Primary and Secondary Tenses present, future, perfect, future perfect indicative imperfect, aorist, pluperfect indicative

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1 Primary and Secondary Tenses primary tenses secondary tenses present, future, perfect, future perfect indicative imperfect, aorist, pluperfect indicative SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives κ.α. Verbs Relative Clause ὅς, ἥ, ὅ (relative pronoun) indicative Result Clauses ὥστε (so as to, so that) infinitive (natural); μἠ indicative (actual); οὐ Indirect Questions indirect interrogative pronoun, adjective (ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι ) indirect interrogative adverb (ὅπόθεν, ὅποι, ὅπότε, ὅπου, ὅπως) Conditions Conditional Relative Clauses Temporal Clauses/ Conditional Temporal Clauses εἰ, ἄν, ἐάν, ἤν μή ὅς, ἥ, ὅ ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι indefinite relative adverb (ὅτε + ἄν = ὅταν, ὁπότε + ἄν = ὅπόταν) ἄν μή ἐπεί + ἄν = ἐπάν, ἐπήν ἐπειδή + ἄν = ἐπειδάν ἕως (while, as long as, until) μέχρι (until) primary tense (main clause) -> subjunctive secondary tense (main clause) -> optative (subjunctive for more vividness)* indicative, subjunctive, optative prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 1

2 SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Purpose Clauses (explains the goal for doing something; could be removed from sentence without changing main meaning of sentence) Clauses of Effort ( object clauses ) (describe a result that someone strives to accomplish or avert; needed to express speaker s main idea) Clauses of Fear ( object clauses ) Cautious assertions, cautious denials Conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives κ.α. ἵνα, ὅπως, ὡς μή ὅπως, ὡς ὅπως, ὡς μή δέδοικα δέδια, ἐδεδοίκη ἐδεδίη, ἔδεισα φοβέομαι μἠ (that, lest) μὴ οὐ (that/lest not) μἠ μὴ οὐ Verbs primary tense (main clause) -> subjunctive secondary tense (main clause) -> optative (subjunctive for more vividness)* primary tense (main clause) -> future indicative // present, aorist subjunctive secondary tense (main clause) -> future optative, future indicative // present, aorist optative primary tense (main clause) -> subjunctive secondary tense (main clause) -> optative (subjunctive for more vividness)* indicative (speaker thinks something is/is not true) subjunctive (speaker thinks something may prove to be true/ not true) prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 2

3 SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives κ.α. Verbs Indirect Discourse 1) verb of saying (with no special connotation: ἄγγέλλω, ἄποκρίνομαι, γράφω, λέγω) 2) verbs of thinking, believing (νομίζω); saying (φημί (say, assert [something is true]), ἄγγέλλω, ἄποκρίνομαι, λέγω (say [something is true] 3) verb of showing, knowing, perceiving (ἄκούω, βλέπω, δηλόω, εὑρίσκω, οἶδα, ὁράω, φαίνω) 1) ὅτι, ὡς + finite verb; same tense as in direct discourse if main clause has a secondary tense > optative can be used* 2) infinitive 3) participle : subject of indirect discourse is in accusative (subject is omitted if identical with subject of main sentence); verbs in dependent clauses remain finite & can be changed to optative * Optative Option for verbs in dependent clauses Finite Verb in Direct Discourse present/imperfect indicative, present subjunctive aorist indicative, aorist subjunctive perfect/pluperfect indicative, perfect subjunctive future indicative future perfect indicative Finite Verb in Indirect Discourse present optative aorist optative perfect optative future optative future perfect optative *BUT verbs in these uses can never be changed to optative: 1) indicative + ἄν in indirect discourse 2) in a dependent clause in indirect discourse, a verb in a secondary tense of the indicative can never be changed prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 3

4 Indirect discourse with infinitive & participle: Uses of the tenses Finite Verb in Direct Discourse present/imperfect indicative, present subjunctive aorist indicative, aorist subjunctive perfect/pluperfect indicative, perfect subjunctive Infinitive/Participle in Indirect Discourse present infinitive/participle aorist infinitive/participle perfect infinitive/participle Relative Time Shown by Infinitive/Participle action happening at the main time of the main verb [or contemporaneous with it] action prior to the time of the main verb [or prior to it] action complete at the time of the main verb [or prior to it] future indicative future infinitive/participle action subsequent to the time of the main verb future perfect indicative future perfect infinitive/ participle action complete at a time subsequent to the time of the main verb prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 4

5 prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 5

6 Subordinate Clauses; Uses of the Infinitive & Participle; Correlative Adverbs/Pronouns etc. Independent Uses of the Subjunctive and Optative Hortatory Subjunctive μή 1st pers (pl, sg) present, aorist Prohibitive Subjunctive preceded by μή 2nd, 3rd pers (sg/pl) aorist Deliberative Subjunctive μή 1st pers (pl, sg) present, aorist Wishes (expresses a wish referring to the future) Unattainable Wishes Potential Optative (states a future possibility or action that is qualified by or dependent on some circumstances or conditions) εἶθε, εἰ γάρ ( would that, if only that ) μή εἶθε, εἰ γάρ form of ὤφελον (2 aor of ὄφείλω) (+ εἶθε/εἰ γάρ) ἄν οὐ present, aorist optative imperfect/aorist indicative present/aorist infinitive aorist may be translated with may, might, can, would, should, could prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 6

7 Uses of the Participle Attributive + ὁ, ἡ, τό; attributive position Circumstantial Genitive Absolute predicative position both noun + participle in genitive case Supplementary + certain verbs (παύω, τυγχάνω, ἀγαπάω) Indirect Discourse Complementary Infinitive Object Infinitive Infinitive + adjective Subject infinitive Natural result clause with verbs of showing, knowing, perceiving (ἄκούω, βλέπω, δηλόω, εὑρίσκω, οἶδα, ὁράω, φαίνω) Uses of the Infinitive with verbs to complete their meaning (ἐθέλω, μέλλω, οἶδα, φιλέω, ἔχω, βούλομαι) with κελεύω, βούλομαι + certain adjectives (ἄξιος worthy; ἕτοιμος ready; ἵκανός sufficient) + impersonal verb (infinitive acts as its subject), predicate adjective (ἔξεστι, ῥᾴδιόν ἐστί) + can be translated as a gerund (-ing noun) ὥστε (so as to) Indirect Discourse Infinitive + πρίν Αrticular Infinitive with verbs of thinking, believing (νομίζω, κρίνω, πιστεύω); saying (φημί (say, assert [something is true]), λέγω (say [something is true]) πρίν = before πρίν = until (in a negative sentence anticipating an event) > subjunctive + ἄν + τό + can be translated as a gerund (-ing noun) + considered a neuter sg. noun (nom, gen, dat, acc) prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 7

8 CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS Interrogatives Direct or Indirect Indefinite (Enclitic) Demonstrative Relative (Specific) or Exclamatory Indefinite Relative or Indirect Interrogative τίς who? which? what? qui? τις some one, any one, aliquis, quidam ὅδε this (here), hic οὗτος this, that is, ille ἐκεῖνος ille ὅς who, which qui ὅστις whoever, any one who quisquis, quicumque πότερος which of two? uter? πότερος or ποτερός one of two (rare) ἕτερος the one or the other of two alter ὁπότερος whichever of the two ὁπότερος whichever of the two utercumque πόσος how much? how many? quantus? quot? ποσός of some quantity or number (τόσος) τοσόσδε τοσοῦτος so much, so many tantus, tot ὅσος as much as, as many as quantus, quot ὁπόσος of whatever size, number quantuscumque, quotquot ποῖος of what sort? qualis? ποιός of some sort (τοῖος) τοιόσδε τοιοῦτος such, talis οἷος of which sort, (such) as, qualis ὁποῖος of whatever sort qualiscumque πηλίκος how old? how large? πηλίκος of some age, size (τηλίκος) τηλικόσδε τηλικοῦτος so old, so young, so large, so great ἡλίκος of which age, size, (as old, large) as ὁπηλίκος of whatever age or size from Smyth s Greek Grammar prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 8

9 CORRELATIVE ADVERBS Interrogative: Direct or Indirect Indefinite (Enclitic) Demonstrative Relative Specific Indefinite or Indirect Interrogative ποῦ where? πού somewhere (ἔνθα) ἐνθάδε, ἐνταῦθα there ἐκεῖ yonder οὗ where (ἔνθα where) ὅπου where(ever) Place πόθεν whence? ποθέν from some place (ἔνθεν) ἐνθένδε, ἐντεῦθεν thence ἐκεῖθεν from yonder ὅθεν whence (ἔνθεν whence) ὁπόθεν whence(soever) ποῖ whither? πότε when? ποί to some place ποτέ some time, ever (ἔνθα) ἐνθάδε, ἐνταῦθα thither ἐκεῖσε thither οἷ whither (ἔνθα whither) ὅποι whither(soever) τότε then ὅτε when ὁπότε when(ever) Time πηνίκα at what time? (τηνίκα) τηνικάδε τηνικαῦτα at that time ἡνίκα at which time ὁπηνίκα at which time Way πῇ which way? how? πῄ some way, somehow (τῇ) τῇδε, ταύτῃ this way, thus ᾗ in which way, as ὅπῃ in which way, as Manner πῶς how? πώς somehow (τώς), (ὥς) ὧδε, οὕτω(ς) thus, so, in this way ἐκείνως in that way ὡς as, how; [that] ὅπως how from Smyth s Greek Grammar prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 9

10 Directional Suffixes οἴκοι (οἴκοθι) at home οἴκοθεν from home οἴκαδε (οἶκόνδε) homeward ἄλλοθι (ἀλλαχοῦ ) elsewhere ἀμφοτέρωθι on both sides ἄλλοθεν (ἀλλαχόθεν) from elsewhere ἀμφοτέρωθεν from both sides ἄλλοσε (ἀλλαχόσε) elsewhither (ἀμφοτέρωσε to both sides) πανταχοῖ in every direction πανταχόθεν, πάντοθεν (rare) from every side πανταχόσε, πάντοσε in all directions αὐτοῦ in the very place αὐτόθεν from the very place αὐτόσε to the very place ὁμοῦ at the same place ὁμόθεν from the same place ὁμόσε to the same place Ἀθήνησι at Athens Ἀθήνηθεν from Athens Ἀθήναζε to Athens Ὀλυμπίασι at Olympia Ὀλυμπίαθεν from Olympia Ὀλυμπίαζε to Olympia prepred by Kristina Chew ~ 10

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