1 GREEK GRAMMAR HANDOUT Karl Maurer, (office) 215 Carpenter, (972) , ( ) p. 3 I. Greek Accenting: Basic Rules 8 II. ALL NOUN DECLENSIONS. (How to form the Dual p. 12) B. (p. 13) 'X-Rays' of Odd Third-declension Nouns. C. (p. 15) Greek declensions compared with Archaic Latin declensions. 16 III. Commonest Pronouns declined (for Homeric pronouns see also p. 70). 19 IV. Commonest Adjectives declined. 22 V. VERB-CONJUGATIONS: A. (p. 22) λύω conjugated. B. (p. 23) How to Form the Dual. C. (p. 24) Homeric Verb Forms (for regular verbs). D. (p. 26) ἵστημι conjugated. (p. 29) τίθημι conjugated; (p. 29 ff.) δείκνυμι, δίδωμι, εἶμι, εἰμί, φημί, ἵημι. E. (p. 32) Mnemonics for Contract verbs. 33 VI.A. Participles, B. Infinitives, C. Imperatives. D (p. 33) Greek vs. Latin Imperatives 35 VII. PRINCIPAL PARTS of verbs, namely, 1. (p. 35) Vowel Stems. 2. (p. 36) Dentals. 3. (p. 36) Labials. 4. (p. 36) Palatals. 5. (p. 36) Liquids. 6. (p. 38) Hybrids. 7. (p. 37) -άνω, -ύνω, -σκω, -ίσκω. 8. (p. 39) 'Irregular' 9. (p. 40) Consonant changes in perfect passive. 10. (p. 40) "Infixes": what they are. 11. (p. 41) Irregular Reduplications and Augments. 12. (p. 42) Irregular (-μι-verb-like) 2nd Aorist Forms. 43 VII.A Perfect tense (meaning of), by D. B. Monro 44 VIII. Conditions 45 IX. Indirect Discourse: Moods in. (p. 43 the same restated) 47 X. Interrogative Pronouns & Indirect Question 49 XI. Relative Clauses. 52 XII. Constructions with words meaning "BEFORE" and "UNTIL" 53 XIII. Words Used 'Attributively' and 'Predicatively' 56 XIV. Supplementary Participles 57 XV. 'Internal Object' (Internal & External Accusatives)
2 2 58 XVI. 'Active' & 'Passive' Verbal Nouns & Adjectives 59 XVII. PREPOSITIONS: English to Greek. (p. 63 Time Expressions) 65 XVIII. Prepositions: Greek to English. 69 XIX. NUMERALS (& the four Greek letters used only as numerals) by Patrick Callahan 70 XX. Table of ATTIC versus HOMERIC (etc.) forms for Nouns and Pronouns 71 XXI. Greek Words for Come and Go 72. XXI. Map of the Greek Dialects, by L. R. Palmer * * * * * * * But WHY LEARN GREEK? An answer I think is implicit in this limpid little poem by Thomas Hardy: IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 'What do you see in that time-touched stone, When nothing is there But ashen blankness, although you give it A rigid stare? 'You look not quite as if you saw, But as if you heard, Parting your lips, and treading softly As mouse or bird. 'It is only the base of a pillar, they'll tell you, That came to us From a far old hill men used to name Areopagus.' 'I know no art, and I only view A stone from a wall, But I am thinking that stone has echoed The voice of Paul, 'Paul as he stood and preached beside it Facing the crowd, A small gaunt figure with wasted features, Calling out loud 'Words that in all their intimate accents Pattered upon That marble front, and were far reflected, And then were gone. 'I'm a labouring man, and know but little, Or nothing at all; But I can't help thinking that stone once echoed The voice of Paul.'
3 (I) Basic Rules For Greek Accents 3 Much of this is for beginners; but some particular rules are for advanced students too (especially in IX). Here "ult" means a word's last syllable; "penult" the second-to-last, "antepenult" the third from last. Mastery of accents comes only slowly, because their rules are complex; but you should not, in despair, just ignore them. If you ignore them, you can never pronounce Greek properly, or "hear" it in your inner ear. And then (a) memorizing inflections is far harder, and (b) again and again you miss vital information, given just by accents. E.g. μένω = "I stay", μενῶ = "I will stay"; or e.g. ἐν = "in", ἕν = "one thing"; or e.g. ἤν = "if", ἥν = "whom", ἦν = "I was". At first, the rules might make your head spin; but this does not last forever. If you pay close attention for just a few weeks, it all begins to seem easy. (I) All ancient Greek words are accented (except the few listed below in IX). They are pitch accents (see III), but helping to fix the pitch in any word is another factor, quantity (a vowel's length; how long it takes to say it: see II). Unfortunately we native English speakers are insensitive to both; we tend to hear only a word's stress. So in speaking Greek at first just stress every acute-accented or circumflex-accented syllable (but not the grave-accented: see IV). The modern Greeks do the same (see X). (II) Definition of "long" and "short" vowels (needed for all rules in III - IX): Always short: only -ε- and -ο-. Always long: -η-; -ω- (except in -ις -εως and -υς -εως nouns); & diphthongs. A "diphthong" = any two-vowel combination except final -αι and -οι. Those are nearly always short (e.g. μοῦσαι, λύομαι, ἄνθρωποι); long only in the optative, 3rd pers. sing. (e.g. παύοι & παύσαι). Either long or short : -ι-, -υ-, α-. In stems they are either long or short (you just have to learn that when you learn the word. Long for example is the stem-vowel in σῖτος, λῦσαι πσα.) But for accent, the stem-vowel is much less important than inflections; and here one can say: -ι- and -υ- in inflections are always short. -α- in inflections is always short -- except in 1st-declension feminine. There, -ας is always long; but -α and -αν -- i.e. the nom. and accus. singular -- can be either long or short. In sum, the only really big nuisance is -α- in first-declension feminines, since there nom. and acc. -α and -αν can be either long or short. For the rules, see the rhyme in VIII. (III) Three kinds of accent: G r a v e \ : the speaker's voice remained low in pitch (i.e. grave accent is not pronounced--see IV), C i r c u m f l e x ^ : the voice rose in pitch, then fell (see IV), A c u t e / = the voice rose in pitch. What kind of accent is used is largely a matter of "vocabulary" -- i.e. you learn any word's accent-patterns when you "learn" the word itself -- but we can generalize at least this much: (1) G r a v e \ is only on the ult. It appears wherever a word accented on the ult is followed by another accented word. As was said above, grave accent is not pronounced; its chief function is to signal, to the eye, that another word is coming. So the formula is: a word
4 4 accented on the ult gets a grave if followed by another accented word, and an acute if followed by punctuation, or by an enclitic (i.e. by a word not accented -- for a list of enclitics see IX). (2) C i r c u m f l e x ^ can fall only on a long penult or long ult (never before the penult, and never on a short syllable). It appears on any accented penult if that is long, and the ult short, e.g. χεῖρα. It appears on any accented ult which (a) is a genitive or dative ending; or (b) is a contraction (e.g. in contract verbs; in futures of liquid verbs; in any ult containing iota subscript; in all 1st-declension genitives plural, e.g. ἀδικιῶν *= -άων+, στρατιωτῶν *= -άων+ etc.) (3) A c u t e / can fall on the ult, the penult, or the antepenult (but never prior to that). (IV) More about the 3 kinds of accent (quotations from Smyth ). Re g r a v e: "The ancients regarded the grave originally as belonging to every syllable not accented with the acute or circumflex; and some MSS show this in practice, e.g. πὰγκρὰτής. Later it was restricted to its use for a final acute." That someone could write "πὰγκρὰτής" shows that the ancients did not stress grave-accented syllables. (You can verify this yourself by reading aloud almost any Greek sentence: if you ignore the grave accents, it sounds vastly more natural.) The function of written grave accent is purely analytical: it helps to show the grammar, and shows how the word would be accented if it were not followed by another word. Re c i r c u m f l e x: It is "formed from the union of the acute and the grave ( ` = ^ ), never from `. Thus, παῖς = πάὶς, εὖ = ἔὺ. Similarly, since every long vowel may be resolved into two short units (morae) τῶν may be regarded as = τόὸν. The circumflex was thus followed by a rising tone followed by one of lower pitch. μοῦσα, δῆμος are thus μόὺσα, δέὲμος." Because of this rise and fall on circumflex syllables, ancient Greek must have sounded sing-song, like modern Swedish or -- it is said -- Lithuanian. (Those are the only two modern European languages in which the pitch accent dominates, as in ancient Greek.) But for Englishspeakers, it seems best to stress every circumflex, just as if it were an acute. (V) An inflected word has any of three accent-patterns. Any word not inflected -- e.g. adverb, conjunction, preposition -- has no "accent-pattern", only a fixed accent which never changes (except from acute to grave, as in III.1 above), and you just learn it when you learn the word. But the accenting of a noun, adjective, or verb does change as its ending changes, and as you learn the declensions and conjugations, you will notice the following three patterns. (I here ignore the term "persistent" which other books use for nouns and adjectives; on that see the Appendix.) (1) R e c e s s i v e, when the accent moves from the ult as far as it can. When the ult is short, the accent recedes to the antepenult; when the ult is long, the accent is pulled to the penult. E.g. noun φύλακες φυλάκων φύλαξι etc. (-ες is short, -ων long, -ι short, etc.); or adj. δίκαιος δικαίου δικαίῳ etc. (-ος is short, -ου & -ῳ long) or (verb) ἔλυον ἔλυες ἔλυε etc. Recessive are (a) most verb forms (for exceptions see VI) and (b) many nouns and adjectives. (2) F i x e d, when the accent stays on the penult or ult (i.e. the accent never moves; it only changes from acute to circumflex, or acute to grave as in III.1 & 2 above). Fixed accent is
5 5 found: (a) in many nouns, e.g. ("fishes") ἰχθύες ἰχψύων ἰχψύσι etc. (there it is always on the penult); (b) in many adjectives, e.g. ἀγαθός, -θοῦ, -θόν etc. (there, always on the ult); (c) in a few verb-forms (all of which are listed in VI below). Note that in a great many 3rd-decl. nouns and adjectives -- e.g. ("fish") ἰχθύς, ἰχθύος, ἰχθύι, ἰχθύα etc.; or ("having left") λιπών, -όντος, -όντι, -όντα etc. -- the accent should be seen as "fixed" on the penult even though the nom. singular has an ultimate accent. You can just say to yourself that, in such words, the nom. sing. is "missing" a syllable. (3) "Q u i r k y" is anything not obeying rules of "fixed" or "recessive". The only really common quirky words -- those that you should try very hard to remember -- are these: (a) 3rd-declension monosyllables (i.e. words whose nom. sing. has 1 syllable) have gen. & dat. accent on the ult, e.g. (sing.) χεῖρ χειρός χειρί χεῖρα, (plural) χεῖρες χειρῶν, χερσί, χεῖρας. (b) several 3rd-decl. disyllables also have gen. & dat. accent on the ult. E.g. μήτηρ μητρός μητρί μητέρα etc.; πατήρ πατρός πατρί πατέρα etc.; ἀνήρ ἀνδρός ἀνδρί, ἄνδρα etc.; γυνή γυναικός γυναικί γυναῖκα etc.; οὐδείς (& μηδείς) οὐδενός οὐδενί οὐδένα etc. (c) 1st-decl. gen. plural:, e.g. (nom.) ἄναγκαι, (gen.) ἀναγκῶν (because it is really a contraction of Homeric ἀναγκάων). (VI) List of verb forms that have "fixed" accent. Most verb forms are "recessive" (as was said above); I here list those that are "fixed" (note that this includes the feminines of all participles listed here; e.g. λυθεῖσα, -είσης, -είσῃ, -εῖσαν etc.; λελοιπυῖα, -υίας etc.; λιποῦσα, λιπούσης etc.) (1) R e g u l a r v e r b (e.g. λύω or λείπω) has fixed accent only in: 1 AORIST ACTIVE infinitive (e.g. παιδεῦσαι) 2 AORIST ACTIVE infinitive (λιπεῖν), participle (λιπών, -οῦσα, -ον) 2 AORIST MIDDLE infinitive (λιπέσθαι) (participle is normal: λιπόμενος) AOR. PASS. inf. (λυθῆναι), partic. (λυθείς -εῖσα -έν), subjunct. (λυθῶ λυθῇς λυθῇ etc.) PERFECT ACT. infinitive (λελυκέναι), participle (λελυκώς, -κυῖα, -κός etc.) PERFECT MIDDLE infinitive (λελῦσθαι), participle (λελυκομένος etc.) AOR. & PERF. optatives plural may seem to have fixed accent; e.g. -εῖμεν, -εῖτε, -εῖεν. But those are really just contractions of -είημεν, -είητε, -είησαν. (2) - m i v e r b s have those same "fixed" accents, and also: PRES. ACT. inf. (e.g. τιθέναι, ἰέναι), partic. (τιθείς, ἰείς), subjunct. (τιθῶ, ἰῶ). (3) C o n t r a c t v e r b = (1) above, plus contractions in PRES. & IMPF. (VII) A difficulty with some polysyllabic first-declension nouns. From any noun's dictionary entry, which lists its nom. and gen. singular, you can normally discern its accent pattern (for a complete list see my noun table). But with some polysyllabic 1st-declension nouns, the information "ἀνάγκη, -ης, ἡ" or "πολίτης, -ου, ὁ" does not tell you if the accent is "recessive" (in which case the nom. pl. would be ἄναγκαι, πόλιται) or "fixed" (so that the nom
6 6 pl. would be ἀνάγκαι, πολῖται). There is no "solution" to this problem; you can only, for example, look in a bigger dictionary, in the hope that the nom. plural might appear in one of the quotations! (VIII) The 4 types of first-declension feminine. I here list them (adapting this from Smyth 218 ff.) because Chase & Phillips p. 11 does not do it clearly. Here the initial Greek letters, e.g. "η-ης", refer to the nom. and gen. singular. Here "short -α, -αν" and "long -α, -αν" refers only to the nom. & acc. sing. (other endings, except nom. pl. -αι, are all long). (A) η-ης. E.g. νίκη, νίκης, νικῃ, νίκην etc. (B) α-ας (long -α, -α): after -ρ- (if -ρ- not like those in C.1), -ι- (if -ι is like not those in C.2), - ε-. So e.g. χώρα, -ας; οἰκία, -ας; γενεά, -ς. (C) α-ας (short -α, -α): (1) if the word ends -εια, -οια, or τρια (e.g. βασίλλεα, διάνοια, ψάλτρια; but for some exceptions see Smyth ); (2) if it ends in -ρα after diphthong or long -υ- (e.g. μοῖρα, γέφυρα). (D) α-ης (short -α, -αν): if -σ-α, -σσ-α, -ξ-α, -ψ-α, -ττ-α, -ζ-α, -λλ-α, -αινα. (e.g. Μοῦσα, θάλασσα, ἅμαξα, ῥίζα, γλῶττα, ἅμιλλα, λέαινα) "A" is easy to remember; but B, C, D (i.e. all feminines ending in -α) give trouble, because they are so easily confused. So I summarize them in this rhyme, which you should memorize. (This omits only -λλ-α, -αιν-α in D, which I couldn't see how to cram into the rhyme): Long -α, χώρα and οἰκία. Short -α, -εια, -οια, -τρια. Short -ρα after dipththong, -ῦ-. Short -α -ης with -s- and -t-. Particularly worth remembering is "short -α -ης with -s- and -t-" (i.e. when the stem ends with an "s" or "t" sound); for it includes a huge number of feminines of adjectives and participles; e.g. λύουσα, λυούσης, λυούσῃ, λύουσαν. The "-εια -οια -τρια" type is rarer, but does include the feminines of all adjectives in -ύς, -εῖα -ύν (e.g. γλυκύς: fem. γλυκεῖα -είας -είᾳ -εῖαν etc.). (IX) Unaccented words are "proclitic " ("leaning forward") or "enclitic" ("leaning on"). They are called that because a proclitic is often felt as part of the following word (e.g. the article, e.g. ὁ νήπιος, "the fool"); an enclitic, as part of the preceding word. (Thus, an enclitic can even cause the preceding word to receive a second accent; e.g. νήπιός τις, "some fool", "a certain fool". For, since νήπιός τις is felt as a single word, to write "νήπιος τις" would violate the rule that one of a word's last three syllables must be accented.) P r o c l i t i c are (1) the definite article, masc. or fem. nominative: ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ, (2) the three prepositions ἐν ('in'), ἐκ / ἐξ ('from'), εἰς ('to', 'into', 'towards'), and (3) the words εἰ, ὡς and οὐ / οὐκ / οὐχ ( = "if", "so that" and "not"). E n c l i t i c are: (1) personal pronouns, μου μοι με, σου σοι σε, and (epic/archaic) οὑ οἱ ἑ, (2) the indefinite pronoun τις τι in all cases, (3) the indefinite adverbs που, πῃ, ποι, ποθεν, ποτε, πω, πως, (4) four particles, viz. γε, τε, τοι, περ, and (5) two verbs, viz. εἰμι and φημι,
7 when they have two syllables and are in the present indicative. 7 SPECIAL RULES FOR ἐ σ τ ί : accent it ἔστι (A) if it is the first word; (B) when it means "it is possible" (ἔξεστι); (C) in the phrases ἔστιν οἵ, ἔστιν ὅτε etc.("there are those who" = "some people", "there are times when" = "sometimes"); (D) if it follows οὐκ, μή, εἰ, ὡς, καί, ἀλλά (ἀλλ') or τοῦτο. COMPOUND VERBS (Sm. 426) have recessive accent, except that: (Α) the accent cannot precede augment or reduplication (e.g. ἀπῆν, εἰσῆλθον, ἀφῖκται); (Β) the accent cannot precede the 2nd syllable of a 2-syll. prefix (e.g. περίθες) or the 2nd of two prefixes (e.g. συγκάθες); and (C) accent remains unchanged in infinitives (e.g. παρεῖναι, not πάρειναι), participles (e.g. παρών), aorist & pf. passive. WORD BEFORE AN ENCLITIC: if it has antepenult. accent, add acute to ult, e.g. ἄνθρωπός τις, ἄνθρωποί τινες. If penult. acute accent, it stays unchanged, e.g. λόγος τις; but if the enclitic is disyllabic, you accent its second syllable: λόγοι τινές. If penult. circumflex, add acute to ult, e.g. χεῖρά τινα, χεῖρές τινες. If ult accent, it stays unchanged: τιμαί τε, τιμῶν τινων, ἤν τις etc. IF ENCLITICS FOLLOW ONE ANOTHER, each except the last gets an acute (always on its first syllable), e.g. ἤ νύ σέ που θέος ἴσχει, "Surely now some god, I guess, possesses you". (X) Ancient Greek versus modern Greek accenting. To pitch in individual words, the modern Greeks have as little sensitivity as we; like us they simply stress the ancient pitch accents, and do not differentiate between circumflex and acute. (Until several decades ago, they still used circumflex and grave accents in writing; but in the mid 1980's the Greek government, taking pity on school children, abolished all accents but the acute.) This loss of feeling for pitch, and the shift to stress, should be assigned to the last few centuries B.C., as seems plainly indicated by two facts: (a) The classical Greeks did not write accent marks -- no doubt because they did not need them. The present accent system was invented (or given its present form) in about 200 B.C. by a great Alexandrian scholar, Aristophanes of Byzantium, precisely because the pitch accents were already becoming uncertain. (One root cause of this was that, a bit like English today, Greek had now become a koinê spoken, often poorly, by millions of "foreigners".) (b) In the change from classical Greek to the Hellenistic koinê, one can also detect a drastic change in word order -- from the extreme freedom of classical Greek to a comparative rigidity, resembling that of most modern languages -- apparently for the following reason. We now use pitch for emphasis in a sentence. It is mostly by pitch that we differentiate between: "Í told you that", "Í told you that?"; "I told yóu that", "I told yóu that?"; "I told you thát", "I told you thát?" -- etc. (that one tiny sentence can have a dozen different variants, differentiated just by pitch). But in classical Greek, pitch did not belong to the sentence; it was a property of individual words. So the same differentiation had to be done by particles, and by word order: ἐγώ γε ἐκεῖνό σοι εἶπον, εἶπόν σοι ἐκεῖνο, σοί γε ἐκεῖνο εἶπον, etc. This, then, is one reason why classical Greek word order is so flexible, and why it teems with sentence-particles, for many of which we lack an equivalent. But already in the New
8 8 Testament, the particles in common use are fewer, and the word order drastically closer to ours. This must mean that the feeling for pitch in separate words was already ebbing. Such at least is the ingenious, plausible hypothesis of George Thompson, in his paper "On the Order of Words in Plato and Saint Matthew", The Link #2, June 1939, I quote from his conclusion (p ): The conclusion to which all this evidence points is that, by the beginning of the Christian era, the function of position in marking emphasis and the function of the modal particles in marking other shades of meaning were being taken over by intonation of the voice. The fundamental change which had taken place was therefore the decay of the pitch accent. When pitch had been replaced by stress, the vocal intonation [i.e. pitch] became free, and consequently the flexible word order and the modal particles were rendered superfluous. Appendix: ABOUT THE TERMS "PERSISTENT" & "RECESSIVE" It is customary to say that nouns and adjectives have "persistent" accent; that is, that they "accent, in the oblique cases, the same syllable as is accented in the nominative, if the length of ultima permits" (Chase & Phillips p. 11; cf. Smyth 205). Unfortunately, this rule needs X-ray vision; students are not linguists, and they see this 'rule' simply defied (A) by all the 3rd-declension monosyllables, e.g. παίς, παιδός, παιδί, παῖδα etc. (what to a student will seem "persistent" there?), and (B) by hundreds of other nouns of the sort discussed in VII, e.g. sing. ἀνάγκη, pl. ἄναγκαι. For teaching purposes I therefore discard "persistant" and speak only of "fixed" (e.g. sing. πολίτης, pl. πολῖται), "recessive" (e.g. sing. ἀνάγκη, pl. ἄναγκαι), and "quirky" (e.g. 3rd-decl. monosyllables). Of course, by applying the term "recessive" to nouns and adjectives, I misuse it; but as a purely descriptive term at least it "works" far more often! It fails only with the neuters of active participles, but those can be regarded as a "quirk" or wrinkle; e.g. παιδεύων, παιδεύοντος etc., neuter παιδεῦον (not παίδευον, which it would be if strictly "recessive"). (II) L i s t o f A l l G r e e k N o u n I n f l e c t i o n s All nouns here are masc. (or masc.-fem., in some words for animals) unless preceded by the fem. or neuter article. A parenthesis like "νοῦ (& νόος)" means that both forms are attested (in parenthesis I put the rarer). A parenthesis like "νοῦ (= νόου)" means that νοῦ is a contracted form and νόου is its hypothesized or attested 'original'. For Homeric forms see also p. 70. Accent symbols: - C = contracted (C U = contracted with accented ult; C P = contracted with accented penult; C R = contracted with recessive accent); - D = disyllable (accent either "fixed" or "recessive", but it doesn't matter); - M = 3rd-decl. monosyllable (M L if the vowel is long); - P = penultimate "fixed" accent (P L if the penult is long); - R = "recessive" accent (R 2 if it has only 2 syllables; R 2L = 2 syllables with long stem vowel); - U = accent "fixed" on the ultima. 1st DECLENSION = all feminines ending -η or -α, masculines ending -ης and -ας. Note that all 1st-declension genitives plural are accented -ῶν (= contraction of Homeric -άων, Ionic - ν: Smyth 214.d.8). On a problem accenting polysyllabic words see the Accent pages, VIII.
9 η-ης -U (honor) ἡ τιμ-ή, -ῆς, -ῇ, -ήν -αί, -ῶν, -αῖς, -άς -P L (agreement) ἡ συνθήκη, -ης, -ῃ, -ην συνθῆκ-αι, συνθηκ-ῶν, συνθήκ-αῖς, -άς -R (necessity) ἡ ἀνάγκ-η, -ης, -ῃ, -ην ἄναγκ-αι, ἀναγκ-ῶν, ἀνάγκ-αις, -ας -C (fig tree) ἡ συκ-ῆ, -ῆς, -ῇ, -ῆν -αῖ, -ῶν, -αῖς, -ς (= συκ-έα, -έης κ.τ.λ.) ᾱ-ας -U (joy) ἡ χαρ-ά, -ς, -ᾶ, -άν -αί, -ῶν, -αῖς, -άς -R (house) ἡ οἰκί-α, -ας, -ᾳ, -αν -αι, οἰκι-ῶν, οἰκί-αις, -ας -U (mina) ἡ μν-, -ς, -ᾶ, -ν -αῖ, -ῶν, -αῖς, -ς ( = -άα, -άας, -άᾳ κ.τ.λ.) ᾰ-ας -D L (fate) ἡ μοῖρ-α, μοίρ-ας, -ᾳ, μοῖρ-αν μοῖρ-αι, μοιρ-ῶν, μοίρ-αις, -ας -R (aid) ἡ ὠφέλει-α, ὠφελεί-ας, -ᾳ, ὠφέλει-αν -αι, ὠφελει-ῶν, ὠφελεί-αις, -ας ᾰ-ης -D (root) ἡ ῥίζ-α, -ης, -ῃ, -αν -αι, ῥιζ-ῶν, ῥίζ-αις, -ας. -D L (muse) ἡ μοῦσ-α, μούσ-ης, -ῃ, μοῦσ-αν -αι, μουσ-ῶν, μούσ-αις, -ας -R3 (rivalry) ἡ ἅμιλλ-α, ἁμίλλ-ης, -ῃ, ἅμιλλ-αν -αι, ἁμιλλ-ῶν, ἁμίλλαις, -ας ας-ου -P (steward) ταμί-ας, -ου, -ᾳ, -αν -αι, ταμι-ῶν, ταμί-αις, -ας -C (N. wind) Βορρε-ς, -οῦ, -, -ν (no plural) ( = -έας, -έου, -έα, -έαν ) *ης-ου -U (poet) ποιητ-ής, -οῦ, -ῇ, -ήν -αί, -ῶν, -αῖς, -άς. -P (Hades) Αἴδ-ης (& ᾅδ-ης), -ου (& -αο), ῃ, -ην (no plural attested) -P L (citizen) πολίτ-ης, -ου, -ῃ, -ην πολῖτ-αι, πολιτ-ῶν, πολίτ-αις, πολίτ-ας -C (Hermes) 'Ερμ-ῆς, -οῦ, -ῇ, -ῆν -αῖ, -ῶν, -αῖς, -ς ( = -έας, -έου κ.τ.λ.) 9 *Also N.B. the Homeric -ης -αο and -ης -εω, and Doric -ης -α (Smyth 214.D.5, 225). So the genitive of Ατρείδης (son of Atreus) can be Ατρείδ-αο, Ατρείδ-εω, or Ατρείδ-α. 2nd DECLENSION = masc. (more rarely, fem.) -ος, -ου ορ -ους, -ου; neut. -ον, -ου or -ουν, - ου. ACCENTS, Note that "-P", fixed penultimate accent, is rare. Usually "-P" nouns derive from adjectives, which in turn derive from 1st-decl. nouns. E.g. ἀρχεῖον from ἀρχαῖος -α -ον from άρχή; τροπαῖον (trophy) from τροπαῖος -α -ον from τροπή (turning); the name Γογγύλος from γογγύλος -η ον (round). So when your dictionary leaves you in doubt whether a word has recessive accent or fixed, it is probably recessive. ον-ου-u (plant) τὸ φυτ-όν, -οῦ, -, -όν -ά, -ῶν, -οῖς, -ά -P L (town hall) τὸ ἀρχεῖ-ον, ἀρχεί-ου, -ῳ, ἀρχεῖ-ον -α, ἀρχεί-ων, -οις, ἀρχεῖ-α -R (organ) τὸ ὄργαν-ον, ὀργάν-ου, -ῳ, ὄργαν-ον -α, ὀργάν-ων, -οις, ὄργαν-α ος-ου-u (doctor) ἰατρ-ός, -οῦ, -, -όν -οί, -ῶν, -οῖς, -ούς (so too fem., e.g. ὁδός, νῆσος) -P (chronicler) λογογράφος, -ου, -ῳ -ον -οι, -ων, -οις, -ους -P (dialogue) διάλογ-ος, διαλόγ-ου, -ῳ, διάλογον -οι, διαλόγ-ων, -οις, -ους (so ἡ κάθοδος 2ND-DECLENSION CONTRACTED ουν-ους-c: = neuter contracted noun (bone) τὸ ὀστοῦν, -οῦ, -ῶ, -οῦν -, -ῶν, -οῖς, - ους-ου-c: (mind) ν-οῦς, -οῦ (& -όος),- (& -όι), -οῦν (& -όα) -οῖ (& -όες), -ῶν, -οῖς, -οῦς (& -όας); (= Attic form of νόος, νόου, νόῳ, νόον νόοι, νόων, νόοις, νόους. But sometimes-- esp. in the plural-- it imitates the 3rd-decl. (hence the forms I introduce "(&...)". So too θροῦς, ῥοῦς, χνοῦς, χοῦς, πλοῦς. -C P : (sailing round) περίπλ-ους, -ου, -ῳ, -ουν -οι (& -οες), -ων, -οις, -ους (& -οας)
10 2ΝD-DECL. "ATTIC" DECLENSION ως-ω-p (reef) ὁ κάλ-ως (& epic & Ionic κάλος), -ω, -ῳ, -ων -ω (& -οι), -ων, ῳς, -ως. ως-ω-u (peacock) ὁ τα-ώς, -ώ (& -ῶ), -, -ών -ῴ, ῶν, -ς (& -ῶσι), -ώς (& -ῶς, -ῶνας) 3rd DECLENSION = any noun whose gen. singular ends in -ς (i.e. in -ος, -ους, -ως). Do not despair at the seeming vastness and complexity of the 3rd declension! Many of these paradigms are rare; I underline those that are commonest, and so for beginners most important. Six quirky but important nouns, all disyllables accented like monosyllables, are listed together at the very end, ἀνήρ man, γυνή woman, μητήρ mother, πατήρ father, οὐδείς no one, οὐδέν nothing. ( )-κτος -Ρ 2 (milk) τὸ γάλα, γάλα-κτος, -κτι, γάλα γάλα-κτα, γαλά-κτων, γάλαξι, -κτα ( )-ος -Ρ 2 (tear) τὸ δάκρυ, δάκρυ-ος, -ι, δάκρυ δάκρυ-α, δακρύ-ων, δάκρυ-σι, -α -Μ L (beast) θήρ, θηρ-ός, -ί, θῆρ-α θῆρ -ες, θηρ-ῶν, θηρ-σί, θῆρ-ας ( )-τος -Ρ2 L (body) τὸ σῶμα, σώμα-τος, -τι, σῶμα σώμα-τα, σωμά-των, σώμα-σι, -τα -R (lesson) τὸ μάθημα, μαθήμα-τος, -τι, μάθημα μαθήματα etc. ας-εος (ground) τὸ οὖδ-ας, οὔδ-εος, -ει, οὖδας (no plural attested) ας-ως -R C (prize) τὸ γέρ-ας, -ως, -ᾳ, -ας -α, -ῶν, -ασι, -α (= γέρ-ας, -αος, -αι, -ας -αα, -άων, -ασσι, -αα) αυς-εως (ship) ν-αῦς, -έως, -ηί, -ῦν -ῆες, -εῶν, -αυσί, -αῦς Ionic ν-ηῦς, -εός [Hom. -ηός+, -ηί, -έα [-ῆα+ -έες [-ῆες+, -εῶν [-ηῶν+, -ηυσί, -έας [-ῆα+ ειρ-ερος-μ (hand) ἡ χ-είρ, -ειρός (& -ερός), -ειρί (& -ερί), -εῖρα -εῖρες, -ειρῶν, -ερσί, -εῖρας -R (suicide) αὐτόχ-ειρ, -ειρος, -ειρι, -ειρα -ειρες, -είρων, -ερσι, ειρας εις-ενος-μ (comb) κτ-είς, -ενός, -ενί, -ένα -ένες, -ενῶν, -εσί, -ένας ευς-εως -P c (horseman) ἱππ-εύς, -έως ( -ῶς), -εῖ, -έα (-ᾶ) -εῖς (-ης), -έων (-ῶν), -εῦσι (-έσσι), -έας (-ς). ην-εν -P (shepherd) ποιμ-ήν, -ένος, -ένι, -ένα -ένες, -ένων, -έσι, -ένας -R (male) ἄρρ-ην (=ἄρσην), -ενος, -ενι, -ενα -ενες, ἀρρ-ένων, ἄρρ-εσι, -ενας ηρ-ερος - P (stomach) ἡ γαστ-ήρ, -έρος (& γαστ-ρός), -έρα -έρες, -έρων, -έρας ης-εους-c R Περικλ-ῆς, -έους, -εῖ, -έα -εῖς, -έων, -έσι, -εῖς (& -ῆς, -έεος, -έει, -έεα etc.) ης-ους- C P (trireme) ἡ τριέρ-ης, -ους, -ει, -η -εις, -ων, -εσι, -εις (& τριέρ-ης, -εος, -εει, -εα -εες, -εων, -εσσι, -εες. So too nouns in -κράτης, e.g. ωκράτ-ης, -ους, -ει, -η (etc.) ις-εως- R 2 (city) ἡ πόλ-ις (& -ιος)*, -εως, -ει, -ιν -εις, -εων, -εσι, -εις *see note under ις-ιος -R 2L (knowledge) ἡ γνῶσ-ις, γνώσ-εως, -ει, γνῶσ-ιν γνώσ-εις, -εων, -εσι, -εις -R (president) πρύταν-ις, πρυτάν-εως, -ει, πρύταν-ιν πρυτάν-εις, -εων, -εσι, -εις => Ν.Β. -ω- in the gen. is short; contrast -εύς, -έως above ις-ιος-r 2 (seer) μάντ-ις, -ιος (& -εος, -ιδος), -ει, -ιν (& -ιδα) -εις (& -ιδες), -ίων, μάντ-εσι, - εις (& -ιας, -ιδας) => Ν.Β. ις-ιος is really the Ionic form of ις-εως. -Ρ 2L (fasting) νῆστ-ις, νήστ-ιος (& -ιδος), -ει, νῆστ-ιν νήστ-εις, νηστ-ίων, νήστ-εσι, -εις ν-νος -R 2 (Hellene) Eλλη-ν, Ελλη-νος, -νι, -να -νες, Ελλή-νων, Ελλη-σι, -νας -P L (contest) ἀγώ-ν, ἀγῶ-νος, -νι, -να -νες, ἀγώ-νων, ἀγῶ-σι, -νας -Μ L (sedge) σφή-ν, σφη-νός, -νί, σφῆ-να -νες, -νῶν, -σί, σφῆ-νας ξ-γος -Μ (flame) ἡ φλό-ξ, φλο-γός, -γί, φλό-γα -γες, φλο-γῶν, φλο-ξί, φλό-γας 10
11 11 -Μ L (goat) ἀί-ξ, αἰ-γός, -γί, αἶ-γα -γες, αἰ-γῶν, αἰ-ξί, αἴ-γας -P L (pivot) καταπή-ξ, καταπῆ-γος, -γι, -γα -γες, -πή-γων, -πῆ-ξι, -γας -R 2 (phalanx) φάλαγ-ξ, φάλαγ-γος, -γι, -γα -γες, φαλάγ-γων, φάλαγ-ξι, -γας ξ-κος -R 2 (guard) φύλα-ξ, φύλα-κος, -κι, -κα -κες, φυλά-κων, φύλα-ξι, -κας ξ-κτος -R 2 (lord) ἄνα-ξ, ἄνα-κτος, -κτι, -κτα -κτες, ἀνά-κτων, ἄνα-ξι, -κτας -Μ (night) ἡ νύ-ξ, νυ-κτός, νυ-κτί, νύ-κτα -κτες, νυ-κτῶν, -ξί, νύ-κτας ξ-χος -R 2 (talon) ὄνυ-ξ, όνυ-χος, -χι, -χα -χες, ὀνύ-χων, ὄνυ-ξι, -χας. -Μ L (cough) βή-ξ, βη-χός, -χί, βῆ-χα -χες, βηχ-ῶν, βη-ξί, βή-χας -Μ (hair) ἡ θρί-ξ, τρι-χός, -χι, τρί-χα -χες, τρι-χῶν, θρι-ξί, τρίχας ον-οντος-ρ 2 (future) τὸ μέλλ-ον, -οντος, -οντι, -ον -οντα, -όντων, -ουσι, -οντα ος-εος (distress) κῆδ-ος, -εος, -ει, -ος -εα, -έων, -εσι, -εα ος-ους -R (debt; task) (τὸ) χρέ-ος, -ους (& -εος, -εως), -ει, -ος -α, χρε-ῶν, - χρέ-εσι, -α -R (trunk) τὸ στέλεχ-ος, στελέχ-ους, -ει, στέλεχ-ος στελέχ-η, στελεχ-ῶν, στελέχ-εσι, -η -P L (length) τὸ μῆκ-ος, μήκ-ους, -ει, μῆκ-ος etc. (= μῆκος, μήκεος etc.) -C U (solid) (no singular) τὰ στερεοειδ-ῆ, -ῶν, -οῖς, -ῆ ους-οδος-ρ 2 (beam-end) γεισίπ-ους, -οδος, -οδι, -οδα -οδες, -οδῶν, -οσι, -οδας -Μ (foot) π-ούς, π-οδός, π-οδί, π-όδα π-όδες, π-οδῶν, π-οσί, π-όδας ους-οντος (ivory) ἐλεφαντόδ-ους, -οντος, -οντι, -οντα -οντες, -όντων, -οῦσι, -οντας -P (tooth) ὀδ-ούς, ὀδ-όντος, -όντι, -όντα -όντες, -όντων, -ούσι, -όντας ους-ουντος (flat-cake) πλακ-οῦς, -οῦντος, -οῦντι, -οῦντα οῦντες, -ούντων, -οῦσι, -ούντας ους-ωτος (ear) τὸ οὖς, ὠτός, ὠτί, οὖς ὦτα, ὤτων, ὠτ σί, ὦτα ρ-τος -R 2 (liver) τὸ ἧπα-ρ, -τος, -τι, -ρ -τα, ἡπά-των, ἥπα-σι, -τα. cf. δέλεαρ bait, φρέαρ sell ς-δος -P (Greek, if female) ἡ Ελληνί-ς, -δος, -δι, -δα -δες, -δων, -σι, -δας. -R 2 (iris, rainbow) ἡ ἴρι-ς, ἴρι-δος, -δι, -δα -δες, ἰρί-δων, ἴρι-σι, -δας -Μ L (child) ὁ παῖ-ς, παι-δός, -δί, παῖ-δα -δες, παι-δῶν, παι-σί, -δας ς-θος -R2 (bird) ὄρνι-ς, ὄρνι-θος, -θι, -ν ὄρνι-θες, ὀρνί-θων, ὄρνι-σι, -θας ς-νος -L P (dolphin) δελφί-ς, δελφῖ-νος, -νι, -να -νες, δελφί-νων, δελφῖ-σι, -νας -R 2 (tunny) ὄκυ-ς, -νος, -νι, -να -νες, ὀκύ-νων, ὄκυ-σι, -νας -Μ L (nose) ἡ ρῖ-ς, -νός, ρι-νί, ρῖ-να -νες, ρι-νῶν, ρι-σί, ρῖ-νας. ς-ντος -P (statue) ἀνδριά-ς, ἀνδριά-ντος, -ντι, -ντα -ντες, -ντων, -σι, -ντας -R (elephant) ἐλέφα-ς, -ντος, -ντι, -ντα ἐλέφα-ντες, ἐλεφά-ντων, ἐλέφα-σι, -ντας -P L (a coin) ἑξ-ς, ἑξ-ντος, -ντι, -ντα -ντες, ἑξά-ντων, ἑξ-σι, -ντας ς-ος -Ρ2 (hero) ἥρω-ς, -ος, -ι (& ἥρῳ), -α (& ἥρω) -ες (& ἥρως), ἡρώ-ων, ἡρῶω-σι, -ας (& ἥρως) -Μ L (jackal) θῶ-ς, θω-ός, θω-ί, θῶ-α θῶ-ες, θω-ῶν, θω-σί, θῶ-ας -Μ (salt) ἅλ-ς, ἁλ-ός, ἁλ-ί, ἅλ-α ἅλ-ες, ἁλ-ῶν, ἁλ-σί, ἅλ-ας ς-τος -Ρ2 (carpet) τάπη-ς, τάπη-τος, -τι, -τα -τες, ταπή-των, τάπη-σι, -τας. neut. τέρας -Μ L (light) (τὸ) φῶ-ς, φω-τός, -τί, φῶ-ς φῶ-τα, φω-τῶν, φω-σί, φῶτ-α. -Μ L (man) (ὁ) φώ-ς, φω-τός, -τί, φῶ-τα -τες, φω-τῶν, φω-σί, φῶτ-τας -P L (foreland) προβλή-ς, -ῆτος, -ῆτι, -ῆτα (etc.) ς-ρος -R 2 (witness) μάρτυ-ς, μάρτυ-ρος, -ρι, -ρα -ρες, μαρτύ-ρων, μάρτυ-ρσι, -ρας υ-ατος -R 2 (spear) τὸ δόρ-υ, -ατος, -ατι, -υ -ατα, δορ-άτων, δόρ-ασι, -ατα. υ-εος- R (half) τὸ ἥμισ-υ, ἡμίσ-εος, -ει, ἥμισ-υ -η (& -εα), ἡμίσ-ων, -εσι, -η (& -εα)
12 12 -R 2L (female) τὸ θῆλ-υ, θήλ-εος, -ει, θῆλυ θήλη, -ων, -εσι, -η υ-εως -R 2 (city) τὸ ἄστυ, -εως (& -εος), -ει, -υ -η (& -εα), -εων, -εσι, -η (& -εα) υς-εως -R 2 (old man) πρέσβ-υς, -εως (& -εος), -ει, -υν -εις (& -ες), -εων, -εσι, -εις -R (axe) πέλεκ-υς, πελέκ-εως, -ει, πέλεκ-υν -ες -εις, πελέκ-ων, -εσι, πέλεκ-ας -R 2L (forearm) πῆχ-υς, πήχ-εως, -ει, πῆχυν (etc.) υς-ος -Μ L old woman) ἡ γρα-ῦς, γρα-ός, -ί, -ῦν γρ-ες, γρα-ῶν, -υσί, -ῦς. So βο-ῦς, να-ῦς υς-υος- P (fish) ἰχθ-ύς, -ύος, -ύι, -ύν (-ύα) -ύες (-ῦς), -ύων, -ύσι, -ύας (-ῦς). So ἡ ὀφρύς -R (eel) ἔγχελ-υς, -υος (-εως), -υι, -υν ἐγχέλ-εις (-υς -υες), -έων (-ύων), -υσι, -εις (-υς -υας) -Μ (mouse) μ-ύς, -υός, -υί, -ῦν (& -ύα) -ύες (& -ῦς), -υῶν,-υσί, -ύας (& -ῦς); so ἡ δρύς ψ-βος -R 2 (Arab) ἄρα-ψ, ἄρα-βος, -βι, -βα -βες, ἀρά-βων, ἄρα-ψι, -βας. So Φάλυψ -Μ (vein; artery) φλέ-ψ, φλε-βός, -βί, φλέ-βα -βες, φλε-βῶν, -ψί, φλέ-βας ψ-πος -R (gnat) κώνω-ψ, -πος, -πι, -πα -πες, κωνώ-πων, κώνω-ψι, -πας -Μ (mite) σκνί-ψ, σκνι-πός, -πί, σκνί-πα -πες, σκνι-πῶν, -ψί, σκνί-πας -Μ L (woodworm) θρί-ψ, θρι-πός, -πί, θρῖ-πα -πες, θρι-πῶν, -ψί, θρῖ-πας ω-ους -C U (echo) ἡ ἠχ-ώ, -οῦς, -οῖ, -ώ (& -ώ, -όος, -όι, -όα) (no pl.) (So ἡ πειθώ, απφώ, χρέω) ων-νος -Μ (dog) κύ-ων, κυ-νός, -νί, κύ-να -νες, κυ-νῶν, κυ-σί, κύ-νας ων-ονος -P (swallow) χελιδ-ών, -όνος, -όνι, -όνα -όνες, -όνων, -οῦσι, -όνας -Α (axle) ἄξων, -ονος, -ονι, -ονα etc.; ἄκμων ων-οντος (= present participle) (old man) γέρων, -οντος, -οντι, -οντα (etc.) ωρ-ορος-r 2 (rhetor) ῥήτ-ωρ, -ορος, -ορι, -ορα -ορες, ῥητ-όρων, ῥήτ-ορσι (& -ωρσι), -ορ-ας ωρ-ατος-r 2 (water) τὸ ὕδ-ωρ, ὕδ-ατος, -ατι, ὕδ-ωρ ὕδ-ατα, ὑδ-άτων, ὕδ-ασι, -ατα ως-ους -C U (shame) ἡ αἰδ-ώς, -οῦς, -ῶ, -ῶ (& -ώς, -όος, -όι, -όα) (no plural. So also ἡ ἠώς) SIX COMMON VERY IRREGULAR 3rd-DECL NOUNS, disyllables accented like monosyllables (woman) γυν-ή, -αικός, -αικί, -αῖκα, -αῖκες, -αικῶν, -αιξί, -αῖκας (man) ἀν-ήρ, ἀν-δρός, -δρί, ἄν-δρα, -δρες, ἀν-δρῶν, ἀν-δράσι, -δρας (father) πατ-ήρ, -ρός (& πατ-έρος), πατ-ρί (& -έρι), -έρα, -έρες, -έρων, πατ-ράσι, πατ-έρας (mother) μητ-ήρ, -ρός (& μητ-έρος), μητ-ρί (& -έρι), -έρα, -έρες, -έρων, μητ-ράσι, μητ-έρας (nothing) τὸ μηδέν, μηδεν-ός, -ί, μηδέν (no plural; so also οὐδέν) (no one) οὐδείς, -ενός, -ενί, -ένα, -ένες, -ενῶν, -εσί, -ένας (so too μηδείς) (II.B) HOW TO FORM THE DUAL. With nouns and adjectives the endings are simply: nom. = acc. gen. = dat. 1st decl.: -α, -αιν. 2nd: -ω, -οιν. 3rd: -ε, -οιν. (II.C) 'X - r a y s' o f S o m e O d d - l o o k i n g T h i r d - d e c l e n s i o n N o u n s These 3d-decl. nouns are only superficially dissimilar. Each slightly distorts the regular endings, which are -ς, -ος, -ι, -ν (or -α) -ες, -ων, -σι, -ας. So e.g. in the first example, the stem is πόλι- and the 'true' forms πόλις, πόλιος, πόλι(ι), etc. in fact survived in Ionic:
13 singular plural 13 (Attic) (Ionic) (Attic) (Ionic) πόλ - ι - ς - ι - ς π ό λ -εις - ι - ες πόλ - ε - ως - ι - ος π ό λ -εων - ι - ων πόλ - ε - ι - ι - ι π ό λ -εσι - ι - σι πόλ - ι - ν - ι- ν π ό λ -εις - ι - ας In-ευς -εως nouns the stem ended in -ηυ- which before a vowel changed to -ηϝ (and then, I suppose, -εϝ-. Ϝ is a 'digamma' pronounced like the w in war. Compare ναῦς declined below): singular plural (Attic) (Ionic) (Attic) (Ionic) β α σ ι λ - εύς - ηυ - ς β α σ ι λ -εῖς/-ης - ῆϜ - ες β α σ ι λ - έως - ῆϜ - ος β α σ ι λ -έων - ῆϜ - ων β α σ ι λ - εῖ - ῆϜ - ι β α σ ι λ -εῦσι - ηυ - σι β α σ ι λ - έα - ῆϜ- α β α σ ι λ -εῖς/-έας - ῆϜ - ας In the next three, notice how what happens, in Attic, to -υ- before a vowel is like what happened to -ι- above in πόλις; and how the third specimen preserves the regular endings intact. (N.B. also: declined exactly like πρέσβυς and ἄστυ are the masc. and neuter of adjectives of the type ἡδύς, -αεῖα, -ύ singular plural (Attic) (Ionic) (Attic) (Ionic) ἄ σ τ - υ - υ ἄ σ τ -η (& -εα) - υ - α (-υα > -εα > -η) ἄ σ τ - εως - υ - ος ἄ σ τ -εων - υ - ων ἄ σ τ - ει - υ - ι ἄ σ τ -εσι - υ - σι ἄ σ τ - υ - υ ἄ σ τ -η (& -εα) - υ - α singular plural (Attic) (Ionic) (Attic) (Ionic)
14 π ρ έ σ β - υ - ς - υ - ς π ρ έ σ β -εις (& -ες) - υ - ες 14 π ρ έ σ β - εως - υ - ος π ρ έ σ β -εων - υ - ων π ρ έ σ β - ει - υ - ι π ρ έ σ β -εσι - υ - σι π ρ έ σ β - υν - υ - ν π ρ έ σ β -εις (& -ες) - υ - ας (Sing.) ἰ χ θ - ύ - ς ἰ χ θ - ύ - ος ἰ χ θ - ύ - ι ἰ χ θ - ύ - ν (also -ύ-α) (Plur.) - ύ - ες (also -ῦς) - ύ - ων - ύ - σι - ύ - ας (also -ῦς)- In the next example, as with βασιλεύς above, the stem ended in -υ- which became -Ϝbefore a vowel. So it was ν-αῦ-ς, ν-αϝ-ός, ν-αϝ-ί etc., just like Latin nav-is, nav-is, nav-i etc. Attic ναῦς seems odder than βασιλεύς only because it has two original stems, ναυ- and νηυ-. (Or to be exact, in Attic, as often, -η- changed to -α-.) See how perfectly regular is the Homeric declension. ( = early "Ionic". In this "Homeric" column, the letters in parenthesis are added by me. As we know from his meter, by Homer's time the digamma had already faded): singular plural (Attic) (Homeric) (Attic) (Homeric) ν - αῦς ν - αῦ - ς ν - ηῦ - ς ν - ῆες ν - ηϝ - ες ν - ῆ (Ϝ) - ε ς ν - εώς ν - αϝ - ός ν - η (Ϝ) - ός ν - εῶν ν - ηϝ - ῶν ν - η (Ϝ) - ῶν ν - ηί ν - ηϝ- ί ν - η (Ϝ) - ί ν - αυσί ν - αυ - σί ν - η (υ) - σί ν - αῦν ν - αῦ - ν ν - ῆ (Ϝ) - α ν - αῦς ν - αῦ - ς ν - ῆ (Ϝ) - ας
15 II.D GREEK DECLENSIONS COMPARED WITH ARCHAIC LATIN 15 W. M. Lindsay, Handbook of Latin Inscriptions, Boston/Chicago 1897, repr. Amsterdam 1970.; Carl Buck, Comparative Greek and Latin Grammar, Chicago 1933; Michael Weiss, Outline of the Historical & Comparative Grammar of Latin (forthcoming, 2008). Latin vowels are short unless marked long (or unless diphthongs). I skip fem. & neut. if they = masc. "terr-ās -āi & -ai -ae" means that the genitive was originally terrās, later terrāi & terrai (both attested), later terrae. nom. χώρ-α terr-ā -a χῶραι terr-āi -ai -ae gen. χώρ-ας terr- ās - āi & -ai -ae χωρ-άσων terr-āsōm - ārom* -ārum ('-as' survived e.g. in 'pater familias') -άων, -ῶν dat. χώρ-ᾳ terr- āi -a & ai -ae χώρ-αις terr-āis -eis -īs acc. χώρ-αν terr- ām -am χώρ-ας terr-ās -ās abl. -- terr- ād -ā -- terr-āis -eis -īs *On the gen. plural see Buck p. 133: in Attic Greek intervocalic -s- disappears; in Latin " 'rhotacism', as the change of s to r is often called, was doubtless through the medium of a voiced s, that is, z (in Oscan the change did not go beyond this stage, cf. gen. pl. egmazum). But the evidence of early Latin transitional spelling with z is meager, but the grammarians quote many old forms with s, such as lases = lares, arbosem = arborem. Rhotacism occurs in many languages" -- e.g. English were vs was. nom. δόλ-ος dol-os -us δόλ-οι dol-oi -ei -ī gen. δόλ-ου dol-ī (only form attested) δόλ-ων dol- ōm -um & dol-ōsōm - ōrum dat. δόλ-ῳ dol-ōi -oi - ō δόλ-οις dol-ois -eis - īs acc. δόλ-ον dol-om -um δόλ-ους dol- ōs abl. -- dol-ōd -ō -- dol-ois -eis - īs Lat. dat. pl. from IE -bhos; Gk. dat. pl. "is in origin the locative pl. answering to Skt. -su" (Buck 186). nom. γέν-ος gen-os -us γέν-εα -η gen-esa -era -era gen. γέν-εος gen-esos -eros -eris γεν-έων -ῶν gen-esom -erom -erum (& -ους) &-eses -eres -eris dat. γέν-ει gen-esai -erei -eri γέν-εσι gen-esibos -eribos -eribus acc. γέν-ος gen-os -us γέν-εα -η gen-esa -era -era abl. -- gen-esi -eri -ere -- gen-esibos -eribos -eribus & gen-esîd -erîd nom. ὅς ἥ ὅ he-ce hai-ce hod-ce hic haec hoc οἵ hoi & hei, hāi-ce, hāi-ce hī hae haec gen. οὗ hoios-ce huius (cf. eius from *esio+s) ὧν hōsōm horom, hāsōm harom hōrum hārum dat. ὧι hoi-ce huic οἷς hois & heis, hais & heis hīs hīs hīs acc. ὅν hon-ce, han-ce, hod-ce hunc hanc οὕς hōs-ce, hās-ce, hāi-ce hōs hās haec hoc abl. -- hōd-ce (hōc-ce), hād-ce hōc hāc hōc -- hois & heis, hais & heis hīs hīs hīs loc. -- hei-ce (classical hîc 'here') "This pron. is characterized in Classical Latin by the attachment of the particle -c < -ce (cf. ce-dô give here, nun-c now < *nun-ke) to all the singular forms except the gen., and to the neuter nom. accusative plural... hae-c is from *ha-i-ke. The form has been extended by the particle -i. Cf... quae, Osc.... paí, Grk. οὑτοσ-ί." (Michael Weiss).
16 (III) M a i n G r e e k P r o n o u n s (& A r t i c l e) 16 (Numbers refer to sections in Smyth. For a table of Homeric pronouns, see below, XX, p. 70) ( 325) Personal pronouns. A form after a slash is enclitic. Note well that choral poetry (e.g. Pindar, the odes in tragedy) may use almost any of these forms. I, me, w e, u s: Attic Homer (& other poetry) Doric ἐγώ ἐγώ, ἐγών ἐγών (even before consonants) ἐμοῦ / μου ἐμεῖο, ἐμέο, ἐμεῦ, ἐμέθεν / μευ ἐμέος, ἐμοῦς, ἐμεῦς ἐμοί / μοι " ἐμίν ἐμέ / με " μέ ἡμεῖς ἡμεῖς, Aeol. ἄμμες ἁμές ἡμῶν ἡμείων, ἡμέων ἁμῶν ἡμῖν ἡμῖν, Aeol. ἄμμι(ν) ἁμίν(ι), ἇμιν ἡμς ἡμέας, Aeol. ἄμμε ἁμέ Y o u: Attic Homer (& other poetry) Doric σύ σύ, τύνη " σοῦ / σου σεῖο, σέο, σεῦ / σευ τέος, τεοῦς, τεῦς, τέο, τεῦ, τεοῦ σοί / σοι σοί, τείν / τοι τίν, τίνη σέ / σε " σέ, τέ, τίν, τύ ὑμεῖς ὑμεῖς, Aeol. ὔμμες ὑμές ὑμῶν ὑμείων, ὑμέων ὑμέων ὑμῖν ὑμῖν, Aeol. ὔμμι(ν) ὗμιν ὑμς ὑμέας, Aeol. ὔμμε ὑμέ H e, s h e, i t, t h e y, t h e m: Attic* Homer (& other poetry) Doric (see note)** οὗ / οὑ εἷο, ἕο, εὗ, ἕθεν / ἑο, εὑ, ἑθεν ἑοῦς, ἑοῦ οἷ / οἱ " Ϝίν ἕ / ἑ σφέ / σφε, Ionic μιν νιν (μιν νιν αὐτόν = himself) σφεῖς " " σφῶν σφείων, σφέων / σφεων σφείων, ψέων σφίσι(ν) σφίσι(ν) / σφισι(ν), σφιν φίν, ψίν σφς σφέας / σφεας, σφε, (rarely) μιν σφέ, ψέ, (rarely) νιν *Αttic commonly uses only the two forms underlined, and then only as indirect reflexives (Smyth 1228); for the rest it uses (in nom.) ἐκεῖνος & οὗτος and (in oblique cases) αὐτός. ** Nom. "they" does not exist, since it is always implicit in the verb ending.
17 ( 332) Definite Article, t h e (but note that in Homer, this is a personal pronoun. In parenthesis I put Homeric forms, and "D." = Doric) ὁ ἡ τό οἱ (τοί) αἱ (ταί) τά τοῦ (τοῖο, D. τῶ) τῆς (D. τς) τοῦ τῶν τῶν (τάων, D. τν) τῶν τ τῇ τ τοῖς (τοῖσι) ταῖς (τῇσι τῇς) τοῖς τόν τήν τό τούς τάς τούς ( 338) Relative Pronoun "w h o...", "w h i c h..." (sometimes = demonstrative) ὅς ἥ ὅ οἵ αἵ ἅ οὗ ἧς οὗ ὧν ὧν ὧν ᾦ ᾗ ᾧ οἷς αἷς οἷς ὅν ἥν ὅ οὕς ἅς ἅ 17 ( 339) Indef. Rel. Pron. = interrog. adj. "whoever...", "anyone who" etc. In parenthesis Homer: ὅστις (ὅτις) οὗτινος ὅτων (ὅττεο ὅτ(τ)ευ) ᾦτινι ὅτῳ (ὅτεῳ) ὅντινα (ὅτινα) ἥτις ὅ τι (ὅ ττι) ἧστινος οὗτινος ὅτου ὧντινων ὅτων (ὅτεων) ᾗτινι ᾧτινι ὅτῳ οἷστισι ὅτοις (ὁτέοισι) ἥντινα ὅ τι (ὅ ττι) οἵτινες αἵτινες ἅτινα ἅττα (ἅσσα) οὕτινας (ὅτινας) ὧντινων αἷστισι ἅτινα ὧντινων ὅτων οἷστισι ὅτοις ἅτινα ἅττα (ἅσσα) ( 333) Demonstrative Pronoun / Adj.: t h i s (forms in parenthesis are Doric) οὗτ-ος αὕτ-η τοῦτ-ο οὗτοι (τούτοι) αὗται (ταύται) ταῦτα τούτων ταύτης τούτου τούτων τούτων (ταυτᾶν) τούτων τούτῳ ταύτῃ τούτῳ τούτοις ταύταις τούτοις τοῦτον ταύτην τοῦτο τούτους ταύτας ταύτα ( 333) Demonstrative Pron./ Adj.: t h a t: ἐκεῖνος -η -ο (normal 1st-2nd-decl. adj. -- but neut. sing. -ο.) Sometimes κεῖνος. Doric and Aeolic κῆνος ( 333) Demonstrative Pron. / Adj.: t h i s = the following... (= ὁ, ἡ, τό + δε) ὅδε ἥδε τόδε οἵδε αἵδε τάδε τοῦδε τῆσδε τοῦδε τῶνδε τῶνδε τῶνδε τδε τῇδε τδε τοῖσδε ταῖσδε τοῖσδε τόνδε τήνδε τόδε τούσδε τάσδε τούσδε ( 334) Indef. Pron. / Adj.: a n y o n e, anything; someone / -thing; some, any
18 τις τις τι τινες τινες τινα τινός (του) τνός (του) τινός (του) τινῶν τινῶν τινῶν τινί (τῳ) τινί (τῳ) τινί (τῳ) τισί τισί τισί τινά τινά τι τινάς τινάς τινά 18 ( 334) Ιnterrog. Pron. / Adj.: W h o?... W h i c h?... W h a t?... (note that τίς, τί keep acute even if another word follows) τίς τίς τί τίνες τίνες τίνα τίνος (τοῦ) τίνος (τοῦ) τίνος (τοῦ) τίνων τίνων τίνων τίνι (τ) τίνι (τ) τίνι (τ) τίσι τίσι τίσι τίνα τίνα τί τίνας τίνας τίνα ( 327) Pron. αὐτ-ός -ή -ό, means: (A) (if alone in an oblique case) h e, s h e, i t, or (B) (if it is alone in the nominative, or if in the predicative position, agreeing with a noun) h i m s e l f, h e r s e l f, i t s e l f, etc., or (C) (if in attributive position, i.e. whenever it follows the article) "t h e s a m e". So e.g. : (C, A, B) ἐκεῖνος ὁ αὐτὸς στρατηγὸς ἔδωκε αὐτὰ αὐτῇ τῇ κόρῃ = "That same general gave them (the things) to the girl herself". (B, A, A) αὐτός ἔδωκε αὐτὸ αὐτῇ = "He himself gave it to her." (B, A, A) ὁ στραγητός αὐτος ἔδωκε αὐτοὺς αὐτ = "The general himself gave them (the books) to him". Ν.Β. In usage B, don't confuse this sort of intensive "-self", as in "He himself spoke", αὐτὸς εἶπε, with the reflexive "-self", as in "He spoke to himself", εἶπε ἑαυτ. (For the reflexive see Smyth 329. But as in Latin, the intensive and reflexive are sometimes used together: αὐτὸς εἶπε ἑαυτ = ipse sibi dixit = 'He (himself) spoke to himself'.) ( 330) Possessive Adjectives: sing.: my, my own ἐμός -ή -όν = ἀμός Homer sometimes ὅς ἥ ὅν, ἑ-ός -ά -όν) your, your own σός σή σόν Homer τέος -α -ον (or ὅς or ἑός) his, her, its, their etc. [ὅς ἥ ὅν]* Homer ἑός -ά -όν plur.: our (own) ἡμέτερος -α -ον Homer ἁμός -ή -όν your (pl.) (own) ὑμέτερος -α -ον Homer ὑμός -η -ον their (own) σφέτερος -α -ον Homer σφός σφή σφόν *Not used in Attic prose, which for "his, her, its, their" etc. uses αὐτοῦ, αὐτῆς or αὐτῶν. None of these possessives are reflexive ("his own, their own" etc.) except, sometimes, σφῶν and σφετέρων. To make them reflexive you add genitive forms of the pronoun αὐτός; on that see Smyth 1199 ff.; e.g. οἰκέτας τοὺς σφετέρους αὐτῶν ἐπικαλοῦνται, 'They call their own slaves as witnesses' (Antiphon 1.30)
19 (IV) C o m m o n e s t A d j e c t i v e D e c l e n s i o n s 19 Note that compound adjectives of any type usually have only two terminations; e.g. (masc. = fem.) ἄδενδρος, (neuter) ἄδενδρον. Note carefully the 4 types of feminine. The declension type -η, -ης, -ην, -ῃ etc. is of course easy; we'll call that Type (A). For the other types, which are well worth keeping clear in your head, I here repeat the memonic from my Accent Handout: (B) (C) (D) (E) Long -α, χώρα and οἰκία. Short -α, -εια -οια -τρια. Short -ρα after diphthong, -ῦ-. Short -α -ης with -s- and -t-. In other words, in fem. adjectives, as in nouns: (B) nom. & acc. sing. -α- is long if the stem ends in ρ, ι, ε (and if there is no diphthong or -υ- as in D); (C) it is short if the word ends -εια, -οια or - τρια; (D) it is short if the stem has a diphthong + ρ or -υ-ρ (e.g. μοῖ-ρα, γέφυ-ρα); (E) it is short if the stem ends in an "s" or "t" sound. About accents of fem. adjectives, notice one other thing: all have gen. pl. -ῶν = Homeric -άων, except #4 and #5 below (-ος -α -ον and -ος -η -ον). (1) -ας, -αινα, -αν (Smyth 298). Fem. type (D) (even though no "s" or "t" sound); accent recessive. μέλ-ας μέλ-αινα μέλ-αν μέλ-ανες μέλ-αιναι μέλ-ανα μέλ-ανος μελ-αίνης μέλ-ανος μελ-άνων μελ-αινῶν μελ-άνων μέλ-ανι μελ-αίνῃ μέλ-ανι μέλ-ασι μελ-αίναις μέλ-ασι μέλ-ανα μέλ-αιναν μέλ-αν μέλ-ανας μελ-αίνας μέλ-ανα (2) -εις, -εσσα, -εν (Sm. 299). Fem. type (D); accent recessive. (From χαρί-εντς, -εντσα, -εντ) χαρί-εις χαρί-εσσα χαρί-εν χαρί-εντες χαρί-εσσαι χαρί-εντα χαρί-εντος χαρι-έσσης χαρί-εντος χαρι-έντων χαρι-εσσῶν χαρί-έντων χαρί-εντι χαρι-έσσῃ χαρί-εντι χαρί-εσι χαρι-έσσαις χαρί-εσι χαρί-εντα χαρί-εσσαν χαρί-εν χαρί-εντας χαρι-έσσας χαρί-εντα (3) -ης, -ες (Sm. 292). No fem.; accent fixed (because contracted) either on the penult (αὐθάδης, αὑθάδες etc.) or on the ult (σαφής, σαφές). Ι here write out the contracted forms because they do often appear (in Homer, Herodotus, Solon, etc.). σαφ-ής σαφ-ές σαφ-εῖς (-έες) σαφ-ῆ (-, -έα) σαφ-οῦς (-έος) σαφ-οῦς (-έος) σαφ-ῶν (-έων) σαφ-ῶν (-έων) σαφ-εῖ (-έι) σαφ-εῖ (-έι) σαφ-έσι (-έσσι) σαφ-έσι (-έσσι) σαφ-ῆ (-, -έα) σαφ-ές σαφ-εῖς (-έας) σαφ-ῆ (-, -έα)
20 (4) -ος, -α, -ον (Sm. 287). Fem. type (B). Accent either fixed or recessive. (If it is fixed, it can be either on penult, e.g. γενναῖ-ος, or on ult, e.g. ἐλαφρ-ός). καθαρ-ός καθαρ-ά καθαρ-όν καθαρ-οί καθαρ-αί καθαρ-ά καθαρ-οῦ καθαρ-ς καθαρ-οῦ καθαρ-ῶν καθαρ-ῶν καθαρ-ῶν καθαρ- καθαρ-ᾶ καθαρ- καθαρ-οῖς καθαρ-αῖς καθαρ-οῖς καθαρ-όν καθαρ-άν καθαρ-όν καθαρ-ούς καθαρ-άς καθαρ-ά 20 (5) -ος, -η, -ον (Sm. 287 ff.). Fem. (A); accent fixed (κακός, -ή, -όν) or recessive (ἄδικος, -ον). ἴσ-ος ἴσ-η ἴσ-ον ἴσ-οι ἴσ-αι ἴσ-α ἴσ-ου ἴσ-ης ἴσ-ου ἴσ-ων ἴσ-ων ἴσ-ων ἴσ-ῳ ἴσ-ῃ ἴσ-ῳ ἴσ-οις ἴσ-αις ἴσ-οις ἴσ-ον ἴσ-ην ἴσ-ον ἴσ-ους ἴσ-ας ἴσ-α (6) -ους, -η, ουν (Sm. 290). Fem (A); accent fixed because contracted. Uncontracted forms Ionic. χρυσ-οῦς (-έος) χρυσ-ῆ (-έη) χρυσ-οῦν (-έος) χρυσ-οῖ (-έοι) χρυσ-αῖ (-έαι) χρυσ- (-έα) χρυσ-οῦ (-έου) χρυσ-ῆς (-έης) χρυσ-οῦ (-έου) χρυσ-ῶν (-έων) χρυσ-ῶν (-έων) χρυσ-ῶν (-έων) χρυσ- (-έῳ) χρυσ-ῇ (-έῃ) χρυσ- (-έῳ) χρυσ-οῖς (-έοις) χρυσ-αῖς (-έαις) χρυσ-οῖς (-έοις) χρυσ-οῦν (-έον) χρυσ-ῆν (-έην) χρυσ-οῦν (-έον) χρυσ-οῦς (-έους) χρυσ-ς (-έας) χρυσ- (-έα) (7) -υς, -εια, -υ (Sm. 297); fem. type (C); accent either recessive (ἥμισυς, ἡμίσεια, ἥμισυ) or fixed: γλυκ-ύς γλυκ-εῖα γλυκ-ύ γλυκ-εῖς γλυκ-εῖαι γλυκ-έα γλυκ-έος γλυκ-είας γλυκ-έος γλυκ-έων γλυκ-ειῶν γλυκ-έων γλυκ-εῖ γλυκ-είᾳ γλυκ-εῖ γλυκ-έσι γλυκ-είαις γλυκ-έσι γλυκ-ύν γλυκ-εῖαν γλυκ-ύ γλυκ-εῖς γλυκ-είας γλυκ-έα (8) -υς, -υσα, -υν (Sm. 308). Fem. type (E); accent FIXED on penult: ἀπολλ-ύς, ἀπολλ-ῦσα, ἀπολλ-ύν ἀπολλύντες, ἀπολλ-ῦσαι, ἀπολλ-ύντα etc. -- i.e. it is just like the aorist act. participle of a υ-stem verb (e.g. δείκνυμι, partic. δεικνύς, -ῦσα, -ύν) (9) -ων, -ον (Sm. 293). No fem.; accent recessive. Attic comparatives always use contracted forms. βελτί-ων βελτί-ον βελτί-ους (-ονες) βελτί-ω (-ονα) βελτί-ονος βελτί-ονος βελτι-όνων βελτι-όνων βελτί-ονι βελτί-ονι βελτί-οσι βελτί-οσι βελτί-ω (-ονα) βελτί-ον βελτί-ους (-ονας) βελτί-ω (-ονα)