦ Πτολεµαίου Μαθηµατικὴν Σύνταξιν"]. Comments on On Heaven by Aristoteles by Simplicius [Σιµπλικίου: "Σχόλια εἰς τὸ περὶ Οὐρανοῦ τοῦ Ἀριστοτέλους"]. (18) Νικόλαος Ἀρτεµιάδης, Ἀπὸ τὴν ἱστορία τῶν µαθηµατικῶν παλαιότερων ἐποχῶν (Βαβυλώνιοι Ἀρχαῖοι Ἕλληνες), (Artemiades Nicolaos, From the History of Mathematics of ancient
10 times (Babylonians Ancient Greeks). Reprint from the annals of Athens Academia, vol. 67 (1992). (19) Only a small fragment (less than 7%) of the entire works of ancient positive scientists written in Greek is preserved and made it to our days.
Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
MAXPLANCKINSTITUT FÜR WISSENSCHAFTSGESCHICHTE Max Planck Institute for the History of Science 2007 PREPRINT 327 István M. Bodnár Oenopides of Chius: A survey of the modern literature with a collection
Διαβάστε περισσότεραStephanos of Alexandria: A Famous Byzantine Scholar, Alchemist and Astrologer
Maria Papathanassiou National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Stephanos of Alexandria: A Famous Byzantine Scholar, Alchemist and Astrologer INTRODUCTION Understanding the intellectual profile of
Διαβάστε περισσότεραChristopher C. Marchetti ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
2009 Christopher C. Marchetti ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ARISTOXENUS ELEMENTS OF RHYTHM: TEXT, TRANSLATION, AND COMMENTARY WITH A TRANSLATION AND COMMENTARY ON POXY 2687 by CHRISTOPHER C. MARCHETTI A Dissertation
Διαβάστε περισσότεραDemocritus and the Critical Tradition. Joseph Gresham Miller. Department of Classical Studies Duke University. Date: Approved:
Democritus and the Critical Tradition by Joseph Gresham Miller Department of Classical Studies Duke University Date: Approved: José M. González, Supervisor Michael T. Ferejohn Jed W. Atkins James H. Lesher
Διαβάστε περισσότεραFrom Zero to the National Greek Exam: An Introduction for Everyone
From Zero to the National Greek Exam: An Introduction for Everyone a workshop at the American Classical League 64 th Annual Institute, Minneapolis, MN Saturday June 25, 2011 2:003:30 Wilfred E. Major
Διαβάστε περισσότεραCopyright 2012 Yale University. L e a r n To R e a d. Gr eek. pa rt 1. Andrew Keller Collegiate School. Stephanie Russell Collegiate School
L e a r n To R e a d Gr eek pa rt 1 Andrew Keller Collegiate School Stephanie Russell Collegiate School New Haven & London Copyright 2012 by Yale University. All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced,
Διαβάστε περισσότεραRHETORICAL TEXTURE AND PATTERN IN PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA S DE DECALOGO
RHETORICAL TEXTURE AND PATTERN IN PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA S DE DECALOGO Manuel Alexandre Jr. Centro de Estudos Clássicos, Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa Faculty of Theology, NorthWest University,
Διαβάστε περισσότεραA Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES By Bruce Metzger
A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES By Bruce Metzger Introduction The text of the book of the Acts of the Apostles circulated in the early church in two quite distinct
Διαβάστε περισσότεραSOCIETY OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE SEPTUAGINT AND COGNATE STUDIES SERIES. Edited by Harry M. Orlinsky
SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE SEPTUAGINT AND COGNATE STUDIES SERIES Edited by Harry M. Orlinsky Number 14 A LEXICAL STUDY OF THE SEPTUAGINT VERSION OF THE PENTATEUCH by J. A. L. Lee A LEXICAL STUDY OF
Διαβάστε περισσότεραCopyright. Luis Alejandro Salas
Copyright by Luis Alejandro Salas 2013 The Dissertation Committee for Luis Alejandro Salas Certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation: Anatomy and Anatomical Exegesis in
Διαβάστε περισσότεραThe worldview of women in demotic historic, akritic and epic poetry of the late Byzantine Period (9 th Century to 1453)
The worldview of women in demotic historic, akritic and epic poetry of the late Byzantine Period (9 th Century to 1453) By VIRGINIA A. DELIGATOS STUDENT NO.: 909523642 Dissertation submitted in fulfillment
Διαβάστε περισσότεραTHE LAST CHAPTERS OF ENOCH IN GREEK
THE LAST CHAPTERS OF ENOCH IN GREEK EDITED BY CAMPBELL BONNER WITH THE COLLABORATION OF HERBERT C. YOUTIE 1968 WISSENSCHAFTLICHE BUCHGE SELLSCHAFT DARMSTADT This reprint of The Last Chapters of Enoch in
Διαβάστε περισσότεραNotes on the Septuagint
by R. Grant Jones, Ph.D. July 2000 Revised and Converted to Adobe Acrobat Format February 2006 The author can be reached via email at ignatios_antioch@hotmail.com. Copyright 2000, 2006, R. Grant Jones.
Διαβάστε περισσότεραORTHODOXY AND THE GREAT SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF AFRICA. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE GREAT MONOTHEISTIC RELIGIONS TO THEIR SOLUTION
ORTHODOXY AND THE GREAT SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF AFRICA. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE GREAT MONOTHEISTIC RELIGIONS TO THEIR SOLUTION INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE UNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBURG  SOUTH AFRICA
Διαβάστε περισσότεραC.A.E. LUSCHNIG ANCIENT GREEK. A Literary Appro a c h. Second Edition Revised by C.A.E. Luschnig and Deborah Mitchell
C.A.E. LUSCHNIG AN INTRODUCTION TO ANCIENT GREEK A Literary Appro a c h Second Edition Revised by C.A.E. Luschnig and Deborah Mitchell AN INTRODUCTION TO ANCIENT GREEK A Literary Approach Second Edition
Διαβάστε περισσότεραThe use of sources in teaching and learning history
The use of sources in teaching and learning history The Council of Europe s activities in Cyprus Volume2 Report of the workshops and workshop materials on: The use of historical sources in teaching cultural
Διαβάστε περισσότεραP H A S I S. Greek and Roman Studies VOLUME 12 2009 IVANE JAVAKHISHVILI TBILISI STATE UNIVERSITY
P H A S I S Greek and Roman Studies VOLUME 12 2009 IVANE JAVAKHISHVILI TBILISI STATE UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF CLASSICAL, BYZANTINE AND MODERN GREEK STUDIES EDITORIAL BOARD: Rismag Gordeziani EditorinChief
Διαβάστε περισσότεραThe Online Library of Liberty
The Online Library of Liberty A Project Of Liberty Fund, Inc. Aristotle, The Politics vol. 2 [1885] The Online Library Of Liberty This EBook (PDF format) is published by Liberty Fund, Inc., a private,
Διαβάστε περισσότεραWas Jesus Crucified?
Posted 12 June 2010. Augmentet 30 June 2010 Was Jesus Crucified? Gunnar Samuelsson, Crucifixion in Antiquity. An Inquiry into the Background of the New Testament Terminology of Crucifixion, University
Διαβάστε περισσότερα"Peter as Initiated Interpreter of the Oracles of God: A New Interpretation of 2 Peter 1:1621"
"Peter as Initiated Interpreter of the Oracles of God: A New Interpretation of 2 Peter 1:1621" ABSTRACT: 2 Peter 1:1621 is difficult. It is not clear how the transfiguration (1:1618) is meant to be
Διαβάστε περισσότεραΜουσικοθεραπεία & Ειδική Μουσική Παιδαγωγική Music Therapy & Special Music Education
Μουσικοθεραπεία & Ειδική Μουσική Παιδαγωγική Music Therapy & Special Music Education http://approaches.primarymusic.gr 2 (1) 2010 ISSN 17919622 µε την υποστήριξη της ΕΕΜΑΠΕ supported by GAPMET www.primarymusic.gr
Διαβάστε περισσότεραThe sacrament of Holy Communion is the most significant rite in
KOINONIKON: THE HYMNOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF HOLY COMMUNION Gerasimos Koutsouras The sacrament of Holy Communion is the most significant rite in Christian worship. It is therefore important that the hymnology
Διαβάστε περισσότεραThe Online Library of Liberty
The Online Library of Liberty A Project Of Liberty Fund, Inc. Aristotle, The Politics vol. 2 [1885] The Online Library Of Liberty This EBook (PDF format) is published by Liberty Fund, Inc., a private,
Διαβάστε περισσότεραThe Views of Byzantine Thinker Theodoros Metochites about the Sorrow, and the Instability of Human Life
American International Journal of Social Science Vol. 4, No. 2; April 2015 The Views of Byzantine Thinker Theodoros Metochites about the Sorrow, and the Instability of Human Life Sotiria, A. Triantari
Διαβάστε περισσότεραMaster s Thesis. Presented to
A Theology of Memory: The Concept of Memory in the Greek Experience of the Divine Master s Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Brandeis University Department of
Διαβάστε περισσότεραTHE TEXT OF THE SEPTUAGINT
THE TEXT OF THE SEPTUAGINT ITS CORRUPTIONS AND THEIR EMENDATION By the late PETER WALTERS (formerly Katz) Edited by D. W. GOODING Reader in Classics at the Queen 1 s University of Belfast CAMBRIDGE At
Διαβάστε περισσότεραBible Greek. Basic Grammar of the Greek New Testament. John Pappas
Bible Greek Basic Grammar of the Greek New Testament John Pappas A companion book for the Bible Greek Vpod Internet Video Instruction Program biblegreekvpod.com Copyright by John Peter Pappas, Th.M, Th.D
Διαβάστε περισσότεραA LIKELY STORY: RHETORIC AND THE DETERMINATION OF TRUTH IN POLYBIUS HISTORIES *
Histos 9 (2015) 29 66 A LIKELY STORY: RHETORIC AND THE DETERMINATION OF TRUTH IN POLYBIUS HISTORIES * Abstract: I argue that Polybius demands that a central duty of the historian should be to employ rhetoric
Διαβάστε περισσότεραFrom Zero to Greek: An Introduction to the Language for Everyone
From Zero to Greek: An Introduction to the Language for Everyone A preinstitute workshop at American Classical League 61 st Annual Institute, Durham, NH Holloway Commons: Cocheco Room Thursday June 26,
Διαβάστε περισσότεραIs Husband of One Wife in 1 Timothy 3:2 GenderSpecific? Clinton Wahlen, Ph.D. Theology of Ordination Study Committee Columbia, Md.
0 0 0 Is Husand of One Wife in Timothy : GenderSpecific? Clinton Wahlen, Ph.D. Theology of Ordination Study Committee Columia, Md. January, 0 Introduction From Clarity to Uncertainty Limiting Bilical
Διαβάστε περισσότερα