GREEK GRAMMAR HANDOUT 2012

Μέγεθος: px
Εμφάνιση ξεκινά από τη σελίδα:

Download "GREEK GRAMMAR HANDOUT 2012"

Transcript

1 GREEK GRAMMAR HANDOUT Karl Maurer, (office) 215 Carpenter, (972) , ( ) p. 3 I. Greek Accenting: Basic Rules 8 II. ALL NOUN DECLENSIONS. (How to form the Dual p. 12) B. (p. 13) 'X-Rays' of Odd Third-declension Nouns. C. (p. 15) Greek declensions compared with Archaic Latin declensions. 16 III. Commonest Pronouns declined (for Homeric pronouns see also p. 70). 19 IV. Commonest Adjectives declined. 22 V. VERB-CONJUGATIONS: A. (p. 22) λύω conjugated. B. (p. 23) How to Form the Dual. C. (p. 24) Homeric Verb Forms (for regular verbs). D. (p. 26) ἵστημι conjugated. (p. 29) τίθημι conjugated; (p. 29 ff.) δείκνυμι, δίδωμι, εἶμι, εἰμί, φημί, ἵημι. E. (p. 32) Mnemonics for Contract verbs. 33 VI.A. Participles, B. Infinitives, C. Imperatives. D (p. 33) Greek vs. Latin Imperatives 35 VII. PRINCIPAL PARTS of verbs, namely, 1. (p. 35) Vowel Stems. 2. (p. 36) Dentals. 3. (p. 36) Labials. 4. (p. 36) Palatals. 5. (p. 36) Liquids. 6. (p. 38) Hybrids. 7. (p. 37) -άνω, -ύνω, -σκω, -ίσκω. 8. (p. 39) 'Irregular' 9. (p. 40) Consonant changes in perfect passive. 10. (p. 40) "Infixes": what they are. 11. (p. 41) Irregular Reduplications and Augments. 12. (p. 42) Irregular (-μι-verb-like) 2nd Aorist Forms. 43 VII.A Perfect tense (meaning of), by D. B. Monro 44 VIII. Conditions 45 IX. Indirect Discourse: Moods in. (p. 43 the same restated) 47 X. Interrogative Pronouns & Indirect Question 49 XI. Relative Clauses. 52 XII. Constructions with words meaning "BEFORE" and "UNTIL" 53 XIII. Words Used 'Attributively' and 'Predicatively' 56 XIV. Supplementary Participles 57 XV. 'Internal Object' (Internal & External Accusatives)

2 2 58 XVI. 'Active' & 'Passive' Verbal Nouns & Adjectives 59 XVII. PREPOSITIONS: English to Greek. (p. 63 Time Expressions) 65 XVIII. Prepositions: Greek to English. 69 XIX. NUMERALS (& the four Greek letters used only as numerals) by Patrick Callahan 70 XX. Table of ATTIC versus HOMERIC (etc.) forms for Nouns and Pronouns 71 XXI. Greek Words for Come and Go 72. XXI. Map of the Greek Dialects, by L. R. Palmer * * * * * * * But WHY LEARN GREEK? An answer I think is implicit in this limpid little poem by Thomas Hardy: IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 'What do you see in that time-touched stone, When nothing is there But ashen blankness, although you give it A rigid stare? 'You look not quite as if you saw, But as if you heard, Parting your lips, and treading softly As mouse or bird. 'It is only the base of a pillar, they'll tell you, That came to us From a far old hill men used to name Areopagus.' 'I know no art, and I only view A stone from a wall, But I am thinking that stone has echoed The voice of Paul, 'Paul as he stood and preached beside it Facing the crowd, A small gaunt figure with wasted features, Calling out loud 'Words that in all their intimate accents Pattered upon That marble front, and were far reflected, And then were gone. 'I'm a labouring man, and know but little, Or nothing at all; But I can't help thinking that stone once echoed The voice of Paul.'

3 (I) Basic Rules For Greek Accents 3 Much of this is for beginners; but some particular rules are for advanced students too (especially in IX). Here "ult" means a word's last syllable; "penult" the second-to-last, "antepenult" the third from last. Mastery of accents comes only slowly, because their rules are complex; but you should not, in despair, just ignore them. If you ignore them, you can never pronounce Greek properly, or "hear" it in your inner ear. And then (a) memorizing inflections is far harder, and (b) again and again you miss vital information, given just by accents. E.g. μένω = "I stay", μενῶ = "I will stay"; or e.g. ἐν = "in", ἕν = "one thing"; or e.g. ἤν = "if", ἥν = "whom", ἦν = "I was". At first, the rules might make your head spin; but this does not last forever. If you pay close attention for just a few weeks, it all begins to seem easy. (I) All ancient Greek words are accented (except the few listed below in IX). They are pitch accents (see III), but helping to fix the pitch in any word is another factor, quantity (a vowel's length; how long it takes to say it: see II). Unfortunately we native English speakers are insensitive to both; we tend to hear only a word's stress. So in speaking Greek at first just stress every acute-accented or circumflex-accented syllable (but not the grave-accented: see IV). The modern Greeks do the same (see X). (II) Definition of "long" and "short" vowels (needed for all rules in III - IX): Always short: only -ε- and -ο-. Always long: -η-; -ω- (except in -ις -εως and -υς -εως nouns); & diphthongs. A "diphthong" = any two-vowel combination except final -αι and -οι. Those are nearly always short (e.g. μοῦσαι, λύομαι, ἄνθρωποι); long only in the optative, 3rd pers. sing. (e.g. παύοι & παύσαι). Either long or short : -ι-, -υ-, α-. In stems they are either long or short (you just have to learn that when you learn the word. Long for example is the stem-vowel in σῖτος, λῦσαι πσα.) But for accent, the stem-vowel is much less important than inflections; and here one can say: -ι- and -υ- in inflections are always short. -α- in inflections is always short -- except in 1st-declension feminine. There, -ας is always long; but -α and -αν -- i.e. the nom. and accus. singular -- can be either long or short. In sum, the only really big nuisance is -α- in first-declension feminines, since there nom. and acc. -α and -αν can be either long or short. For the rules, see the rhyme in VIII. (III) Three kinds of accent: G r a v e \ : the speaker's voice remained low in pitch (i.e. grave accent is not pronounced--see IV), C i r c u m f l e x ^ : the voice rose in pitch, then fell (see IV), A c u t e / = the voice rose in pitch. What kind of accent is used is largely a matter of "vocabulary" -- i.e. you learn any word's accent-patterns when you "learn" the word itself -- but we can generalize at least this much: (1) G r a v e \ is only on the ult. It appears wherever a word accented on the ult is followed by another accented word. As was said above, grave accent is not pronounced; its chief function is to signal, to the eye, that another word is coming. So the formula is: a word

4 4 accented on the ult gets a grave if followed by another accented word, and an acute if followed by punctuation, or by an enclitic (i.e. by a word not accented -- for a list of enclitics see IX). (2) C i r c u m f l e x ^ can fall only on a long penult or long ult (never before the penult, and never on a short syllable). It appears on any accented penult if that is long, and the ult short, e.g. χεῖρα. It appears on any accented ult which (a) is a genitive or dative ending; or (b) is a contraction (e.g. in contract verbs; in futures of liquid verbs; in any ult containing iota subscript; in all 1st-declension genitives plural, e.g. ἀδικιῶν *= -άων+, στρατιωτῶν *= -άων+ etc.) (3) A c u t e / can fall on the ult, the penult, or the antepenult (but never prior to that). (IV) More about the 3 kinds of accent (quotations from Smyth ). Re g r a v e: "The ancients regarded the grave originally as belonging to every syllable not accented with the acute or circumflex; and some MSS show this in practice, e.g. πὰγκρὰτής. Later it was restricted to its use for a final acute." That someone could write "πὰγκρὰτής" shows that the ancients did not stress grave-accented syllables. (You can verify this yourself by reading aloud almost any Greek sentence: if you ignore the grave accents, it sounds vastly more natural.) The function of written grave accent is purely analytical: it helps to show the grammar, and shows how the word would be accented if it were not followed by another word. Re c i r c u m f l e x: It is "formed from the union of the acute and the grave ( ` = ^ ), never from `. Thus, παῖς = πάὶς, εὖ = ἔὺ. Similarly, since every long vowel may be resolved into two short units (morae) τῶν may be regarded as = τόὸν. The circumflex was thus followed by a rising tone followed by one of lower pitch. μοῦσα, δῆμος are thus μόὺσα, δέὲμος." Because of this rise and fall on circumflex syllables, ancient Greek must have sounded sing-song, like modern Swedish or -- it is said -- Lithuanian. (Those are the only two modern European languages in which the pitch accent dominates, as in ancient Greek.) But for Englishspeakers, it seems best to stress every circumflex, just as if it were an acute. (V) An inflected word has any of three accent-patterns. Any word not inflected -- e.g. adverb, conjunction, preposition -- has no "accent-pattern", only a fixed accent which never changes (except from acute to grave, as in III.1 above), and you just learn it when you learn the word. But the accenting of a noun, adjective, or verb does change as its ending changes, and as you learn the declensions and conjugations, you will notice the following three patterns. (I here ignore the term "persistent" which other books use for nouns and adjectives; on that see the Appendix.) (1) R e c e s s i v e, when the accent moves from the ult as far as it can. When the ult is short, the accent recedes to the antepenult; when the ult is long, the accent is pulled to the penult. E.g. noun φύλακες φυλάκων φύλαξι etc. (-ες is short, -ων long, -ι short, etc.); or adj. δίκαιος δικαίου δικαίῳ etc. (-ος is short, -ου & -ῳ long) or (verb) ἔλυον ἔλυες ἔλυε etc. Recessive are (a) most verb forms (for exceptions see VI) and (b) many nouns and adjectives. (2) F i x e d, when the accent stays on the penult or ult (i.e. the accent never moves; it only changes from acute to circumflex, or acute to grave as in III.1 & 2 above). Fixed accent is

5 5 found: (a) in many nouns, e.g. ("fishes") ἰχθύες ἰχψύων ἰχψύσι etc. (there it is always on the penult); (b) in many adjectives, e.g. ἀγαθός, -θοῦ, -θόν etc. (there, always on the ult); (c) in a few verb-forms (all of which are listed in VI below). Note that in a great many 3rd-decl. nouns and adjectives -- e.g. ("fish") ἰχθύς, ἰχθύος, ἰχθύι, ἰχθύα etc.; or ("having left") λιπών, -όντος, -όντι, -όντα etc. -- the accent should be seen as "fixed" on the penult even though the nom. singular has an ultimate accent. You can just say to yourself that, in such words, the nom. sing. is "missing" a syllable. (3) "Q u i r k y" is anything not obeying rules of "fixed" or "recessive". The only really common quirky words -- those that you should try very hard to remember -- are these: (a) 3rd-declension monosyllables (i.e. words whose nom. sing. has 1 syllable) have gen. & dat. accent on the ult, e.g. (sing.) χεῖρ χειρός χειρί χεῖρα, (plural) χεῖρες χειρῶν, χερσί, χεῖρας. (b) several 3rd-decl. disyllables also have gen. & dat. accent on the ult. E.g. μήτηρ μητρός μητρί μητέρα etc.; πατήρ πατρός πατρί πατέρα etc.; ἀνήρ ἀνδρός ἀνδρί, ἄνδρα etc.; γυνή γυναικός γυναικί γυναῖκα etc.; οὐδείς (& μηδείς) οὐδενός οὐδενί οὐδένα etc. (c) 1st-decl. gen. plural:, e.g. (nom.) ἄναγκαι, (gen.) ἀναγκῶν (because it is really a contraction of Homeric ἀναγκάων). (VI) List of verb forms that have "fixed" accent. Most verb forms are "recessive" (as was said above); I here list those that are "fixed" (note that this includes the feminines of all participles listed here; e.g. λυθεῖσα, -είσης, -είσῃ, -εῖσαν etc.; λελοιπυῖα, -υίας etc.; λιποῦσα, λιπούσης etc.) (1) R e g u l a r v e r b (e.g. λύω or λείπω) has fixed accent only in: 1 AORIST ACTIVE infinitive (e.g. παιδεῦσαι) 2 AORIST ACTIVE infinitive (λιπεῖν), participle (λιπών, -οῦσα, -ον) 2 AORIST MIDDLE infinitive (λιπέσθαι) (participle is normal: λιπόμενος) AOR. PASS. inf. (λυθῆναι), partic. (λυθείς -εῖσα -έν), subjunct. (λυθῶ λυθῇς λυθῇ etc.) PERFECT ACT. infinitive (λελυκέναι), participle (λελυκώς, -κυῖα, -κός etc.) PERFECT MIDDLE infinitive (λελῦσθαι), participle (λελυκομένος etc.) AOR. & PERF. optatives plural may seem to have fixed accent; e.g. -εῖμεν, -εῖτε, -εῖεν. But those are really just contractions of -είημεν, -είητε, -είησαν. (2) - m i v e r b s have those same "fixed" accents, and also: PRES. ACT. inf. (e.g. τιθέναι, ἰέναι), partic. (τιθείς, ἰείς), subjunct. (τιθῶ, ἰῶ). (3) C o n t r a c t v e r b = (1) above, plus contractions in PRES. & IMPF. (VII) A difficulty with some polysyllabic first-declension nouns. From any noun's dictionary entry, which lists its nom. and gen. singular, you can normally discern its accent pattern (for a complete list see my noun table). But with some polysyllabic 1st-declension nouns, the information "ἀνάγκη, -ης, ἡ" or "πολίτης, -ου, ὁ" does not tell you if the accent is "recessive" (in which case the nom. pl. would be ἄναγκαι, πόλιται) or "fixed" (so that the nom

6 6 pl. would be ἀνάγκαι, πολῖται). There is no "solution" to this problem; you can only, for example, look in a bigger dictionary, in the hope that the nom. plural might appear in one of the quotations! (VIII) The 4 types of first-declension feminine. I here list them (adapting this from Smyth 218 ff.) because Chase & Phillips p. 11 does not do it clearly. Here the initial Greek letters, e.g. "η-ης", refer to the nom. and gen. singular. Here "short -α, -αν" and "long -α, -αν" refers only to the nom. & acc. sing. (other endings, except nom. pl. -αι, are all long). (A) η-ης. E.g. νίκη, νίκης, νικῃ, νίκην etc. (B) α-ας (long -α, -α): after -ρ- (if -ρ- not like those in C.1), -ι- (if -ι is like not those in C.2), - ε-. So e.g. χώρα, -ας; οἰκία, -ας; γενεά, -ς. (C) α-ας (short -α, -α): (1) if the word ends -εια, -οια, or τρια (e.g. βασίλλεα, διάνοια, ψάλτρια; but for some exceptions see Smyth ); (2) if it ends in -ρα after diphthong or long -υ- (e.g. μοῖρα, γέφυρα). (D) α-ης (short -α, -αν): if -σ-α, -σσ-α, -ξ-α, -ψ-α, -ττ-α, -ζ-α, -λλ-α, -αινα. (e.g. Μοῦσα, θάλασσα, ἅμαξα, ῥίζα, γλῶττα, ἅμιλλα, λέαινα) "A" is easy to remember; but B, C, D (i.e. all feminines ending in -α) give trouble, because they are so easily confused. So I summarize them in this rhyme, which you should memorize. (This omits only -λλ-α, -αιν-α in D, which I couldn't see how to cram into the rhyme): Long -α, χώρα and οἰκία. Short -α, -εια, -οια, -τρια. Short -ρα after dipththong, -ῦ-. Short -α -ης with -s- and -t-. Particularly worth remembering is "short -α -ης with -s- and -t-" (i.e. when the stem ends with an "s" or "t" sound); for it includes a huge number of feminines of adjectives and participles; e.g. λύουσα, λυούσης, λυούσῃ, λύουσαν. The "-εια -οια -τρια" type is rarer, but does include the feminines of all adjectives in -ύς, -εῖα -ύν (e.g. γλυκύς: fem. γλυκεῖα -είας -είᾳ -εῖαν etc.). (IX) Unaccented words are "proclitic " ("leaning forward") or "enclitic" ("leaning on"). They are called that because a proclitic is often felt as part of the following word (e.g. the article, e.g. ὁ νήπιος, "the fool"); an enclitic, as part of the preceding word. (Thus, an enclitic can even cause the preceding word to receive a second accent; e.g. νήπιός τις, "some fool", "a certain fool". For, since νήπιός τις is felt as a single word, to write "νήπιος τις" would violate the rule that one of a word's last three syllables must be accented.) P r o c l i t i c are (1) the definite article, masc. or fem. nominative: ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ, (2) the three prepositions ἐν ('in'), ἐκ / ἐξ ('from'), εἰς ('to', 'into', 'towards'), and (3) the words εἰ, ὡς and οὐ / οὐκ / οὐχ ( = "if", "so that" and "not"). E n c l i t i c are: (1) personal pronouns, μου μοι με, σου σοι σε, and (epic/archaic) οὑ οἱ ἑ, (2) the indefinite pronoun τις τι in all cases, (3) the indefinite adverbs που, πῃ, ποι, ποθεν, ποτε, πω, πως, (4) four particles, viz. γε, τε, τοι, περ, and (5) two verbs, viz. εἰμι and φημι,

7 when they have two syllables and are in the present indicative. 7 SPECIAL RULES FOR ἐ σ τ ί : accent it ἔστι (A) if it is the first word; (B) when it means "it is possible" (ἔξεστι); (C) in the phrases ἔστιν οἵ, ἔστιν ὅτε etc.("there are those who" = "some people", "there are times when" = "sometimes"); (D) if it follows οὐκ, μή, εἰ, ὡς, καί, ἀλλά (ἀλλ') or τοῦτο. COMPOUND VERBS (Sm. 426) have recessive accent, except that: (Α) the accent cannot precede augment or reduplication (e.g. ἀπῆν, εἰσῆλθον, ἀφῖκται); (Β) the accent cannot precede the 2nd syllable of a 2-syll. prefix (e.g. περίθες) or the 2nd of two prefixes (e.g. συγκάθες); and (C) accent remains unchanged in infinitives (e.g. παρεῖναι, not πάρειναι), participles (e.g. παρών), aorist & pf. passive. WORD BEFORE AN ENCLITIC: if it has antepenult. accent, add acute to ult, e.g. ἄνθρωπός τις, ἄνθρωποί τινες. If penult. acute accent, it stays unchanged, e.g. λόγος τις; but if the enclitic is disyllabic, you accent its second syllable: λόγοι τινές. If penult. circumflex, add acute to ult, e.g. χεῖρά τινα, χεῖρές τινες. If ult accent, it stays unchanged: τιμαί τε, τιμῶν τινων, ἤν τις etc. IF ENCLITICS FOLLOW ONE ANOTHER, each except the last gets an acute (always on its first syllable), e.g. ἤ νύ σέ που θέος ἴσχει, "Surely now some god, I guess, possesses you". (X) Ancient Greek versus modern Greek accenting. To pitch in individual words, the modern Greeks have as little sensitivity as we; like us they simply stress the ancient pitch accents, and do not differentiate between circumflex and acute. (Until several decades ago, they still used circumflex and grave accents in writing; but in the mid 1980's the Greek government, taking pity on school children, abolished all accents but the acute.) This loss of feeling for pitch, and the shift to stress, should be assigned to the last few centuries B.C., as seems plainly indicated by two facts: (a) The classical Greeks did not write accent marks -- no doubt because they did not need them. The present accent system was invented (or given its present form) in about 200 B.C. by a great Alexandrian scholar, Aristophanes of Byzantium, precisely because the pitch accents were already becoming uncertain. (One root cause of this was that, a bit like English today, Greek had now become a koinê spoken, often poorly, by millions of "foreigners".) (b) In the change from classical Greek to the Hellenistic koinê, one can also detect a drastic change in word order -- from the extreme freedom of classical Greek to a comparative rigidity, resembling that of most modern languages -- apparently for the following reason. We now use pitch for emphasis in a sentence. It is mostly by pitch that we differentiate between: "Í told you that", "Í told you that?"; "I told yóu that", "I told yóu that?"; "I told you thát", "I told you thát?" -- etc. (that one tiny sentence can have a dozen different variants, differentiated just by pitch). But in classical Greek, pitch did not belong to the sentence; it was a property of individual words. So the same differentiation had to be done by particles, and by word order: ἐγώ γε ἐκεῖνό σοι εἶπον, εἶπόν σοι ἐκεῖνο, σοί γε ἐκεῖνο εἶπον, etc. This, then, is one reason why classical Greek word order is so flexible, and why it teems with sentence-particles, for many of which we lack an equivalent. But already in the New

8 8 Testament, the particles in common use are fewer, and the word order drastically closer to ours. This must mean that the feeling for pitch in separate words was already ebbing. Such at least is the ingenious, plausible hypothesis of George Thompson, in his paper "On the Order of Words in Plato and Saint Matthew", The Link #2, June 1939, I quote from his conclusion (p ): The conclusion to which all this evidence points is that, by the beginning of the Christian era, the function of position in marking emphasis and the function of the modal particles in marking other shades of meaning were being taken over by intonation of the voice. The fundamental change which had taken place was therefore the decay of the pitch accent. When pitch had been replaced by stress, the vocal intonation [i.e. pitch] became free, and consequently the flexible word order and the modal particles were rendered superfluous. Appendix: ABOUT THE TERMS "PERSISTENT" & "RECESSIVE" It is customary to say that nouns and adjectives have "persistent" accent; that is, that they "accent, in the oblique cases, the same syllable as is accented in the nominative, if the length of ultima permits" (Chase & Phillips p. 11; cf. Smyth 205). Unfortunately, this rule needs X-ray vision; students are not linguists, and they see this 'rule' simply defied (A) by all the 3rd-declension monosyllables, e.g. παίς, παιδός, παιδί, παῖδα etc. (what to a student will seem "persistent" there?), and (B) by hundreds of other nouns of the sort discussed in VII, e.g. sing. ἀνάγκη, pl. ἄναγκαι. For teaching purposes I therefore discard "persistant" and speak only of "fixed" (e.g. sing. πολίτης, pl. πολῖται), "recessive" (e.g. sing. ἀνάγκη, pl. ἄναγκαι), and "quirky" (e.g. 3rd-decl. monosyllables). Of course, by applying the term "recessive" to nouns and adjectives, I misuse it; but as a purely descriptive term at least it "works" far more often! It fails only with the neuters of active participles, but those can be regarded as a "quirk" or wrinkle; e.g. παιδεύων, παιδεύοντος etc., neuter παιδεῦον (not παίδευον, which it would be if strictly "recessive"). (II) L i s t o f A l l G r e e k N o u n I n f l e c t i o n s All nouns here are masc. (or masc.-fem., in some words for animals) unless preceded by the fem. or neuter article. A parenthesis like "νοῦ (& νόος)" means that both forms are attested (in parenthesis I put the rarer). A parenthesis like "νοῦ (= νόου)" means that νοῦ is a contracted form and νόου is its hypothesized or attested 'original'. For Homeric forms see also p. 70. Accent symbols: - C = contracted (C U = contracted with accented ult; C P = contracted with accented penult; C R = contracted with recessive accent); - D = disyllable (accent either "fixed" or "recessive", but it doesn't matter); - M = 3rd-decl. monosyllable (M L if the vowel is long); - P = penultimate "fixed" accent (P L if the penult is long); - R = "recessive" accent (R 2 if it has only 2 syllables; R 2L = 2 syllables with long stem vowel); - U = accent "fixed" on the ultima. 1st DECLENSION = all feminines ending -η or -α, masculines ending -ης and -ας. Note that all 1st-declension genitives plural are accented -ῶν (= contraction of Homeric -άων, Ionic - ν: Smyth 214.d.8). On a problem accenting polysyllabic words see the Accent pages, VIII.

9 η-ης -U (honor) ἡ τιμ-ή, -ῆς, -ῇ, -ήν -αί, -ῶν, -αῖς, -άς -P L (agreement) ἡ συνθήκη, -ης, -ῃ, -ην συνθῆκ-αι, συνθηκ-ῶν, συνθήκ-αῖς, -άς -R (necessity) ἡ ἀνάγκ-η, -ης, -ῃ, -ην ἄναγκ-αι, ἀναγκ-ῶν, ἀνάγκ-αις, -ας -C (fig tree) ἡ συκ-ῆ, -ῆς, -ῇ, -ῆν -αῖ, -ῶν, -αῖς, -ς (= συκ-έα, -έης κ.τ.λ.) ᾱ-ας -U (joy) ἡ χαρ-ά, -ς, -ᾶ, -άν -αί, -ῶν, -αῖς, -άς -R (house) ἡ οἰκί-α, -ας, -ᾳ, -αν -αι, οἰκι-ῶν, οἰκί-αις, -ας -U (mina) ἡ μν-, -ς, -ᾶ, -ν -αῖ, -ῶν, -αῖς, -ς ( = -άα, -άας, -άᾳ κ.τ.λ.) ᾰ-ας -D L (fate) ἡ μοῖρ-α, μοίρ-ας, -ᾳ, μοῖρ-αν μοῖρ-αι, μοιρ-ῶν, μοίρ-αις, -ας -R (aid) ἡ ὠφέλει-α, ὠφελεί-ας, -ᾳ, ὠφέλει-αν -αι, ὠφελει-ῶν, ὠφελεί-αις, -ας ᾰ-ης -D (root) ἡ ῥίζ-α, -ης, -ῃ, -αν -αι, ῥιζ-ῶν, ῥίζ-αις, -ας. -D L (muse) ἡ μοῦσ-α, μούσ-ης, -ῃ, μοῦσ-αν -αι, μουσ-ῶν, μούσ-αις, -ας -R3 (rivalry) ἡ ἅμιλλ-α, ἁμίλλ-ης, -ῃ, ἅμιλλ-αν -αι, ἁμιλλ-ῶν, ἁμίλλαις, -ας ας-ου -P (steward) ταμί-ας, -ου, -ᾳ, -αν -αι, ταμι-ῶν, ταμί-αις, -ας -C (N. wind) Βορρε-ς, -οῦ, -, -ν (no plural) ( = -έας, -έου, -έα, -έαν ) *ης-ου -U (poet) ποιητ-ής, -οῦ, -ῇ, -ήν -αί, -ῶν, -αῖς, -άς. -P (Hades) Αἴδ-ης (& ᾅδ-ης), -ου (& -αο), ῃ, -ην (no plural attested) -P L (citizen) πολίτ-ης, -ου, -ῃ, -ην πολῖτ-αι, πολιτ-ῶν, πολίτ-αις, πολίτ-ας -C (Hermes) 'Ερμ-ῆς, -οῦ, -ῇ, -ῆν -αῖ, -ῶν, -αῖς, -ς ( = -έας, -έου κ.τ.λ.) 9 *Also N.B. the Homeric -ης -αο and -ης -εω, and Doric -ης -α (Smyth 214.D.5, 225). So the genitive of Ατρείδης (son of Atreus) can be Ατρείδ-αο, Ατρείδ-εω, or Ατρείδ-α. 2nd DECLENSION = masc. (more rarely, fem.) -ος, -ου ορ -ους, -ου; neut. -ον, -ου or -ουν, - ου. ACCENTS, Note that "-P", fixed penultimate accent, is rare. Usually "-P" nouns derive from adjectives, which in turn derive from 1st-decl. nouns. E.g. ἀρχεῖον from ἀρχαῖος -α -ον from άρχή; τροπαῖον (trophy) from τροπαῖος -α -ον from τροπή (turning); the name Γογγύλος from γογγύλος -η ον (round). So when your dictionary leaves you in doubt whether a word has recessive accent or fixed, it is probably recessive. ον-ου-u (plant) τὸ φυτ-όν, -οῦ, -, -όν -ά, -ῶν, -οῖς, -ά -P L (town hall) τὸ ἀρχεῖ-ον, ἀρχεί-ου, -ῳ, ἀρχεῖ-ον -α, ἀρχεί-ων, -οις, ἀρχεῖ-α -R (organ) τὸ ὄργαν-ον, ὀργάν-ου, -ῳ, ὄργαν-ον -α, ὀργάν-ων, -οις, ὄργαν-α ος-ου-u (doctor) ἰατρ-ός, -οῦ, -, -όν -οί, -ῶν, -οῖς, -ούς (so too fem., e.g. ὁδός, νῆσος) -P (chronicler) λογογράφος, -ου, -ῳ -ον -οι, -ων, -οις, -ους -P (dialogue) διάλογ-ος, διαλόγ-ου, -ῳ, διάλογον -οι, διαλόγ-ων, -οις, -ους (so ἡ κάθοδος 2ND-DECLENSION CONTRACTED ουν-ους-c: = neuter contracted noun (bone) τὸ ὀστοῦν, -οῦ, -ῶ, -οῦν -, -ῶν, -οῖς, - ους-ου-c: (mind) ν-οῦς, -οῦ (& -όος),- (& -όι), -οῦν (& -όα) -οῖ (& -όες), -ῶν, -οῖς, -οῦς (& -όας); (= Attic form of νόος, νόου, νόῳ, νόον νόοι, νόων, νόοις, νόους. But sometimes-- esp. in the plural-- it imitates the 3rd-decl. (hence the forms I introduce "(&...)". So too θροῦς, ῥοῦς, χνοῦς, χοῦς, πλοῦς. -C P : (sailing round) περίπλ-ους, -ου, -ῳ, -ουν -οι (& -οες), -ων, -οις, -ους (& -οας)

10 2ΝD-DECL. "ATTIC" DECLENSION ως-ω-p (reef) ὁ κάλ-ως (& epic & Ionic κάλος), -ω, -ῳ, -ων -ω (& -οι), -ων, ῳς, -ως. ως-ω-u (peacock) ὁ τα-ώς, -ώ (& -ῶ), -, -ών -ῴ, ῶν, -ς (& -ῶσι), -ώς (& -ῶς, -ῶνας) 3rd DECLENSION = any noun whose gen. singular ends in -ς (i.e. in -ος, -ους, -ως). Do not despair at the seeming vastness and complexity of the 3rd declension! Many of these paradigms are rare; I underline those that are commonest, and so for beginners most important. Six quirky but important nouns, all disyllables accented like monosyllables, are listed together at the very end, ἀνήρ man, γυνή woman, μητήρ mother, πατήρ father, οὐδείς no one, οὐδέν nothing. ( )-κτος -Ρ 2 (milk) τὸ γάλα, γάλα-κτος, -κτι, γάλα γάλα-κτα, γαλά-κτων, γάλαξι, -κτα ( )-ος -Ρ 2 (tear) τὸ δάκρυ, δάκρυ-ος, -ι, δάκρυ δάκρυ-α, δακρύ-ων, δάκρυ-σι, -α -Μ L (beast) θήρ, θηρ-ός, -ί, θῆρ-α θῆρ -ες, θηρ-ῶν, θηρ-σί, θῆρ-ας ( )-τος -Ρ2 L (body) τὸ σῶμα, σώμα-τος, -τι, σῶμα σώμα-τα, σωμά-των, σώμα-σι, -τα -R (lesson) τὸ μάθημα, μαθήμα-τος, -τι, μάθημα μαθήματα etc. ας-εος (ground) τὸ οὖδ-ας, οὔδ-εος, -ει, οὖδας (no plural attested) ας-ως -R C (prize) τὸ γέρ-ας, -ως, -ᾳ, -ας -α, -ῶν, -ασι, -α (= γέρ-ας, -αος, -αι, -ας -αα, -άων, -ασσι, -αα) αυς-εως (ship) ν-αῦς, -έως, -ηί, -ῦν -ῆες, -εῶν, -αυσί, -αῦς Ionic ν-ηῦς, -εός [Hom. -ηός+, -ηί, -έα [-ῆα+ -έες [-ῆες+, -εῶν [-ηῶν+, -ηυσί, -έας [-ῆα+ ειρ-ερος-μ (hand) ἡ χ-είρ, -ειρός (& -ερός), -ειρί (& -ερί), -εῖρα -εῖρες, -ειρῶν, -ερσί, -εῖρας -R (suicide) αὐτόχ-ειρ, -ειρος, -ειρι, -ειρα -ειρες, -είρων, -ερσι, ειρας εις-ενος-μ (comb) κτ-είς, -ενός, -ενί, -ένα -ένες, -ενῶν, -εσί, -ένας ευς-εως -P c (horseman) ἱππ-εύς, -έως ( -ῶς), -εῖ, -έα (-ᾶ) -εῖς (-ης), -έων (-ῶν), -εῦσι (-έσσι), -έας (-ς). ην-εν -P (shepherd) ποιμ-ήν, -ένος, -ένι, -ένα -ένες, -ένων, -έσι, -ένας -R (male) ἄρρ-ην (=ἄρσην), -ενος, -ενι, -ενα -ενες, ἀρρ-ένων, ἄρρ-εσι, -ενας ηρ-ερος - P (stomach) ἡ γαστ-ήρ, -έρος (& γαστ-ρός), -έρα -έρες, -έρων, -έρας ης-εους-c R Περικλ-ῆς, -έους, -εῖ, -έα -εῖς, -έων, -έσι, -εῖς (& -ῆς, -έεος, -έει, -έεα etc.) ης-ους- C P (trireme) ἡ τριέρ-ης, -ους, -ει, -η -εις, -ων, -εσι, -εις (& τριέρ-ης, -εος, -εει, -εα -εες, -εων, -εσσι, -εες. So too nouns in -κράτης, e.g. ωκράτ-ης, -ους, -ει, -η (etc.) ις-εως- R 2 (city) ἡ πόλ-ις (& -ιος)*, -εως, -ει, -ιν -εις, -εων, -εσι, -εις *see note under ις-ιος -R 2L (knowledge) ἡ γνῶσ-ις, γνώσ-εως, -ει, γνῶσ-ιν γνώσ-εις, -εων, -εσι, -εις -R (president) πρύταν-ις, πρυτάν-εως, -ει, πρύταν-ιν πρυτάν-εις, -εων, -εσι, -εις => Ν.Β. -ω- in the gen. is short; contrast -εύς, -έως above ις-ιος-r 2 (seer) μάντ-ις, -ιος (& -εος, -ιδος), -ει, -ιν (& -ιδα) -εις (& -ιδες), -ίων, μάντ-εσι, - εις (& -ιας, -ιδας) => Ν.Β. ις-ιος is really the Ionic form of ις-εως. -Ρ 2L (fasting) νῆστ-ις, νήστ-ιος (& -ιδος), -ει, νῆστ-ιν νήστ-εις, νηστ-ίων, νήστ-εσι, -εις ν-νος -R 2 (Hellene) Eλλη-ν, Ελλη-νος, -νι, -να -νες, Ελλή-νων, Ελλη-σι, -νας -P L (contest) ἀγώ-ν, ἀγῶ-νος, -νι, -να -νες, ἀγώ-νων, ἀγῶ-σι, -νας -Μ L (sedge) σφή-ν, σφη-νός, -νί, σφῆ-να -νες, -νῶν, -σί, σφῆ-νας ξ-γος -Μ (flame) ἡ φλό-ξ, φλο-γός, -γί, φλό-γα -γες, φλο-γῶν, φλο-ξί, φλό-γας 10

11 11 -Μ L (goat) ἀί-ξ, αἰ-γός, -γί, αἶ-γα -γες, αἰ-γῶν, αἰ-ξί, αἴ-γας -P L (pivot) καταπή-ξ, καταπῆ-γος, -γι, -γα -γες, -πή-γων, -πῆ-ξι, -γας -R 2 (phalanx) φάλαγ-ξ, φάλαγ-γος, -γι, -γα -γες, φαλάγ-γων, φάλαγ-ξι, -γας ξ-κος -R 2 (guard) φύλα-ξ, φύλα-κος, -κι, -κα -κες, φυλά-κων, φύλα-ξι, -κας ξ-κτος -R 2 (lord) ἄνα-ξ, ἄνα-κτος, -κτι, -κτα -κτες, ἀνά-κτων, ἄνα-ξι, -κτας -Μ (night) ἡ νύ-ξ, νυ-κτός, νυ-κτί, νύ-κτα -κτες, νυ-κτῶν, -ξί, νύ-κτας ξ-χος -R 2 (talon) ὄνυ-ξ, όνυ-χος, -χι, -χα -χες, ὀνύ-χων, ὄνυ-ξι, -χας. -Μ L (cough) βή-ξ, βη-χός, -χί, βῆ-χα -χες, βηχ-ῶν, βη-ξί, βή-χας -Μ (hair) ἡ θρί-ξ, τρι-χός, -χι, τρί-χα -χες, τρι-χῶν, θρι-ξί, τρίχας ον-οντος-ρ 2 (future) τὸ μέλλ-ον, -οντος, -οντι, -ον -οντα, -όντων, -ουσι, -οντα ος-εος (distress) κῆδ-ος, -εος, -ει, -ος -εα, -έων, -εσι, -εα ος-ους -R (debt; task) (τὸ) χρέ-ος, -ους (& -εος, -εως), -ει, -ος -α, χρε-ῶν, - χρέ-εσι, -α -R (trunk) τὸ στέλεχ-ος, στελέχ-ους, -ει, στέλεχ-ος στελέχ-η, στελεχ-ῶν, στελέχ-εσι, -η -P L (length) τὸ μῆκ-ος, μήκ-ους, -ει, μῆκ-ος etc. (= μῆκος, μήκεος etc.) -C U (solid) (no singular) τὰ στερεοειδ-ῆ, -ῶν, -οῖς, -ῆ ους-οδος-ρ 2 (beam-end) γεισίπ-ους, -οδος, -οδι, -οδα -οδες, -οδῶν, -οσι, -οδας -Μ (foot) π-ούς, π-οδός, π-οδί, π-όδα π-όδες, π-οδῶν, π-οσί, π-όδας ους-οντος (ivory) ἐλεφαντόδ-ους, -οντος, -οντι, -οντα -οντες, -όντων, -οῦσι, -οντας -P (tooth) ὀδ-ούς, ὀδ-όντος, -όντι, -όντα -όντες, -όντων, -ούσι, -όντας ους-ουντος (flat-cake) πλακ-οῦς, -οῦντος, -οῦντι, -οῦντα οῦντες, -ούντων, -οῦσι, -ούντας ους-ωτος (ear) τὸ οὖς, ὠτός, ὠτί, οὖς ὦτα, ὤτων, ὠτ σί, ὦτα ρ-τος -R 2 (liver) τὸ ἧπα-ρ, -τος, -τι, -ρ -τα, ἡπά-των, ἥπα-σι, -τα. cf. δέλεαρ bait, φρέαρ sell ς-δος -P (Greek, if female) ἡ Ελληνί-ς, -δος, -δι, -δα -δες, -δων, -σι, -δας. -R 2 (iris, rainbow) ἡ ἴρι-ς, ἴρι-δος, -δι, -δα -δες, ἰρί-δων, ἴρι-σι, -δας -Μ L (child) ὁ παῖ-ς, παι-δός, -δί, παῖ-δα -δες, παι-δῶν, παι-σί, -δας ς-θος -R2 (bird) ὄρνι-ς, ὄρνι-θος, -θι, -ν ὄρνι-θες, ὀρνί-θων, ὄρνι-σι, -θας ς-νος -L P (dolphin) δελφί-ς, δελφῖ-νος, -νι, -να -νες, δελφί-νων, δελφῖ-σι, -νας -R 2 (tunny) ὄκυ-ς, -νος, -νι, -να -νες, ὀκύ-νων, ὄκυ-σι, -νας -Μ L (nose) ἡ ρῖ-ς, -νός, ρι-νί, ρῖ-να -νες, ρι-νῶν, ρι-σί, ρῖ-νας. ς-ντος -P (statue) ἀνδριά-ς, ἀνδριά-ντος, -ντι, -ντα -ντες, -ντων, -σι, -ντας -R (elephant) ἐλέφα-ς, -ντος, -ντι, -ντα ἐλέφα-ντες, ἐλεφά-ντων, ἐλέφα-σι, -ντας -P L (a coin) ἑξ-ς, ἑξ-ντος, -ντι, -ντα -ντες, ἑξά-ντων, ἑξ-σι, -ντας ς-ος -Ρ2 (hero) ἥρω-ς, -ος, -ι (& ἥρῳ), -α (& ἥρω) -ες (& ἥρως), ἡρώ-ων, ἡρῶω-σι, -ας (& ἥρως) -Μ L (jackal) θῶ-ς, θω-ός, θω-ί, θῶ-α θῶ-ες, θω-ῶν, θω-σί, θῶ-ας -Μ (salt) ἅλ-ς, ἁλ-ός, ἁλ-ί, ἅλ-α ἅλ-ες, ἁλ-ῶν, ἁλ-σί, ἅλ-ας ς-τος -Ρ2 (carpet) τάπη-ς, τάπη-τος, -τι, -τα -τες, ταπή-των, τάπη-σι, -τας. neut. τέρας -Μ L (light) (τὸ) φῶ-ς, φω-τός, -τί, φῶ-ς φῶ-τα, φω-τῶν, φω-σί, φῶτ-α. -Μ L (man) (ὁ) φώ-ς, φω-τός, -τί, φῶ-τα -τες, φω-τῶν, φω-σί, φῶτ-τας -P L (foreland) προβλή-ς, -ῆτος, -ῆτι, -ῆτα (etc.) ς-ρος -R 2 (witness) μάρτυ-ς, μάρτυ-ρος, -ρι, -ρα -ρες, μαρτύ-ρων, μάρτυ-ρσι, -ρας υ-ατος -R 2 (spear) τὸ δόρ-υ, -ατος, -ατι, -υ -ατα, δορ-άτων, δόρ-ασι, -ατα. υ-εος- R (half) τὸ ἥμισ-υ, ἡμίσ-εος, -ει, ἥμισ-υ -η (& -εα), ἡμίσ-ων, -εσι, -η (& -εα)

12 12 -R 2L (female) τὸ θῆλ-υ, θήλ-εος, -ει, θῆλυ θήλη, -ων, -εσι, -η υ-εως -R 2 (city) τὸ ἄστυ, -εως (& -εος), -ει, -υ -η (& -εα), -εων, -εσι, -η (& -εα) υς-εως -R 2 (old man) πρέσβ-υς, -εως (& -εος), -ει, -υν -εις (& -ες), -εων, -εσι, -εις -R (axe) πέλεκ-υς, πελέκ-εως, -ει, πέλεκ-υν -ες -εις, πελέκ-ων, -εσι, πέλεκ-ας -R 2L (forearm) πῆχ-υς, πήχ-εως, -ει, πῆχυν (etc.) υς-ος -Μ L old woman) ἡ γρα-ῦς, γρα-ός, -ί, -ῦν γρ-ες, γρα-ῶν, -υσί, -ῦς. So βο-ῦς, να-ῦς υς-υος- P (fish) ἰχθ-ύς, -ύος, -ύι, -ύν (-ύα) -ύες (-ῦς), -ύων, -ύσι, -ύας (-ῦς). So ἡ ὀφρύς -R (eel) ἔγχελ-υς, -υος (-εως), -υι, -υν ἐγχέλ-εις (-υς -υες), -έων (-ύων), -υσι, -εις (-υς -υας) -Μ (mouse) μ-ύς, -υός, -υί, -ῦν (& -ύα) -ύες (& -ῦς), -υῶν,-υσί, -ύας (& -ῦς); so ἡ δρύς ψ-βος -R 2 (Arab) ἄρα-ψ, ἄρα-βος, -βι, -βα -βες, ἀρά-βων, ἄρα-ψι, -βας. So Φάλυψ -Μ (vein; artery) φλέ-ψ, φλε-βός, -βί, φλέ-βα -βες, φλε-βῶν, -ψί, φλέ-βας ψ-πος -R (gnat) κώνω-ψ, -πος, -πι, -πα -πες, κωνώ-πων, κώνω-ψι, -πας -Μ (mite) σκνί-ψ, σκνι-πός, -πί, σκνί-πα -πες, σκνι-πῶν, -ψί, σκνί-πας -Μ L (woodworm) θρί-ψ, θρι-πός, -πί, θρῖ-πα -πες, θρι-πῶν, -ψί, θρῖ-πας ω-ους -C U (echo) ἡ ἠχ-ώ, -οῦς, -οῖ, -ώ (& -ώ, -όος, -όι, -όα) (no pl.) (So ἡ πειθώ, απφώ, χρέω) ων-νος -Μ (dog) κύ-ων, κυ-νός, -νί, κύ-να -νες, κυ-νῶν, κυ-σί, κύ-νας ων-ονος -P (swallow) χελιδ-ών, -όνος, -όνι, -όνα -όνες, -όνων, -οῦσι, -όνας -Α (axle) ἄξων, -ονος, -ονι, -ονα etc.; ἄκμων ων-οντος (= present participle) (old man) γέρων, -οντος, -οντι, -οντα (etc.) ωρ-ορος-r 2 (rhetor) ῥήτ-ωρ, -ορος, -ορι, -ορα -ορες, ῥητ-όρων, ῥήτ-ορσι (& -ωρσι), -ορ-ας ωρ-ατος-r 2 (water) τὸ ὕδ-ωρ, ὕδ-ατος, -ατι, ὕδ-ωρ ὕδ-ατα, ὑδ-άτων, ὕδ-ασι, -ατα ως-ους -C U (shame) ἡ αἰδ-ώς, -οῦς, -ῶ, -ῶ (& -ώς, -όος, -όι, -όα) (no plural. So also ἡ ἠώς) SIX COMMON VERY IRREGULAR 3rd-DECL NOUNS, disyllables accented like monosyllables (woman) γυν-ή, -αικός, -αικί, -αῖκα, -αῖκες, -αικῶν, -αιξί, -αῖκας (man) ἀν-ήρ, ἀν-δρός, -δρί, ἄν-δρα, -δρες, ἀν-δρῶν, ἀν-δράσι, -δρας (father) πατ-ήρ, -ρός (& πατ-έρος), πατ-ρί (& -έρι), -έρα, -έρες, -έρων, πατ-ράσι, πατ-έρας (mother) μητ-ήρ, -ρός (& μητ-έρος), μητ-ρί (& -έρι), -έρα, -έρες, -έρων, μητ-ράσι, μητ-έρας (nothing) τὸ μηδέν, μηδεν-ός, -ί, μηδέν (no plural; so also οὐδέν) (no one) οὐδείς, -ενός, -ενί, -ένα, -ένες, -ενῶν, -εσί, -ένας (so too μηδείς) (II.B) HOW TO FORM THE DUAL. With nouns and adjectives the endings are simply: nom. = acc. gen. = dat. 1st decl.: -α, -αιν. 2nd: -ω, -οιν. 3rd: -ε, -οιν. (II.C) 'X - r a y s' o f S o m e O d d - l o o k i n g T h i r d - d e c l e n s i o n N o u n s These 3d-decl. nouns are only superficially dissimilar. Each slightly distorts the regular endings, which are -ς, -ος, -ι, -ν (or -α) -ες, -ων, -σι, -ας. So e.g. in the first example, the stem is πόλι- and the 'true' forms πόλις, πόλιος, πόλι(ι), etc. in fact survived in Ionic:

13 singular plural 13 (Attic) (Ionic) (Attic) (Ionic) πόλ - ι - ς - ι - ς π ό λ -εις - ι - ες πόλ - ε - ως - ι - ος π ό λ -εων - ι - ων πόλ - ε - ι - ι - ι π ό λ -εσι - ι - σι πόλ - ι - ν - ι- ν π ό λ -εις - ι - ας In-ευς -εως nouns the stem ended in -ηυ- which before a vowel changed to -ηϝ (and then, I suppose, -εϝ-. Ϝ is a 'digamma' pronounced like the w in war. Compare ναῦς declined below): singular plural (Attic) (Ionic) (Attic) (Ionic) β α σ ι λ - εύς - ηυ - ς β α σ ι λ -εῖς/-ης - ῆϜ - ες β α σ ι λ - έως - ῆϜ - ος β α σ ι λ -έων - ῆϜ - ων β α σ ι λ - εῖ - ῆϜ - ι β α σ ι λ -εῦσι - ηυ - σι β α σ ι λ - έα - ῆϜ- α β α σ ι λ -εῖς/-έας - ῆϜ - ας In the next three, notice how what happens, in Attic, to -υ- before a vowel is like what happened to -ι- above in πόλις; and how the third specimen preserves the regular endings intact. (N.B. also: declined exactly like πρέσβυς and ἄστυ are the masc. and neuter of adjectives of the type ἡδύς, -αεῖα, -ύ singular plural (Attic) (Ionic) (Attic) (Ionic) ἄ σ τ - υ - υ ἄ σ τ -η (& -εα) - υ - α (-υα > -εα > -η) ἄ σ τ - εως - υ - ος ἄ σ τ -εων - υ - ων ἄ σ τ - ει - υ - ι ἄ σ τ -εσι - υ - σι ἄ σ τ - υ - υ ἄ σ τ -η (& -εα) - υ - α singular plural (Attic) (Ionic) (Attic) (Ionic)

14 π ρ έ σ β - υ - ς - υ - ς π ρ έ σ β -εις (& -ες) - υ - ες 14 π ρ έ σ β - εως - υ - ος π ρ έ σ β -εων - υ - ων π ρ έ σ β - ει - υ - ι π ρ έ σ β -εσι - υ - σι π ρ έ σ β - υν - υ - ν π ρ έ σ β -εις (& -ες) - υ - ας (Sing.) ἰ χ θ - ύ - ς ἰ χ θ - ύ - ος ἰ χ θ - ύ - ι ἰ χ θ - ύ - ν (also -ύ-α) (Plur.) - ύ - ες (also -ῦς) - ύ - ων - ύ - σι - ύ - ας (also -ῦς)- In the next example, as with βασιλεύς above, the stem ended in -υ- which became -Ϝbefore a vowel. So it was ν-αῦ-ς, ν-αϝ-ός, ν-αϝ-ί etc., just like Latin nav-is, nav-is, nav-i etc. Attic ναῦς seems odder than βασιλεύς only because it has two original stems, ναυ- and νηυ-. (Or to be exact, in Attic, as often, -η- changed to -α-.) See how perfectly regular is the Homeric declension. ( = early "Ionic". In this "Homeric" column, the letters in parenthesis are added by me. As we know from his meter, by Homer's time the digamma had already faded): singular plural (Attic) (Homeric) (Attic) (Homeric) ν - αῦς ν - αῦ - ς ν - ηῦ - ς ν - ῆες ν - ηϝ - ες ν - ῆ (Ϝ) - ε ς ν - εώς ν - αϝ - ός ν - η (Ϝ) - ός ν - εῶν ν - ηϝ - ῶν ν - η (Ϝ) - ῶν ν - ηί ν - ηϝ- ί ν - η (Ϝ) - ί ν - αυσί ν - αυ - σί ν - η (υ) - σί ν - αῦν ν - αῦ - ν ν - ῆ (Ϝ) - α ν - αῦς ν - αῦ - ς ν - ῆ (Ϝ) - ας

15 II.D GREEK DECLENSIONS COMPARED WITH ARCHAIC LATIN 15 W. M. Lindsay, Handbook of Latin Inscriptions, Boston/Chicago 1897, repr. Amsterdam 1970.; Carl Buck, Comparative Greek and Latin Grammar, Chicago 1933; Michael Weiss, Outline of the Historical & Comparative Grammar of Latin (forthcoming, 2008). Latin vowels are short unless marked long (or unless diphthongs). I skip fem. & neut. if they = masc. "terr-ās -āi & -ai -ae" means that the genitive was originally terrās, later terrāi & terrai (both attested), later terrae. nom. χώρ-α terr-ā -a χῶραι terr-āi -ai -ae gen. χώρ-ας terr- ās - āi & -ai -ae χωρ-άσων terr-āsōm - ārom* -ārum ('-as' survived e.g. in 'pater familias') -άων, -ῶν dat. χώρ-ᾳ terr- āi -a & ai -ae χώρ-αις terr-āis -eis -īs acc. χώρ-αν terr- ām -am χώρ-ας terr-ās -ās abl. -- terr- ād -ā -- terr-āis -eis -īs *On the gen. plural see Buck p. 133: in Attic Greek intervocalic -s- disappears; in Latin " 'rhotacism', as the change of s to r is often called, was doubtless through the medium of a voiced s, that is, z (in Oscan the change did not go beyond this stage, cf. gen. pl. egmazum). But the evidence of early Latin transitional spelling with z is meager, but the grammarians quote many old forms with s, such as lases = lares, arbosem = arborem. Rhotacism occurs in many languages" -- e.g. English were vs was. nom. δόλ-ος dol-os -us δόλ-οι dol-oi -ei -ī gen. δόλ-ου dol-ī (only form attested) δόλ-ων dol- ōm -um & dol-ōsōm - ōrum dat. δόλ-ῳ dol-ōi -oi - ō δόλ-οις dol-ois -eis - īs acc. δόλ-ον dol-om -um δόλ-ους dol- ōs abl. -- dol-ōd -ō -- dol-ois -eis - īs Lat. dat. pl. from IE -bhos; Gk. dat. pl. "is in origin the locative pl. answering to Skt. -su" (Buck 186). nom. γέν-ος gen-os -us γέν-εα -η gen-esa -era -era gen. γέν-εος gen-esos -eros -eris γεν-έων -ῶν gen-esom -erom -erum (& -ους) &-eses -eres -eris dat. γέν-ει gen-esai -erei -eri γέν-εσι gen-esibos -eribos -eribus acc. γέν-ος gen-os -us γέν-εα -η gen-esa -era -era abl. -- gen-esi -eri -ere -- gen-esibos -eribos -eribus & gen-esîd -erîd nom. ὅς ἥ ὅ he-ce hai-ce hod-ce hic haec hoc οἵ hoi & hei, hāi-ce, hāi-ce hī hae haec gen. οὗ hoios-ce huius (cf. eius from *esio+s) ὧν hōsōm horom, hāsōm harom hōrum hārum dat. ὧι hoi-ce huic οἷς hois & heis, hais & heis hīs hīs hīs acc. ὅν hon-ce, han-ce, hod-ce hunc hanc οὕς hōs-ce, hās-ce, hāi-ce hōs hās haec hoc abl. -- hōd-ce (hōc-ce), hād-ce hōc hāc hōc -- hois & heis, hais & heis hīs hīs hīs loc. -- hei-ce (classical hîc 'here') "This pron. is characterized in Classical Latin by the attachment of the particle -c < -ce (cf. ce-dô give here, nun-c now < *nun-ke) to all the singular forms except the gen., and to the neuter nom. accusative plural... hae-c is from *ha-i-ke. The form has been extended by the particle -i. Cf... quae, Osc.... paí, Grk. οὑτοσ-ί." (Michael Weiss).

16 (III) M a i n G r e e k P r o n o u n s (& A r t i c l e) 16 (Numbers refer to sections in Smyth. For a table of Homeric pronouns, see below, XX, p. 70) ( 325) Personal pronouns. A form after a slash is enclitic. Note well that choral poetry (e.g. Pindar, the odes in tragedy) may use almost any of these forms. I, me, w e, u s: Attic Homer (& other poetry) Doric ἐγώ ἐγώ, ἐγών ἐγών (even before consonants) ἐμοῦ / μου ἐμεῖο, ἐμέο, ἐμεῦ, ἐμέθεν / μευ ἐμέος, ἐμοῦς, ἐμεῦς ἐμοί / μοι " ἐμίν ἐμέ / με " μέ ἡμεῖς ἡμεῖς, Aeol. ἄμμες ἁμές ἡμῶν ἡμείων, ἡμέων ἁμῶν ἡμῖν ἡμῖν, Aeol. ἄμμι(ν) ἁμίν(ι), ἇμιν ἡμς ἡμέας, Aeol. ἄμμε ἁμέ Y o u: Attic Homer (& other poetry) Doric σύ σύ, τύνη " σοῦ / σου σεῖο, σέο, σεῦ / σευ τέος, τεοῦς, τεῦς, τέο, τεῦ, τεοῦ σοί / σοι σοί, τείν / τοι τίν, τίνη σέ / σε " σέ, τέ, τίν, τύ ὑμεῖς ὑμεῖς, Aeol. ὔμμες ὑμές ὑμῶν ὑμείων, ὑμέων ὑμέων ὑμῖν ὑμῖν, Aeol. ὔμμι(ν) ὗμιν ὑμς ὑμέας, Aeol. ὔμμε ὑμέ H e, s h e, i t, t h e y, t h e m: Attic* Homer (& other poetry) Doric (see note)** οὗ / οὑ εἷο, ἕο, εὗ, ἕθεν / ἑο, εὑ, ἑθεν ἑοῦς, ἑοῦ οἷ / οἱ " Ϝίν ἕ / ἑ σφέ / σφε, Ionic μιν νιν (μιν νιν αὐτόν = himself) σφεῖς " " σφῶν σφείων, σφέων / σφεων σφείων, ψέων σφίσι(ν) σφίσι(ν) / σφισι(ν), σφιν φίν, ψίν σφς σφέας / σφεας, σφε, (rarely) μιν σφέ, ψέ, (rarely) νιν *Αttic commonly uses only the two forms underlined, and then only as indirect reflexives (Smyth 1228); for the rest it uses (in nom.) ἐκεῖνος & οὗτος and (in oblique cases) αὐτός. ** Nom. "they" does not exist, since it is always implicit in the verb ending.

17 ( 332) Definite Article, t h e (but note that in Homer, this is a personal pronoun. In parenthesis I put Homeric forms, and "D." = Doric) ὁ ἡ τό οἱ (τοί) αἱ (ταί) τά τοῦ (τοῖο, D. τῶ) τῆς (D. τς) τοῦ τῶν τῶν (τάων, D. τν) τῶν τ τῇ τ τοῖς (τοῖσι) ταῖς (τῇσι τῇς) τοῖς τόν τήν τό τούς τάς τούς ( 338) Relative Pronoun "w h o...", "w h i c h..." (sometimes = demonstrative) ὅς ἥ ὅ οἵ αἵ ἅ οὗ ἧς οὗ ὧν ὧν ὧν ᾦ ᾗ ᾧ οἷς αἷς οἷς ὅν ἥν ὅ οὕς ἅς ἅ 17 ( 339) Indef. Rel. Pron. = interrog. adj. "whoever...", "anyone who" etc. In parenthesis Homer: ὅστις (ὅτις) οὗτινος ὅτων (ὅττεο ὅτ(τ)ευ) ᾦτινι ὅτῳ (ὅτεῳ) ὅντινα (ὅτινα) ἥτις ὅ τι (ὅ ττι) ἧστινος οὗτινος ὅτου ὧντινων ὅτων (ὅτεων) ᾗτινι ᾧτινι ὅτῳ οἷστισι ὅτοις (ὁτέοισι) ἥντινα ὅ τι (ὅ ττι) οἵτινες αἵτινες ἅτινα ἅττα (ἅσσα) οὕτινας (ὅτινας) ὧντινων αἷστισι ἅτινα ὧντινων ὅτων οἷστισι ὅτοις ἅτινα ἅττα (ἅσσα) ( 333) Demonstrative Pronoun / Adj.: t h i s (forms in parenthesis are Doric) οὗτ-ος αὕτ-η τοῦτ-ο οὗτοι (τούτοι) αὗται (ταύται) ταῦτα τούτων ταύτης τούτου τούτων τούτων (ταυτᾶν) τούτων τούτῳ ταύτῃ τούτῳ τούτοις ταύταις τούτοις τοῦτον ταύτην τοῦτο τούτους ταύτας ταύτα ( 333) Demonstrative Pron./ Adj.: t h a t: ἐκεῖνος -η -ο (normal 1st-2nd-decl. adj. -- but neut. sing. -ο.) Sometimes κεῖνος. Doric and Aeolic κῆνος ( 333) Demonstrative Pron. / Adj.: t h i s = the following... (= ὁ, ἡ, τό + δε) ὅδε ἥδε τόδε οἵδε αἵδε τάδε τοῦδε τῆσδε τοῦδε τῶνδε τῶνδε τῶνδε τδε τῇδε τδε τοῖσδε ταῖσδε τοῖσδε τόνδε τήνδε τόδε τούσδε τάσδε τούσδε ( 334) Indef. Pron. / Adj.: a n y o n e, anything; someone / -thing; some, any

18 τις τις τι τινες τινες τινα τινός (του) τνός (του) τινός (του) τινῶν τινῶν τινῶν τινί (τῳ) τινί (τῳ) τινί (τῳ) τισί τισί τισί τινά τινά τι τινάς τινάς τινά 18 ( 334) Ιnterrog. Pron. / Adj.: W h o?... W h i c h?... W h a t?... (note that τίς, τί keep acute even if another word follows) τίς τίς τί τίνες τίνες τίνα τίνος (τοῦ) τίνος (τοῦ) τίνος (τοῦ) τίνων τίνων τίνων τίνι (τ) τίνι (τ) τίνι (τ) τίσι τίσι τίσι τίνα τίνα τί τίνας τίνας τίνα ( 327) Pron. αὐτ-ός -ή -ό, means: (A) (if alone in an oblique case) h e, s h e, i t, or (B) (if it is alone in the nominative, or if in the predicative position, agreeing with a noun) h i m s e l f, h e r s e l f, i t s e l f, etc., or (C) (if in attributive position, i.e. whenever it follows the article) "t h e s a m e". So e.g. : (C, A, B) ἐκεῖνος ὁ αὐτὸς στρατηγὸς ἔδωκε αὐτὰ αὐτῇ τῇ κόρῃ = "That same general gave them (the things) to the girl herself". (B, A, A) αὐτός ἔδωκε αὐτὸ αὐτῇ = "He himself gave it to her." (B, A, A) ὁ στραγητός αὐτος ἔδωκε αὐτοὺς αὐτ = "The general himself gave them (the books) to him". Ν.Β. In usage B, don't confuse this sort of intensive "-self", as in "He himself spoke", αὐτὸς εἶπε, with the reflexive "-self", as in "He spoke to himself", εἶπε ἑαυτ. (For the reflexive see Smyth 329. But as in Latin, the intensive and reflexive are sometimes used together: αὐτὸς εἶπε ἑαυτ = ipse sibi dixit = 'He (himself) spoke to himself'.) ( 330) Possessive Adjectives: sing.: my, my own ἐμός -ή -όν = ἀμός Homer sometimes ὅς ἥ ὅν, ἑ-ός -ά -όν) your, your own σός σή σόν Homer τέος -α -ον (or ὅς or ἑός) his, her, its, their etc. [ὅς ἥ ὅν]* Homer ἑός -ά -όν plur.: our (own) ἡμέτερος -α -ον Homer ἁμός -ή -όν your (pl.) (own) ὑμέτερος -α -ον Homer ὑμός -η -ον their (own) σφέτερος -α -ον Homer σφός σφή σφόν *Not used in Attic prose, which for "his, her, its, their" etc. uses αὐτοῦ, αὐτῆς or αὐτῶν. None of these possessives are reflexive ("his own, their own" etc.) except, sometimes, σφῶν and σφετέρων. To make them reflexive you add genitive forms of the pronoun αὐτός; on that see Smyth 1199 ff.; e.g. οἰκέτας τοὺς σφετέρους αὐτῶν ἐπικαλοῦνται, 'They call their own slaves as witnesses' (Antiphon 1.30)

19 (IV) C o m m o n e s t A d j e c t i v e D e c l e n s i o n s 19 Note that compound adjectives of any type usually have only two terminations; e.g. (masc. = fem.) ἄδενδρος, (neuter) ἄδενδρον. Note carefully the 4 types of feminine. The declension type -η, -ης, -ην, -ῃ etc. is of course easy; we'll call that Type (A). For the other types, which are well worth keeping clear in your head, I here repeat the memonic from my Accent Handout: (B) (C) (D) (E) Long -α, χώρα and οἰκία. Short -α, -εια -οια -τρια. Short -ρα after diphthong, -ῦ-. Short -α -ης with -s- and -t-. In other words, in fem. adjectives, as in nouns: (B) nom. & acc. sing. -α- is long if the stem ends in ρ, ι, ε (and if there is no diphthong or -υ- as in D); (C) it is short if the word ends -εια, -οια or - τρια; (D) it is short if the stem has a diphthong + ρ or -υ-ρ (e.g. μοῖ-ρα, γέφυ-ρα); (E) it is short if the stem ends in an "s" or "t" sound. About accents of fem. adjectives, notice one other thing: all have gen. pl. -ῶν = Homeric -άων, except #4 and #5 below (-ος -α -ον and -ος -η -ον). (1) -ας, -αινα, -αν (Smyth 298). Fem. type (D) (even though no "s" or "t" sound); accent recessive. μέλ-ας μέλ-αινα μέλ-αν μέλ-ανες μέλ-αιναι μέλ-ανα μέλ-ανος μελ-αίνης μέλ-ανος μελ-άνων μελ-αινῶν μελ-άνων μέλ-ανι μελ-αίνῃ μέλ-ανι μέλ-ασι μελ-αίναις μέλ-ασι μέλ-ανα μέλ-αιναν μέλ-αν μέλ-ανας μελ-αίνας μέλ-ανα (2) -εις, -εσσα, -εν (Sm. 299). Fem. type (D); accent recessive. (From χαρί-εντς, -εντσα, -εντ) χαρί-εις χαρί-εσσα χαρί-εν χαρί-εντες χαρί-εσσαι χαρί-εντα χαρί-εντος χαρι-έσσης χαρί-εντος χαρι-έντων χαρι-εσσῶν χαρί-έντων χαρί-εντι χαρι-έσσῃ χαρί-εντι χαρί-εσι χαρι-έσσαις χαρί-εσι χαρί-εντα χαρί-εσσαν χαρί-εν χαρί-εντας χαρι-έσσας χαρί-εντα (3) -ης, -ες (Sm. 292). No fem.; accent fixed (because contracted) either on the penult (αὐθάδης, αὑθάδες etc.) or on the ult (σαφής, σαφές). Ι here write out the contracted forms because they do often appear (in Homer, Herodotus, Solon, etc.). σαφ-ής σαφ-ές σαφ-εῖς (-έες) σαφ-ῆ (-, -έα) σαφ-οῦς (-έος) σαφ-οῦς (-έος) σαφ-ῶν (-έων) σαφ-ῶν (-έων) σαφ-εῖ (-έι) σαφ-εῖ (-έι) σαφ-έσι (-έσσι) σαφ-έσι (-έσσι) σαφ-ῆ (-, -έα) σαφ-ές σαφ-εῖς (-έας) σαφ-ῆ (-, -έα)

20 (4) -ος, -α, -ον (Sm. 287). Fem. type (B). Accent either fixed or recessive. (If it is fixed, it can be either on penult, e.g. γενναῖ-ος, or on ult, e.g. ἐλαφρ-ός). καθαρ-ός καθαρ-ά καθαρ-όν καθαρ-οί καθαρ-αί καθαρ-ά καθαρ-οῦ καθαρ-ς καθαρ-οῦ καθαρ-ῶν καθαρ-ῶν καθαρ-ῶν καθαρ- καθαρ-ᾶ καθαρ- καθαρ-οῖς καθαρ-αῖς καθαρ-οῖς καθαρ-όν καθαρ-άν καθαρ-όν καθαρ-ούς καθαρ-άς καθαρ-ά 20 (5) -ος, -η, -ον (Sm. 287 ff.). Fem. (A); accent fixed (κακός, -ή, -όν) or recessive (ἄδικος, -ον). ἴσ-ος ἴσ-η ἴσ-ον ἴσ-οι ἴσ-αι ἴσ-α ἴσ-ου ἴσ-ης ἴσ-ου ἴσ-ων ἴσ-ων ἴσ-ων ἴσ-ῳ ἴσ-ῃ ἴσ-ῳ ἴσ-οις ἴσ-αις ἴσ-οις ἴσ-ον ἴσ-ην ἴσ-ον ἴσ-ους ἴσ-ας ἴσ-α (6) -ους, -η, ουν (Sm. 290). Fem (A); accent fixed because contracted. Uncontracted forms Ionic. χρυσ-οῦς (-έος) χρυσ-ῆ (-έη) χρυσ-οῦν (-έος) χρυσ-οῖ (-έοι) χρυσ-αῖ (-έαι) χρυσ- (-έα) χρυσ-οῦ (-έου) χρυσ-ῆς (-έης) χρυσ-οῦ (-έου) χρυσ-ῶν (-έων) χρυσ-ῶν (-έων) χρυσ-ῶν (-έων) χρυσ- (-έῳ) χρυσ-ῇ (-έῃ) χρυσ- (-έῳ) χρυσ-οῖς (-έοις) χρυσ-αῖς (-έαις) χρυσ-οῖς (-έοις) χρυσ-οῦν (-έον) χρυσ-ῆν (-έην) χρυσ-οῦν (-έον) χρυσ-οῦς (-έους) χρυσ-ς (-έας) χρυσ- (-έα) (7) -υς, -εια, -υ (Sm. 297); fem. type (C); accent either recessive (ἥμισυς, ἡμίσεια, ἥμισυ) or fixed: γλυκ-ύς γλυκ-εῖα γλυκ-ύ γλυκ-εῖς γλυκ-εῖαι γλυκ-έα γλυκ-έος γλυκ-είας γλυκ-έος γλυκ-έων γλυκ-ειῶν γλυκ-έων γλυκ-εῖ γλυκ-είᾳ γλυκ-εῖ γλυκ-έσι γλυκ-είαις γλυκ-έσι γλυκ-ύν γλυκ-εῖαν γλυκ-ύ γλυκ-εῖς γλυκ-είας γλυκ-έα (8) -υς, -υσα, -υν (Sm. 308). Fem. type (E); accent FIXED on penult: ἀπολλ-ύς, ἀπολλ-ῦσα, ἀπολλ-ύν ἀπολλύντες, ἀπολλ-ῦσαι, ἀπολλ-ύντα etc. -- i.e. it is just like the aorist act. participle of a υ-stem verb (e.g. δείκνυμι, partic. δεικνύς, -ῦσα, -ύν) (9) -ων, -ον (Sm. 293). No fem.; accent recessive. Attic comparatives always use contracted forms. βελτί-ων βελτί-ον βελτί-ους (-ονες) βελτί-ω (-ονα) βελτί-ονος βελτί-ονος βελτι-όνων βελτι-όνων βελτί-ονι βελτί-ονι βελτί-οσι βελτί-οσι βελτί-ω (-ονα) βελτί-ον βελτί-ους (-ονας) βελτί-ω (-ονα)

Adjectives. Describing the Qualities of Things. A lesson for the Paideia web-app Ian W. Scott, 2015

Adjectives. Describing the Qualities of Things. A lesson for the Paideia web-app Ian W. Scott, 2015 Adjectives Describing the Qualities of Things A lesson for the Paideia web-app Ian W. Scott, 2015 Getting Started with Adjectives It's hard to say much using only nouns and pronouns Simon is a father.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

1st and 2nd Person Personal Pronouns

1st and 2nd Person Personal Pronouns 1st and 2nd Person Personal Pronouns Case First Person Second Person I You () Nominative ἐγώ σύ Accusative ἐμέ or με σέ Genitive ἐμοῦ or μου σοῦ Dative ἐμοί or μοι σοί We You () Nominative ἡμεῖς ὑμεῖς

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Review 4n.1: Vowel stems of the third declension: πόλις, πρέσβυς

Review 4n.1: Vowel stems of the third declension: πόλις, πρέσβυς Review 4n.1: Vowel stems of the third declension: πόλις, πρέσβυς We review side by side a model of stems ending in ι: πόλις, πόλεως, ἡ = city-state and a masculine model of stems ending in υ: πρέσβυς,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Croy Lesson 10. Kind of action and time of action. and/or Redup. using the verb λύω

Croy Lesson 10. Kind of action and time of action. and/or Redup. using the verb λύω A Lesson 10 Vocabulary Summer Greek Croy Lesson 10 Ω ἄγω αἴρω ἀναβαίνω ἀπέρχοµαι ἀποθνῄσκω ἀποκτείνω καταβαίνω µέλλω ὀφείλω συνάγω ἀπόστολος, ὁ ἱερόν, τό παρά (G,D,A) (+ gen.) from; (+ dat.) beside, with,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

VERBS: memory aids through lesson 9 ACTIVE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT IMPERATIVE

VERBS: memory aids through lesson 9 ACTIVE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT IMPERATIVE Verbs. thr.less9, p1 moods tenses INDICATIVE VERBS: memory aids through lesson 9 ACTIVE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT present present stem + / primary person endings present stem + / ending of infinitive I stop

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Summer Greek. Lesson 3. NOUNS GENDER (does not refer to fe/male) masculine feminine neuter NUMBER singular plural. NOUNS -Case.

Summer Greek. Lesson 3. NOUNS GENDER (does not refer to fe/male) masculine feminine neuter NUMBER singular plural. NOUNS -Case. A Summer Greek Lesson 3 Ω Parts of Speech NOUN- person, place, thing, quality, idea, or action ARTICLE Indefinite = a / an ; Definite = the ADJECTIVE- describes a noun (includes in/definite articles) PRONOUN-word

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * *

Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * * Chapter 2 * * * * * * * Introduction to Verbs * * * * * * * In the first chapter, we practiced the skill of reading Greek words. Now we want to try to understand some parts of what we read. There are a

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Summer Greek. Greek Verbs - TENSE ASPECT. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Croy Lesson 9

Summer Greek. Greek Verbs - TENSE ASPECT. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Croy Lesson 9 A - TENSE ASPECT Summer Greek Croy Lesson 9 Ω KIND of action CONTINUING (ongoing, linear) COMPLETED (with result or ongoing effect) SIMPLE (affirmation of action w/out regard to duration or completion)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

22.1: Root Aorist (Athematic Long-Vowel Aorist)

22.1: Root Aorist (Athematic Long-Vowel Aorist) 22.1: Root Aorist (Athematic Long-Vowel Aorist) A THIRD AORIST? In previous lessons you learned the following types of active aorist conjugations: ἔπαυσα First aorist (Lesson 9). A regular tense that we

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Summer Greek. Greek Verbs -TENSE ASPECT. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Croy Lesson 9. KINDof action.

Summer Greek. Greek Verbs -TENSE ASPECT. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Greek Verbs. Croy Lesson 9. KINDof action. A -TENSE ASPECT Summer Greek Croy Lesson 9 Ω KINDof action CONTINUING (ongoing, linear) COMPLETED (with result or ongoing effect) SIMPLE (affirmation of action w/out regard to duration or completion) TIME

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 14 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΤΕΣΣΕΡΑ) REF : 202/057/34-ADV. 18 February 2014

LESSON 14 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΤΕΣΣΕΡΑ) REF : 202/057/34-ADV. 18 February 2014 LESSON 14 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΤΕΣΣΕΡΑ) REF : 202/057/34-ADV 18 February 2014 Slowly/quietly Clear/clearly Clean Quickly/quick/fast Hurry (in a hurry) Driver Attention/caution/notice/care Dance Σιγά Καθαρά Καθαρός/η/ο

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Traducción. Tema de PRESENTE AORISTO FUTURO PERFECTO. tiempos históricos. Departamento de Griego IES Avempace. pretérito imperfecto

Traducción. Tema de PRESENTE AORISTO FUTURO PERFECTO. tiempos históricos. Departamento de Griego IES Avempace. pretérito imperfecto Traducción VOZ ACTIVA λύ-ω λύ-εις λύ-ει λύ-ο-μεν λύ-ε-τε λύ-ουσι (ν) ἔ-λυ-ο-ν ἔ-λυ-ε-ς ἔ-λυ-ε (ν) ἐ-λύ-ο-μεν ἐ-λύ-ε-τε ἔ-λυ-ο-ν λύ-ω λύ-ῃ-ς λύ-ῃ λύ-ω-μεν λύ-η-τε λύ-ω-σι (ν) λύ-ο-ι-μι λύ-ο-ι-ς λύ-ο-ι λύ-ο-ι-μεν

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

1 Definite Article. 2 Nouns. 2.1 st Declension

1 Definite Article. 2 Nouns. 2.1 st Declension 1 Definite Article m. f. n. s. n. ὁ ἡ το a. τον την το g. του της του d. τῳ τῃ τῳ pl. n. οἱ αἱ τα a. τους τας τα g. των των των d. τοις ταις τοις 2 Nouns 2.1 st Declension f. s. n. τιμ η χωρ α θαλασσ α

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Λέξεις, φράσεις και προτάσεις

Λέξεις, φράσεις και προτάσεις 1 Λέξεις, φράσεις και προτάσεις (Words, phrases and clauses) The Greek language, like all human languages, has a Lexicon and a Grammar that are used to create sentences. The Lexicon consists of the words

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Present Subjunctives: λύω

Present Subjunctives: λύω Morphs Column headings: Tense = "Tense and Voice" (just present and aorist); TF = "Tense Formative Morph" (such as the punctiliar or passive morph); NM = "Neutral Morph" (always a lengthened neutral morph

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 6 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΞΙ) REF : 201/045/26-ADV. 10 December 2013

LESSON 6 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΞΙ) REF : 201/045/26-ADV. 10 December 2013 LESSON 6 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΞΙ) REF : 201/045/26-ADV 10 December 2013 I get up/i stand up I wash myself I shave myself I comb myself I dress myself Once (one time) Twice (two times) Three times Salary/wage/pay Alone/only

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Appendix B 2. 4. Syllables : A Greek word contains as many syllables as there are separate vowels or diphthongs. There are three accents

Appendix B 2. 4. Syllables : A Greek word contains as many syllables as there are separate vowels or diphthongs. There are three accents Appendix B 2 Accents 1. Accents Accents are thought to have been introduced by Aristophanes of Byzantium, at the library of Alexandria ca. 200 B.C. Because of the Alexandrian empire and the spread of κοινη

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Επίθετα. (Adjectives)

Επίθετα. (Adjectives) 6 Επίθετα (Adjectives) Greek adjectives are inflected words which either modify nouns (τα κόκκινα τριαντάφυλλα) or attribute a property to them (τα τριαντάφυλλα είναι ακριβά). Adjectives must agree with

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 12 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΩΔΕΚΑ) REF : 202/055/32-ADV. 4 February 2014

LESSON 12 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΩΔΕΚΑ) REF : 202/055/32-ADV. 4 February 2014 LESSON 12 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΩΔΕΚΑ) REF : 202/055/32-ADV 4 February 2014 Somewhere κάπου (kapoo) Nowhere πουθενά (poothena) Elsewhere αλλού (aloo) Drawer το συρτάρι (sirtari) Page η σελίδα (selida) News τα νέα (nea)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: Understanding and Written Response

Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: Understanding and Written Response Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GE entre Number andidate Number Greek dvanced Subsidiary Unit 1: Understanding and Written Response Thursday 16 May 2013 Morning Time: 2 hours 45 minutes

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

21. δεινός: 23. ἀγορά: 24. πολίτης: 26. δοῦλος: 28. σῶμα: 31. Ἑλλας: 32. παῖς: 34. ὑπέρ: 35. νύξ: 39. μῶρος: 40. ἀνήρ:

21. δεινός: 23. ἀγορά: 24. πολίτης: 26. δοῦλος: 28. σῶμα: 31. Ἑλλας: 32. παῖς: 34. ὑπέρ: 35. νύξ: 39. μῶρος: 40. ἀνήρ: Vocabulary: Give one English meaning and nothing more. 1. ἔτος: 2. τότε: 3. θάνατος: 4. ἐλαύνω: 5. γυνή: 6. ὑπό: 7. λείπω: 8. περί: 9. πόλις: 10. ἄστυ: 11. νομίζω: 12. ἀπάγω: 13. τεῖχος: 14. ὀλίγος: 15.πίπτω:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

MODERN GREEK VERBS. (without much grammatical jargon)

MODERN GREEK VERBS. (without much grammatical jargon) MODERN GREEK VERBS (without much grammatical jargon) Verbs are words describing actions. Modern Greek verbs are divided into two main categories: A) ω B) μαι A) ω verbs are further divided into 3 subcategories

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Right Rear Door. Let's now finish the door hinge saga with the right rear door

Right Rear Door. Let's now finish the door hinge saga with the right rear door Right Rear Door Let's now finish the door hinge saga with the right rear door You may have been already guessed my steps, so there is not much to describe in detail. Old upper one file:///c /Documents

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Guide to Principal Parts of Regular Verbs

Guide to Principal Parts of Regular Verbs Guide to Principal Parts of Regular Verbs 1. Preliminary Remarks. (a) (b) Irregular Patterns. For a great many verbs in ancient Greek it is necessary to memorize all available principal parts, as they

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Homework 3 Solutions

Homework 3 Solutions Homework 3 Solutions Igor Yanovsky (Math 151A TA) Problem 1: Compute the absolute error and relative error in approximations of p by p. (Use calculator!) a) p π, p 22/7; b) p π, p 3.141. Solution: For

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

4.6 Autoregressive Moving Average Model ARMA(1,1)

4.6 Autoregressive Moving Average Model ARMA(1,1) 84 CHAPTER 4. STATIONARY TS MODELS 4.6 Autoregressive Moving Average Model ARMA(,) This section is an introduction to a wide class of models ARMA(p,q) which we will consider in more detail later in this

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Modern Greek *P40075A0112* P40075A. Edexcel International GCSE. Monday 3 June 2013 Morning Time: 3 hours. Instructions. Information.

Modern Greek *P40075A0112* P40075A. Edexcel International GCSE. Monday 3 June 2013 Morning Time: 3 hours. Instructions. Information. Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel International GCSE Centre Number Modern Greek Candidate Number Monday 3 June 2013 Morning Time: 3 hours You do not need any other materials. Paper Reference

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Code Breaker. TEACHER s NOTES

Code Breaker. TEACHER s NOTES TEACHER s NOTES Time: 50 minutes Learning Outcomes: To relate the genetic code to the assembly of proteins To summarize factors that lead to different types of mutations To distinguish among positive,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Οι αδελφοί Montgolfier: Ψηφιακή αφήγηση The Montgolfier Βrothers Digital Story (προτείνεται να διδαχθεί στο Unit 4, Lesson 3, Αγγλικά Στ Δημοτικού)

Οι αδελφοί Montgolfier: Ψηφιακή αφήγηση The Montgolfier Βrothers Digital Story (προτείνεται να διδαχθεί στο Unit 4, Lesson 3, Αγγλικά Στ Δημοτικού) Οι αδελφοί Montgolfier: Ψηφιακή αφήγηση The Montgolfier Βrothers Digital Story (προτείνεται να διδαχθεί στο Unit 4, Lesson 3, Αγγλικά Στ Δημοτικού) Προσδοκώμενα αποτελέσματα Περιεχόμενο Ενδεικτικές δραστηριότητες

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Modern Greek *P40074A0112* P40074A. Edexcel International GCSE. Thursday 31 May 2012 Morning Time: 3 hours. Instructions. Information.

Modern Greek *P40074A0112* P40074A. Edexcel International GCSE. Thursday 31 May 2012 Morning Time: 3 hours. Instructions. Information. Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel International GCSE Centre Number Modern Greek Candidate Number Thursday 31 May 2012 Morning Time: 3 hours You do not need any other materials. Paper Reference

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 16 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΕΞΙ) REF : 102/018/16-BEG. 4 March 2014

LESSON 16 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΕΞΙ) REF : 102/018/16-BEG. 4 March 2014 LESSON 16 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΕΞΙ) REF : 102/018/16-BEG 4 March 2014 Family η οικογένεια a/one(fem.) μία a/one(masc.) ένας father ο πατέρας mother η μητέρα man/male/husband ο άντρας letter το γράμμα brother ο

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 26 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΣΙ ΕΞΙ) REF : 102/030/26. 18 November 2014

LESSON 26 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΣΙ ΕΞΙ) REF : 102/030/26. 18 November 2014 LESSON 26 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΣΙ ΕΞΙ) REF : 102/030/26 18 November 2014 But Weekend I love The song I sing I smile I laugh Greek (thing) Greek(people) Greek (man) αλλά (το) Σαββατοκύριακο αγαπώ (το) τραγούδι τραγουδώ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΠΑΛΛΗΣ SCHOOLTIME E-BOOKS

ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΠΑΛΛΗΣ SCHOOLTIME E-BOOKS ΟΜΗΡΟΥ ΙΛΙΑΔΑ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΠΑΛΛΗΣ SCHOOLTIME E-BOOKS www.scooltime.gr [- 2 -] The Project Gutenberg EBook of Iliad, by Homer This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Final Test Grammar. Term C'

Final Test Grammar. Term C' Final Test Grammar Term C' Book: Starting Steps 1 & Extra and Friends Vocabulary and Grammar Practice Class: Junior AB Name: /43 Date: E xercise 1 L ook at the example and do the same. ( Κξίηα ηξ παοάδειγμα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ CYPRUS COMPUTER SOCIETY ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ 6/5/2006

ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ CYPRUS COMPUTER SOCIETY ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ 6/5/2006 Οδηγίες: Να απαντηθούν όλες οι ερωτήσεις. Ολοι οι αριθμοί που αναφέρονται σε όλα τα ερωτήματα είναι μικρότεροι το 1000 εκτός αν ορίζεται διαφορετικά στη διατύπωση του προβλήματος. Διάρκεια: 3,5 ώρες Καλή

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Paper Reference. Paper Reference(s) 7615/01 London Examinations GCE Modern Greek Ordinary Level. Friday 14 May 2010 Afternoon Time: 3 hours

Paper Reference. Paper Reference(s) 7615/01 London Examinations GCE Modern Greek Ordinary Level. Friday 14 May 2010 Afternoon Time: 3 hours Centre No. Candidate No. Paper Reference 7 6 1 5 0 1 Surname Signature Paper Reference(s) 7615/01 London Examinations GCE Modern Greek Ordinary Level Friday 14 May 2010 Afternoon Time: 3 hours Initial(s)

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Αντωνυμίες. (Pronouns) Α. Προσωπικές αντωνυμίες (Personal pronouns)

Αντωνυμίες. (Pronouns) Α. Προσωπικές αντωνυμίες (Personal pronouns) 8 Αντωνυμίες (Pronouns) Α. Προσωπικές αντωνυμίες (Personal pronouns) The personal pronouns refer to the first, second or the third person. In Modern Greek there are two categories of personal pronouns:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 28 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΣΙ ΟΚΤΩ) REF : 201/033/28. 2 December 2014

LESSON 28 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΣΙ ΟΚΤΩ) REF : 201/033/28. 2 December 2014 LESSON 28 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΙΚΟΣΙ ΟΚΤΩ) REF : 201/033/28 2 December 2014 Place/Seat Right (noun) I am right I am not right It matters It does not matter The same (singular) The same (Plural) Η θέση Το δίκιο Έχω

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΟΣ ΣΥΝΔΕΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ CYPRUS COMPUTER SOCIETY 21 ος ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ Δεύτερος Γύρος - 30 Μαρτίου 2011

ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΟΣ ΣΥΝΔΕΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ CYPRUS COMPUTER SOCIETY 21 ος ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ Δεύτερος Γύρος - 30 Μαρτίου 2011 Διάρκεια Διαγωνισμού: 3 ώρες Απαντήστε όλες τις ερωτήσεις Μέγιστο Βάρος (20 Μονάδες) Δίνεται ένα σύνολο από N σφαιρίδια τα οποία δεν έχουν όλα το ίδιο βάρος μεταξύ τους και ένα κουτί που αντέχει μέχρι

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Επιβλέπουσα Καθηγήτρια: ΣΟΦΙΑ ΑΡΑΒΟΥ ΠΑΠΑΔΑΤΟΥ

Επιβλέπουσα Καθηγήτρια: ΣΟΦΙΑ ΑΡΑΒΟΥ ΠΑΠΑΔΑΤΟΥ EΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΙΔΡΥΜΑ ΤΕΙ ΙΟΝΙΩΝ ΝΗΣΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ & ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ Ταχ. Δ/νση : Λεωφ. Αντ.Τρίτση, Αργοστόλι Κεφαλληνίας Τ.Κ. 28 100 τηλ. : 26710-27311 fax : 26710-27312

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Greek 12: Plato s Apology

Greek 12: Plato s Apology Greek 12: Plato s Apology Rick Griffiths FTGRIFFITHS@ / x 5355 Earth Science 306 Office Mon. 2-4, Wed. 1-2 or by appt. Texts: Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary (TV) (JACT) Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Math 6 SL Probability Distributions Practice Test Mark Scheme

Math 6 SL Probability Distributions Practice Test Mark Scheme Math 6 SL Probability Distributions Practice Test Mark Scheme. (a) Note: Award A for vertical line to right of mean, A for shading to right of their vertical line. AA N (b) evidence of recognizing symmetry

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

The Greek Participle. Lesson 7 Felix H. Cortez

The Greek Participle. Lesson 7 Felix H. Cortez The Greek Participle Lesson 7 Felix H. Cortez Table of Contents What is the Greek Participle? How do I recognize it? How should I translate it? What do I need to memorize? What Is a Participle? What Is

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΟΔΟΝΤΙΑΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΟΔΟΝΤΙΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΩΤΕΡΑΣ ΠΡΟΣΘΕΤΙΚΗΣ

ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΟΔΟΝΤΙΑΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΟΔΟΝΤΙΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΩΤΕΡΑΣ ΠΡΟΣΘΕΤΙΚΗΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΟΔΟΝΤΙΑΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΟΔΟΝΤΙΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΩΤΕΡΑΣ ΠΡΟΣΘΕΤΙΚΗΣ ΣΥΓΚΡΙΤΙΚΗ ΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΤΗΣ ΣΥΓΚΡΑΤΗΤΙΚΗΣ ΙΚΑΝΟΤΗΤΑΣ ΟΡΙΣΜΕΝΩΝ ΠΡΟΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΑΣΜΕΝΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΕΣΜΩΝ ΑΚΡΙΒΕΙΑΣ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

1999 MODERN GREEK 2 UNIT Z

1999 MODERN GREEK 2 UNIT Z STUDENT NUMBER CENTRE NUMBER HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION 1999 MODERN GREEK 2 UNIT Z (55 Marks) Time allowed Two hours (Plus 5 minutes reading time) DIRECTIONS TO CANDIDATES Write your Student

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΝΟΣΗΛΕΥΤΙΚΗΣ

ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΝΟΣΗΛΕΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΝΟΣΗΛΕΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΨΥΧΟΛΟΓΙΚΕΣ ΕΠΙΠΤΩΣΕΙΣ ΣΕ ΓΥΝΑΙΚΕΣ ΜΕΤΑ ΑΠΟ ΜΑΣΤΕΚΤΟΜΗ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΑ ΤΡΙΣΟΚΚΑ Λευκωσία 2012 ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΚΥΠΡΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Modern Greek Grammar Konstantinos Athanasiou

Modern Greek Grammar Konstantinos Athanasiou 7. Nouns / Ουσιαστικά Nouns in Greek are declinable words and may be classified as masculine, feminine or neuter. Although the determination of the grammatical gender of the Greek words is often arbitrary,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ. ΘΕΜΑ: «ιερεύνηση της σχέσης µεταξύ φωνηµικής επίγνωσης και ορθογραφικής δεξιότητας σε παιδιά προσχολικής ηλικίας»

ΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ. ΘΕΜΑ: «ιερεύνηση της σχέσης µεταξύ φωνηµικής επίγνωσης και ορθογραφικής δεξιότητας σε παιδιά προσχολικής ηλικίας» ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΑΝΘΡΩΠΙΣΤΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΠΡΟΣΧΟΛΙΚΗΣ ΑΓΩΓΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥ ΕΚΠΑΙ ΕΥΤΙΚΟΥ ΣΧΕ ΙΑΣΜΟΥ «ΠΑΙ ΙΚΟ ΒΙΒΛΙΟ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΙ ΑΓΩΓΙΚΟ ΥΛΙΚΟ» ΙΠΛΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ που εκπονήθηκε για τη

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Η αλληλεπίδραση ανάμεσα στην καθημερινή γλώσσα και την επιστημονική ορολογία: παράδειγμα από το πεδίο της Κοσμολογίας

Η αλληλεπίδραση ανάμεσα στην καθημερινή γλώσσα και την επιστημονική ορολογία: παράδειγμα από το πεδίο της Κοσμολογίας Η αλληλεπίδραση ανάμεσα στην καθημερινή γλώσσα και την επιστημονική ορολογία: παράδειγμα από το πεδίο της Κοσμολογίας ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ Αριστείδης Κοσιονίδης Η κατανόηση των εννοιών ενός επιστημονικού πεδίου απαιτεί

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 7 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΦΤΑ) REF : 202/046/27-ADV. 17 December 2013

LESSON 7 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΦΤΑ) REF : 202/046/27-ADV. 17 December 2013 LESSON 7 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΦΤΑ) REF : 202/046/27-ADV 17 December 2013 Sometimes Other times I start/begin Never Always/every time Supper Μερικές φορές (merikes) Άλλες φορές Αρχίζω (arheezo) Ποτέ Πάντα (Panda) Ο

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 15 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΠΕΝΤΕ) REF : 202/058/35-ADV. 25 February 2014

LESSON 15 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΠΕΝΤΕ) REF : 202/058/35-ADV. 25 February 2014 LESSON 15 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΠΕΝΤΕ) REF : 202/058/35-ADV 25 February 2014 Often/frequently Συχνά (sihna) Seldom Σπάνια (spania) Early Νωρίς (noris) Late (adv)/slowly Αργά (arga) I am having a bath When/whenever

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 16 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΕΞΙ) REF : 202/059/36-ADV. 4 March 2014

LESSON 16 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΕΞΙ) REF : 202/059/36-ADV. 4 March 2014 LESSON 16 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΕΞΙ) REF : 202/059/36-ADV 4 March 2014 Immediately/At once I arrive/reach αμέσως φτάνω I arrive I start/begin Present : φτάνω ξεκινάω (ξεκινώ) S.Past : έφτασα ξεκίνησα S.Future :

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Exercises 10. Find a fundamental matrix of the given system of equations. Also find the fundamental matrix Φ(t) satisfying Φ(0) = I. 1.

Exercises 10. Find a fundamental matrix of the given system of equations. Also find the fundamental matrix Φ(t) satisfying Φ(0) = I. 1. Exercises 0 More exercises are available in Elementary Differential Equations. If you have a problem to solve any of them, feel free to come to office hour. Problem Find a fundamental matrix of the given

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LECTURE 2 CONTEXT FREE GRAMMARS CONTENTS

LECTURE 2 CONTEXT FREE GRAMMARS CONTENTS LECTURE 2 CONTEXT FREE GRAMMARS CONTENTS 1. Developing a grammar fragment...1 2. A formalism that is too strong and too weak at the same time...3 3. References...4 1. Developing a grammar fragment The

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Non-Indicative Verbs of the LXX, New Testament, Josephus and Philo (in alphabetical order)

Non-Indicative Verbs of the LXX, New Testament, Josephus and Philo (in alphabetical order) Non-Indicative Verbs of the LXX, New Testament, Josephus and Philo (in alphabetical order) v = verb s = subjunctive n = infinitive d = imperative p = present f = future a = aorist x = perfect a = active

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 8 REF : 202/047/28-ADV. 7 January 2014

LESSON 8 REF : 202/047/28-ADV. 7 January 2014 LESSON 8 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΟΧΤΩ) REF : 202/047/28-ADV 7 January 2014 Εκατό (Εκατόν) (Ekato, Ekaton) 100 Διακόσια (Diakosia) 200 Τριακόσια (Triakosia) 300 Τετρακόσια (Tetrakosia) 400 Πεντακόσια (Pendakosia) 500 Εξακόσια

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Objectives-Στόχοι: -Helping your Child become a fantastic language learner «Βοηθώντας το παιδί σας να γίνει εξαιρετικό στην εκμάθηση γλωσσών» 6/2/2014

Objectives-Στόχοι: -Helping your Child become a fantastic language learner «Βοηθώντας το παιδί σας να γίνει εξαιρετικό στην εκμάθηση γλωσσών» 6/2/2014 -Helping your Child become a fantastic language learner «Βοηθώντας το παιδί σας να γίνει εξαιρετικό στην εκμάθηση γλωσσών» Dr Caroline Linse Queens University, Belfast, Northern Ireland Objectives-Στόχοι:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

HISTOGRAMS AND PERCENTILES What is the 25 th percentile of a histogram? What is the 50 th percentile for the cigarette histogram?

HISTOGRAMS AND PERCENTILES What is the 25 th percentile of a histogram? What is the 50 th percentile for the cigarette histogram? HISTOGRAMS AND PERCENTILES What is the 25 th percentile of a histogram? The point on the horizontal axis such that of the area under the histogram lies to the left of that point (and to the right) What

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Αναερόβια Φυσική Κατάσταση

Αναερόβια Φυσική Κατάσταση Αναερόβια Φυσική Κατάσταση Γιάννης Κουτεντάκης, BSc, MA. PhD Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής ΤΕΦΑΑ, Πανεπιστήµιο Θεσσαλίας Περιεχόµενο Μαθήµατος Ορισµός της αναερόβιας φυσικής κατάστασης Σχέσης µε µηχανισµούς παραγωγής

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΣΥΓΧΡΟΝΗΣ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗΣ Προετοιμασία για τις εξετάσεις TOEIC (επίπεδο Advanced) 24 ώρες - 3 ώρες εβδομαδιαία σε διάστημα 8 εβδομάδων

ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΣΥΓΧΡΟΝΗΣ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗΣ Προετοιμασία για τις εξετάσεις TOEIC (επίπεδο Advanced) 24 ώρες - 3 ώρες εβδομαδιαία σε διάστημα 8 εβδομάδων ΣΕΜΙΝΑΡΙΟ ΣΥΓΧΡΟΝΗΣ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗΣ Προετοιμασία για τις εξετάσεις TOEIC (επίπεδο Advanced) 24 ώρες - 3 ώρες εβδομαδιαία σε διάστημα 8 εβδομάδων ΣΚΟΠΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΟΣ Διδάσκουσα: Ε.Μπουφίδου-Τσιριτάκη Το

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΟΙ ΑΞΙΕΣ ΤΗΣ ΖΩΗΣ THE VALUES OF LIFE Η ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟΤΗΤΑ..THE RESPONSIBILITY ΔΗΜΗΤΡΑ ΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΙΝΟΥ

ΟΙ ΑΞΙΕΣ ΤΗΣ ΖΩΗΣ THE VALUES OF LIFE Η ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟΤΗΤΑ..THE RESPONSIBILITY ΔΗΜΗΤΡΑ ΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΙΝΟΥ ΟΙ ΑΞΙΕΣ ΤΗΣ ΖΩΗΣ THE VALUES OF LIFE Η ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟΤΗΤΑ..THE RESPONSIBILITY ΔΗΜΗΤΡΑ ΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΙΝΟΥ ΜΑΘΗΜΑΤΑ ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟΤΗΤΑΣ/ LESSONS ABOUT RESPONSIBILITY Μάθημα 1: Νιώθω υπερήφανος όταν.../ I feel proud when.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Paper Reference. Paper Reference(s) 1776/01 Edexcel GCSE Modern Greek Paper 1 Listening and Responding

Paper Reference. Paper Reference(s) 1776/01 Edexcel GCSE Modern Greek Paper 1 Listening and Responding Centre No. Candidate No. Paper Reference 1 7 7 6 0 1 Surname Signature Paper Reference(s) 1776/01 Edexcel GCSE Modern Greek Paper 1 Listening and Responding Friday 18 June 2010 Morning Time: 45 minutes

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΙΔΡΥΜΑ ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΛΟΓΙΣΤΙΚΗΣ

ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΙΔΡΥΜΑ ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΛΟΓΙΣΤΙΚΗΣ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΙΔΡΥΜΑ ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΟ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΛΟΓΙΣΤΙΚΗΣ Π Τ Υ Χ Ι Α Κ Η Ε Ρ Γ Α Σ Ι Α: Ο ΡΟΛΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΣΥΝΑΙΣΘΗΜΑΤΙΚΗΣ ΝΟΗΜΟΣΥΝΗΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΠΟΤΕΛΕΣΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΗΓΕΣΙΑ ΕΠΙΜΕΛΕΙΑ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Inverse trigonometric functions & General Solution of Trigonometric Equations. ------------------ ----------------------------- -----------------

Inverse trigonometric functions & General Solution of Trigonometric Equations. ------------------ ----------------------------- ----------------- Inverse trigonometric functions & General Solution of Trigonometric Equations. 1. Sin ( ) = a) b) c) d) Ans b. Solution : Method 1. Ans a: 17 > 1 a) is rejected. w.k.t Sin ( sin ) = d is rejected. If sin

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Στο εστιατόριο «ToDokimasesPrinToBgaleisStonKosmo?» έξω από τους δακτυλίους του Κρόνου, οι παραγγελίες γίνονται ηλεκτρονικά.

Στο εστιατόριο «ToDokimasesPrinToBgaleisStonKosmo?» έξω από τους δακτυλίους του Κρόνου, οι παραγγελίες γίνονται ηλεκτρονικά. Διαστημικό εστιατόριο του (Μ)ΑστροΈκτορα Στο εστιατόριο «ToDokimasesPrinToBgaleisStonKosmo?» έξω από τους δακτυλίους του Κρόνου, οι παραγγελίες γίνονται ηλεκτρονικά. Μόλις μια παρέα πελατών κάτσει σε ένα

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Newborn Upfront Payment & Newborn Supplement

Newborn Upfront Payment & Newborn Supplement GREEK Newborn Upfront Payment & Newborn Supplement Female 1: Το μωρό μου θα ρθει σύντομα, θα πρέπει να κανονίσω τα οικονομικά μου. Άκουσα ότι η κυβέρνηση δεν δίνει πλέον το Baby Bonus. Ξέρεις τίποτα γι

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 9 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΝΝΙΑ) REF : 101/011/9-BEG. 14 January 2013

LESSON 9 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΝΝΙΑ) REF : 101/011/9-BEG. 14 January 2013 LESSON 9 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΕΝΝΙΑ) REF : 101/011/9-BEG 14 January 2013 Up πάνω Down κάτω In μέσα Out/outside έξω (exo) In front μπροστά (brosta) Behind πίσω (piso) Put! Βάλε! (vale) From *** από Few λίγα (liga) Many

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Προθέσεις και προθετικές φράσεις

Προθέσεις και προθετικές φράσεις 22 Προθέις και προθετικές φράις (Prepositions and prepositional phrases) Prepositions are undeclinable words. They are usually followed by a noun in the accusative case, with which they form a prepositional

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

CH1 (α, β) GRK 101 AScholtz

CH1 (α, β) GRK 101 AScholtz CH1 (α, β) GRK 101 AScholtz 1. Vocab (a) For this first chapter, students should really do their best to coordinate their homeworks and reading assignments with the vocab lists on pp. 2 & 8. Not really

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Η ΔΙΑΣΤΡΕΥΛΩΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗΣ ΓΛΩΣΣΑΣ ΜΕΣΩ ΤΩΝ SOCIAL MEDIA ΤΗΝ ΤΕΛΕΥΤΑΙΑ ΠΕΝΤΑΕΤΙΑ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΙΑΣ-ΜΑΡΙΝΑΣ ΔΑΦΝΗ

Η ΔΙΑΣΤΡΕΥΛΩΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗΣ ΓΛΩΣΣΑΣ ΜΕΣΩ ΤΩΝ SOCIAL MEDIA ΤΗΝ ΤΕΛΕΥΤΑΙΑ ΠΕΝΤΑΕΤΙΑ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΙΑΣ-ΜΑΡΙΝΑΣ ΔΑΦΝΗ Η ΔΙΑΣΤΡΕΥΛΩΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗΣ ΓΛΩΣΣΑΣ ΜΕΣΩ ΤΩΝ SOCIAL MEDIA ΤΗΝ ΤΕΛΕΥΤΑΙΑ ΠΕΝΤΑΕΤΙΑ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΙΑΣ-ΜΑΡΙΝΑΣ ΔΑΦΝΗ Τμήμα Δημοσίων Σχέσεων & Επικοινωνίας Τεχνολογικό Εκπαιδευτικό Ίδρυμα Ιονίων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

STARTING STEPS IN GRAMMAR, FINAL TEST C TERM 2012 UNITS 1-18

STARTING STEPS IN GRAMMAR, FINAL TEST C TERM 2012 UNITS 1-18 STARTING STEPS IN GRAMMAR, FINAL TEST C TERM 2012 UNITS 1-18 Name.. Class. Date. EXERCISE 1 Answer the question. Use: Yes, it is or No, it isn t. Απάντηςε ςτισ ερωτήςεισ. Βάλε: Yes, it is ή No, it isn

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates

Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates Kiryl Tsishchanka Areas and Lengths in Polar Coordinates In this section we develop the formula for the area of a region whose boundary is given by a polar equation. We need to use the formula for the

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Τ.Ε.Ι. ΔΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΣ ΠΑΡΑΡΤΗΜΑ ΚΑΣΤΟΡΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ & ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ

Τ.Ε.Ι. ΔΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΣ ΠΑΡΑΡΤΗΜΑ ΚΑΣΤΟΡΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ & ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ Τ.Ε.Ι. ΔΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΣ ΠΑΡΑΡΤΗΜΑ ΚΑΣΤΟΡΙΑΣ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ & ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ Η προβολή επιστημονικών θεμάτων από τα ελληνικά ΜΜΕ : Η κάλυψή τους στον ελληνικό ημερήσιο τύπο Σαραλιώτου

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

CH19 Grammar. αὖθις δὲ οἱ μὲν καὶ παρὰ δύναμιν τολμηταὶ καὶ παρὰ γνώμην κινδυνευταὶ καὶ ἐν τοῖς δεινοῖς εὐέλπιδες;

CH19 Grammar. αὖθις δὲ οἱ μὲν καὶ παρὰ δύναμιν τολμηταὶ καὶ παρὰ γνώμην κινδυνευταὶ καὶ ἐν τοῖς δεινοῖς εὐέλπιδες; CH19 Grammar I. Quote αὖθις δὲ οἱ μὲν καὶ παρὰ δύναμιν τολμηταὶ καὶ παρὰ γνώμην κινδυνευταὶ καὶ ἐν τοῖς δεινοῖς εὐέλπιδες; II. (a) ἵστημι. Stand, stop, etc. Extended principal parts. 1. Present system.

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Ονοματική Φράση (Noun Phrase)

Ονοματική Φράση (Noun Phrase) 3 Ονοματική Φράση (Noun Phrase) Άρθρα (Articles) The articles are definite (ο, η, το) and indefinite (ένας, μία, ένα). They agree in gender, number and case with the noun they modify. Είναι ο φίλος μου

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Στεγαστική δήλωση: Σχετικά με τις στεγαστικές υπηρεσίες που λαμβάνετε (Residential statement: About the residential services you get)

Στεγαστική δήλωση: Σχετικά με τις στεγαστικές υπηρεσίες που λαμβάνετε (Residential statement: About the residential services you get) Νόμος περί Αναπηριών 2006 (Disability Act 2006) Στεγαστική δήλωση: Σχετικά με τις στεγαστικές υπηρεσίες που λαμβάνετε (Residential statement: About the residential services you get) Greek Νόμος περί Αναπηριών

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

2. Let H 1 and H 2 be Hilbert spaces and let T : H 1 H 2 be a bounded linear operator. Prove that [T (H 1 )] = N (T ). (6p)

2. Let H 1 and H 2 be Hilbert spaces and let T : H 1 H 2 be a bounded linear operator. Prove that [T (H 1 )] = N (T ). (6p) Uppsala Universitet Matematiska Institutionen Andreas Strömbergsson Prov i matematik Funktionalanalys Kurs: F3B, F4Sy, NVP 2005-03-08 Skrivtid: 9 14 Tillåtna hjälpmedel: Manuella skrivdon, Kreyszigs bok

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

2007 Classical Greek. Intermediate 2 Translation. Finalised Marking Instructions

2007 Classical Greek. Intermediate 2 Translation. Finalised Marking Instructions 2007 Classical Greek Intermediate 2 Translation Finalised Marking Instructions Scottish Qualifications Authority 2007 The information in this publication may be reproduced to support SQA qualifications

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Konsonantische Deklination : ρ- und ν-stämme. ὁ μήν τοῦ μην-ός τῷ μην-ί τὸν μῆν-α (ὦ μήν) ὁ κρατήρ τοῦ κρατῆρ-ος τῷ κρατῆρ-ι τὸν κρατῆρ-α (ὦ κρατήρ)

Konsonantische Deklination : ρ- und ν-stämme. ὁ μήν τοῦ μην-ός τῷ μην-ί τὸν μῆν-α (ὦ μήν) ὁ κρατήρ τοῦ κρατῆρ-ος τῷ κρατῆρ-ι τὸν κρατῆρ-α (ὦ κρατήρ) Konsonantische Deklination : ρ- und ν-stämme Substantiva (1) Sg. (a) -ηρ,-ηρος ὁ κρατήρ τοῦ κρατῆρ-ος τῷ κρατῆρ-ι τὸν κρατῆρ-α (ὦ κρατήρ) keine Ablautung! (b) -ην,-ηνος ὁ μήν τοῦ μην-ός τῷ μην-ί τὸν μῆν-α

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

«ΑΓΡΟΤΟΥΡΙΣΜΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΠΙΚΗ ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΗ: Ο ΡΟΛΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΩΝ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΡΟΩΘΗΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΓΥΝΑΙΚΕΙΩΝ ΣΥΝΕΤΑΙΡΙΣΜΩΝ»

«ΑΓΡΟΤΟΥΡΙΣΜΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΠΙΚΗ ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΗ: Ο ΡΟΛΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΝΕΩΝ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΩΝ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΡΟΩΘΗΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΓΥΝΑΙΚΕΙΩΝ ΣΥΝΕΤΑΙΡΙΣΜΩΝ» I ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΜΕΤΑΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΠΟΥΔΩΝ ΣΤΗΝ «ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑ» ΚΑΤΕΥΘΥΝΣΗ: ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΗ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Advanced Unit 2: Understanding, Written Response and Research

Advanced Unit 2: Understanding, Written Response and Research Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCE Centre Number Candidate Number Greek Advanced Unit 2: Understanding, Written Response and Research Tuesday 18 June 2013 Afternoon Time: 3 hours Paper

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Η ΣΥΝΘΕΣΗ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΣΥΝΘΕΤΑ ΝΟΗΜΑΤΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΝΟΗΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΓΛΩΣΣΑ

Η ΣΥΝΘΕΣΗ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΣΥΝΘΕΤΑ ΝΟΗΜΑΤΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΝΟΗΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΓΛΩΣΣΑ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΤΡΩΝ Σχολή Ανθρωπιστικών & Κοινωνικών Επιστημών Παιδαγωγικό Τμήμα Δημοτικής Εκπαίδευσης ΤΙΤΛΟΣ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΟΡΙΚΗΣ ΔΙΑΤΡΙΒΗΣ Η ΣΥΝΘΕΣΗ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΣΥΝΘΕΤΑ ΝΟΗΜΑΤΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΝΟΗΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΓΛΩΣΣΑ ΕΙΡΗΝΗ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΑΡΑΜΕΤΡΟΙ ΕΠΗΡΕΑΣΜΟΥ ΤΗΣ ΑΝΑΓΝΩΣΗΣ- ΑΠΟΚΩΔΙΚΟΠΟΙΗΣΗΣ ΤΗΣ BRAILLE ΑΠΟ ΑΤΟΜΑ ΜΕ ΤΥΦΛΩΣΗ

ΠΑΡΑΜΕΤΡΟΙ ΕΠΗΡΕΑΣΜΟΥ ΤΗΣ ΑΝΑΓΝΩΣΗΣ- ΑΠΟΚΩΔΙΚΟΠΟΙΗΣΗΣ ΤΗΣ BRAILLE ΑΠΟ ΑΤΟΜΑ ΜΕ ΤΥΦΛΩΣΗ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΣ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΗΣ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΗΣ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΜΕΤΑΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΠΟΥΔΩΝ ΠΑΡΑΜΕΤΡΟΙ ΕΠΗΡΕΑΣΜΟΥ ΤΗΣ ΑΝΑΓΝΩΣΗΣ- ΑΠΟΚΩΔΙΚΟΠΟΙΗΣΗΣ ΤΗΣ BRAILLE

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education www.xtremepapers.com UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education *6301456813* GREEK 0543/03 Paper 3 Speaking Role Play Card One 1 March 30

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ CYPRUS COMPUTER SOCIETY ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ 11/3/2006

ΚΥΠΡΙΑΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ CYPRUS COMPUTER SOCIETY ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ 11/3/2006 ΠΑΓΚΥΠΡΙΟΣ ΜΑΘΗΤΙΚΟΣ ΔΙΑΓΩΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗΣ 11/3/26 Οδηγίες: Να απαντηθούν όλες οι ερωτήσεις. Ολοι οι αριθμοί που αναφέρονται σε όλα τα ερωτήματα μικρότεροι το 1 εκτός αν ορίζεται διαφορετικά στη διατύπωση

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΤΡΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΥΨΗΛΩΝ ΤΑΣΕΩΝ

ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΤΡΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΥΨΗΛΩΝ ΤΑΣΕΩΝ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΠΑΤΡΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΩΝ ΤΟΜΕΑΣ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΥΨΗΛΩΝ ΤΑΣΕΩΝ Διπλωµατική Εργασία Της Φοιτήτριας του Τµήµατος Ηλεκτρολόγων

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

LESSON 19 REF : 203/062/39-ADV. 25 March 2014

LESSON 19 REF : 203/062/39-ADV. 25 March 2014 LESSON 19 (ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΔΕΚΑΕΝΝΙΑ) REF : 203/062/39-ADV 25 March 2014 Married Free/single Unfortunately Fortunately Strong Weak/thin/slim More than Older Younger Παντρεμένος-η Ελεύθερος-η Δυστυχώς Ευτυχώς Δυνατός-η-ο

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

N EW TESTAMENT GREEK FOR BEGINNERS

N EW TESTAMENT GREEK FOR BEGINNERS N EW TESTAMENT GREEK FOR BEGINNERS NEW TESTAMENT GREEK FOR BEGINNERS B Y J. GRESHAM MACHEN, D.D., L i t t.d. Professor of New Testament in Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia THE MACMILLAN

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Lesson Five: LAW AND THE GOSPEL Matthew 5:17-20 LESSON OBJECTIVE:

Lesson Five: LAW AND THE GOSPEL Matthew 5:17-20 LESSON OBJECTIVE: Lesson Five: LAW AND THE GOSPEL Matthew 5:17-20 LESSON OBJECTIVE: The student demonstrates understanding of the historical and literary meaning of Matthew 5:17-20 and related texts. LESSON INDICATORS:

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Βρει;τε το επα;γγελµα και γρα;χτε το κα;τϖ απο; κα;υε εικο;να στα ελληνικα;.

Βρει;τε το επα;γγελµα και γρα;χτε το κα;τϖ απο; κα;υε εικο;να στα ελληνικα;. Βρει;τε το επα;γγελµα και γρα;χτε το κα;τϖ απο; κα;υε εικο;να στα ελληνικα;. γιατρο;ω, στρατιϖτικο;ω, πψροσβε;στηω, τραγοψδιστη;ω, πολιτικο;ω, κηποψρο;ω, ποδοσφαιριστη;ω, καυαριστη;ω, ψπα;λληλοω, τροξονο;µοω

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΒΑΛΕΝΤΙΝΑ ΠΑΠΑΔΟΠΟΥΛΟΥ Α.Μ.: 09/061. Υπεύθυνος Καθηγητής: Σάββας Μακρίδης

ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΒΑΛΕΝΤΙΝΑ ΠΑΠΑΔΟΠΟΥΛΟΥ Α.Μ.: 09/061. Υπεύθυνος Καθηγητής: Σάββας Μακρίδης Α.Τ.Ε.Ι. ΙΟΝΙΩΝ ΝΗΣΩΝ ΠΑΡΑΡΤΗΜΑ ΑΡΓΟΣΤΟΛΙΟΥ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ «Η διαμόρφωση επικοινωνιακής στρατηγικής (και των τακτικών ενεργειών) για την ενδυνάμωση της εταιρικής

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Θέμα διπλωματικής εργασίας: «Από το «φρενοκομείο» στη Λέρο και την Ψυχιατρική Μεταρρύθμιση: νομικό πλαίσιο και ηθικοκοινωνικές διαστάσεις»

Θέμα διπλωματικής εργασίας: «Από το «φρενοκομείο» στη Λέρο και την Ψυχιατρική Μεταρρύθμιση: νομικό πλαίσιο και ηθικοκοινωνικές διαστάσεις» ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΙΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ ΣΧΟΛΕΣ ΙΑΤΡΙΚΗΣ & ΟΔΟΝΤΙΑΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΤΜΗΜΑΤΑ ΝΟΜΙΚΗΣ & ΘΕΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ ΔΙΑΤΜΗΜΑΤΙΚΟ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΜΕΤΑΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΠΟΥΔΩΝ «ΣΥΓΧΡΟΝΕΣ ΙΑΤΡΙΚΕΣ ΠΡΑΞΕΙΣ: ΔΙΚΑΙΙΚΗ ΡΥΘΜΙΣΗ ΚΑΙ ΒΙΟΗΘΙΚΗ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΣΟΡΟΠΤΙΜΙΣΤΡΙΕΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΔΕΣ

ΣΟΡΟΠΤΙΜΙΣΤΡΙΕΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΔΕΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΔΕΣ ΣΟΡΟΠΤΙΜΙΣΤΡΙΕΣ ΕΚΔΟΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΣΟΡΟΠΤΙΜΙΣΤΙΚΗΣ ΕΝΩΣΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ - ΤΕΥΧΟΣ Νο 110 - Δ ΤΡΙΜΗΝΟ 2014 Το πρώτο βραβείο κέρδισε η Ελλάδα για την φωτογραφία Blue + Yellow = Green στον διαγωνισμό 2014 του

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΠΑΝΔΠΙΣΗΜΙΟ ΜΑΚΔΓΟΝΙΑ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΜΔΣΑΠΣΤΥΙΑΚΧΝ ΠΟΤΓΧΝ ΣΜΗΜΑΣΟ ΔΦΑΡΜΟΜΔΝΗ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗ

ΠΑΝΔΠΙΣΗΜΙΟ ΜΑΚΔΓΟΝΙΑ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΜΔΣΑΠΣΤΥΙΑΚΧΝ ΠΟΤΓΧΝ ΣΜΗΜΑΣΟ ΔΦΑΡΜΟΜΔΝΗ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗ ΠΑΝΔΠΙΣΗΜΙΟ ΜΑΚΔΓΟΝΙΑ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΜΔΣΑΠΣΤΥΙΑΚΧΝ ΠΟΤΓΧΝ ΣΜΗΜΑΣΟ ΔΦΑΡΜΟΜΔΝΗ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΚΗ ΑΝΑΠΣΤΞΗ ΓΤΝΑΜΙΚΗ ΙΣΟΔΛΙΓΑ ΓΙΑ ΣΟ ΓΔΝΙΚΟ ΚΑΣΑΣΗΜΑ ΚΡΑΣΗΗ ΓΡΔΒΔΝΧΝ ΜΔ ΣΗ ΒΟΗΘΔΙΑ PHP MYSQL Γηπισκαηηθή Δξγαζία ηνπ Υξήζηνπ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

ΑΚΑ ΗΜΙΑ ΕΜΠΟΡΙΚΟΥ ΝΑΥΤΙΚΟΥ ΜΑΚΕ ΟΝΙΑΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ

ΑΚΑ ΗΜΙΑ ΕΜΠΟΡΙΚΟΥ ΝΑΥΤΙΚΟΥ ΜΑΚΕ ΟΝΙΑΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΑΚΑ ΗΜΙΑ ΕΜΠΟΡΙΚΟΥ ΝΑΥΤΙΚΟΥ ΜΑΚΕ ΟΝΙΑΣ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ ΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΗ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΘΕΜΑ :ΤΥΠΟΙ ΑΕΡΟΣΥΜΠΙΕΣΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΟΠΟΙ ΛΕΙΤΟΥΡΓΙΑΣ ΣΠΟΥ ΑΣΤΡΙΑ: ΕΥΘΥΜΙΑ ΟΥ ΣΩΣΑΝΝΑ ΕΠΙΒΛΕΠΩΝ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΗΣ : ΓΟΥΛΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ ΑΘΑΝΑΣΙΟΣ 1 ΑΚΑ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

@ BY AVENUES PRIVATE INSTITUTE JUNE 2014

@ BY AVENUES PRIVATE INSTITUTE JUNE 2014 1 Εκεί που η ποιότητα συναντά την επιτυχία Λεωφ. Αρχ. Μακαρίου 7, Αρεδιού Τηλ. 22874368/9 2 ENGLISH INSTITUTE A Place where quality meets success 7, Makarios Avenue, Arediou, Tel. 22874368/9 99606442 Anglia

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Verklarte Nacht, Op.4 (Εξαϋλωμένη Νύχτα, Έργο 4) Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)

Verklarte Nacht, Op.4 (Εξαϋλωμένη Νύχτα, Έργο 4) Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) 1 Verklarte Nacht, Op.4 (Εξαϋλωμένη Νύχτα, Έργο 4) Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) Αναγνώσματα από το βιβλίο Η Απόλαυση της Μουσικής (Machlis, Forney), για τους μαθητές που θα μελετήσουν το έργο: «Ο Σαίνμπεργκ

Διαβάστε περισσότερα

Η αντίσταση στην ανθρωπιστική ψυχοθεραπεία

Η αντίσταση στην ανθρωπιστική ψυχοθεραπεία Η αντίσταση στην ανθρωπιστική ψυχοθεραπεία Σταλίκας Αναστάσιος, Καθηγητής, Πάντειο Πανεπιστήμιο Γιωτσίδη Βασιλική, Διδάκτωρ Κλινικής Ψυχολογίας, Ψυχοθεραπεύτρια. Χριστίνα Σεργιάννη, Διδάκτωρ Κλινικής Ψυχολογίας,

Διαβάστε περισσότερα